git‐ls‐files − Show information about files in the index and
the working tree

git ls−files [−z] [−t] [−v] [−f]
                [−x <pattern>|−−exclude=<pattern>]
                [−X <file>|−−exclude−from=<file>]
                [−−error−unmatch] [−−with−tree=<tree−ish>]
                [−−full−name] [−−recurse−submodules]
                [−−abbrev] [−−] [<file>...]

This merges the file listing in the directory cache index
with the actual working directory list, and shows different
combinations of the two.

One or more of the options below may be used to determine
the files shown:

     −c, −−cached
     Show cached files in the output (default)

     −d, −−deleted
     Show deleted files in the output

     −m, −−modified
     Show modified files in the output

     −o, −−others
     Show other (i.e. untracked) files in the output

     −i, −−ignored
     Show only ignored files in the output. When showing
     files in the index, print only those matched by an
     exclude pattern. When showing "other" files, show only
     those matched by an exclude pattern. Standard ignore
     rules are not automatically activated, therefore at
     least one of the −−exclude* options is required.

     −s, −−stage
     Show staged contents' mode bits, object name and stage
     number in the output.


     If a whole directory is classified as "other", show
     just its name (with a trailing slash) and not its whole

     Do not list empty directories. Has no effect without

     −u, −−unmerged
     Show unmerged files in the output (forces −−stage)

     −k, −−killed
     Show files on the filesystem that need to be removed
     due to file/directory conflicts for checkout−index to

     \0 line termination on output and do not quote
     filenames. See OUTPUT below for more information.

     −x <pattern>, −−exclude=<pattern>
     Skip untracked files matching pattern. Note that
     pattern is a shell wildcard pattern. See EXCLUDE
     PATTERNS below for more information.

     −X <file>, −−exclude−from=<file>
     Read exclude patterns from <file>; 1 per line.

     Read additional exclude patterns that apply only to the
     directory and its subdirectories in <file>.

     Add the standard Git exclusions: .git/info/exclude,
     .gitignore in each directory, and the user’s global
     exclusion file.

     If any <file> does not appear in the index, treat this
     as an error (return 1).

     When using −−error−unmatch to expand the user supplied
     <file> (i.e. path pattern) arguments to paths, pretend
     that paths which were removed in the index since the
     named <tree−ish> are still present. Using this option
     with −s or −u options does not make any sense.

     This feature is semi−deprecated. For scripting purpose,
     git‐status(1) −−porcelain and git‐diff‐files(1)
     −−name−status are almost always superior alternatives,
     and users should look at git‐status(1) −−short or git‐


     diff(1) −−name−status for more user−friendly

     This option identifies the file status with the
     following tags (followed by a space) at the start of
     each line:






          to be killed


     Similar to −t, but use lowercase letters for files that
     are marked as assume unchanged (see git‐update‐

     Similar to −t, but use lowercase letters for files that
     are marked as fsmonitor valid (see git‐update‐

     When run from a subdirectory, the command usually
     outputs paths relative to the current directory. This
     option forces paths to be output relative to the
     project top directory.

     Recursively calls ls−files on each active submodule in
     the repository. Currently there is only support for the
     −−cached mode.

     Instead of showing the full 40−byte hexadecimal object
     lines, show only a partial prefix. Non default number
     of digits can be specified with −−abbrev=<n>.


     After each line that describes a file, add more data
     about its cache entry. This is intended to show as much
     information as possible for manual inspection; the
     exact format may change at any time.

     Show <eolinfo> and <eolattr> of files. <eolinfo> is the
     file content identification used by Git when the "text"
     attribute is "auto" (or not set and core.autocrlf is
     not false). <eolinfo> is either "−text", "none", "lf",
     "crlf", "mixed" or "".

     "" means the file is not a regular file, it is not in
     the index or not accessible in the working tree.

     <eolattr> is the attribute that is used when checking
     out or committing, it is either "", "−text", "text",
     "text=auto", "text eol=lf", "text eol=crlf". Since Git
     2.10 "text=auto eol=lf" and "text=auto eol=crlf" are

     Both the <eolinfo> in the index ("i/<eolinfo>") and in
     the working tree ("w/<eolinfo>") are shown for regular
     files, followed by the ("attr/<eolattr>").

     Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

     Files to show. If no files are given all files which
     match the other specified criteria are shown.

git ls−files just outputs the filenames unless −−stage is
specified in which case it outputs:

     [<tag> ]<mode> <object> <stage> <file>

git ls−files −−eol will show

git ls−files −−unmerged and git ls−files −−stage can be used
to examine detailed information on unmerged paths.

For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single
mode/SHA−1 pair, the index records up to three such pairs;
one from tree O in stage 1, A in stage 2, and B in stage 3.
This information can be used by the user (or the porcelain)
to see what should eventually be recorded at the path. (see
git‐read‐tree(1) for more information on state)

Without the −z option, pathnames with "unusual" characters


are quoted as explained for the configuration variable
core.quotePath (see git‐config(1)). Using −z the filename is
output verbatim and the line is terminated by a NUL byte.

git ls−files can use a list of "exclude patterns" when
traversing the directory tree and finding files to show when
the flags −−others or −−ignored are specified. gitignore(5)
specifies the format of exclude patterns.

These exclude patterns come from these places, in order:

  1. The command−line flag −−exclude=<pattern> specifies a
     single pattern. Patterns are ordered in the same order
     they appear in the command line.

  2. The command−line flag −−exclude−from=<file> specifies a
     file containing a list of patterns. Patterns are
     ordered in the same order they appear in the file.

  3. The command−line flag −−exclude−per−directory=<name>
     specifies a name of the file in each directory git
     ls−files examines, normally .gitignore. Files in deeper
     directories take precedence. Patterns are ordered in
     the same order they appear in the files.

A pattern specified on the command line with −−exclude or
read from the file specified with −−exclude−from is relative
to the top of the directory tree. A pattern read from a file
specified by −−exclude−per−directory is relative to the
directory that the pattern file appears in.

git‐read‐tree(1), gitignore(5)

Part of the git(1) suite