GIT-PACK-OBJECTS(1)                Git Manual                GIT-PACK-OBJECTS(1)

       git-pack-objects - Create a packed archive of objects

       git pack-objects [-q | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied]
               [--no-reuse-delta] [--delta-base-offset] [--non-empty]
               [--local] [--incremental] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
               [--revs [--unpacked | --all]] [--keep-pack=<pack-name>]
               [--stdout [--filter=<filter-spec>] | base-name]
               [--shallow] [--keep-true-parents] [--[no-]sparse] < object-list

       Reads list of objects from the standard input, and writes either one or
       more packed archives with the specified base-name to disk, or a packed
       archive to the standard output.

       A packed archive is an efficient way to transfer a set of objects between
       two repositories as well as an access efficient archival format. In a
       packed archive, an object is either stored as a compressed whole or as a
       difference from some other object. The latter is often called a delta.

       The packed archive format (.pack) is designed to be self-contained so
       that it can be unpacked without any further information. Therefore, each
       object that a delta depends upon must be present within the pack.

       A pack index file (.idx) is generated for fast, random access to the
       objects in the pack. Placing both the index file (.idx) and the packed
       archive (.pack) in the pack/ subdirectory of $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY (or
       any of the directories on $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES) enables Git
       to read from the pack archive.

       The git unpack-objects command can read the packed archive and expand the
       objects contained in the pack into "one-file one-object" format; this is
       typically done by the smart-pull commands when a pack is created
       on-the-fly for efficient network transport by their peers.

           Write into pairs of files (.pack and .idx), using <base-name> to
           determine the name of the created file. When this option is used, the
           two files in a pair are written in <base-name>-<SHA-1>.{pack,idx}
           files. <SHA-1> is a hash based on the pack content and is written to
           the standard output of the command.

           Write the pack contents (what would have been written to .pack file)
           out to the standard output.

           Read the revision arguments from the standard input, instead of
           individual object names. The revision arguments are processed the
           same way as git rev-list with the --objects flag uses its commit
           arguments to build the list of objects it outputs. The objects on the
           resulting list are packed. Besides revisions, --not or --shallow
           <SHA-1> lines are also accepted.

           This implies --revs. When processing the list of revision arguments
           read from the standard input, limit the objects packed to those that
           are not already packed.

           This implies --revs. In addition to the list of revision arguments
           read from the standard input, pretend as if all refs under refs/ are
           specified to be included.

           Include unasked-for annotated tags if the object they reference was
           included in the resulting packfile. This can be useful to send new
           tags to native Git clients.

       --window=<n>, --depth=<n>
           These two options affect how the objects contained in the pack are
           stored using delta compression. The objects are first internally
           sorted by type, size and optionally names and compared against the
           other objects within --window to see if using delta compression saves
           space. --depth limits the maximum delta depth; making it too deep
           affects the performance on the unpacker side, because delta data
           needs to be applied that many times to get to the necessary object.

           The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50. The maximum
           depth is 4095.

           This option provides an additional limit on top of --window; the
           window size will dynamically scale down so as to not take up more
           than <n> bytes in memory. This is useful in repositories with a mix
           of large and small objects to not run out of memory with a large
           window, but still be able to take advantage of the large window for
           the smaller objects. The size can be suffixed with "k", "m", or "g".
           --window-memory=0 makes memory usage unlimited. The default is taken
           from the pack.windowMemory configuration variable.

           In unusual scenarios, you may not be able to create files larger than
           a certain size on your filesystem, and this option can be used to
           tell the command to split the output packfile into multiple
           independent packfiles, each not larger than the given size. The size
           can be suffixed with "k", "m", or "g". The minimum size allowed is
           limited to 1 MiB. This option prevents the creation of a bitmap
           index. The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
           pack.packSizeLimit is set.

           This flag causes an object already in a local pack that has a .keep
           file to be ignored, even if it would have otherwise been packed.

           This flag causes an object already in the given pack to be ignored,
           even if it would have otherwise been packed.  <pack-name> is the pack
           file name without leading directory (e.g.  pack-123.pack). The option
           could be specified multiple times to keep multiple packs.

           This flag causes an object already in a pack to be ignored even if it
           would have otherwise been packed.

           This flag causes an object that is borrowed from an alternate object
           store to be ignored even if it would have otherwise been packed.

           Only create a packed archive if it would contain at least one object.

           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
           when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag
           forces progress status even if the standard error stream is not
           directed to a terminal.

           When --stdout is specified then progress report is displayed during
           the object count and compression phases but inhibited during the
           write-out phase. The reason is that in some cases the output stream
           is directly linked to another command which may wish to display
           progress status of its own as it processes incoming pack data. This
           flag is like --progress except that it forces progress report for the
           write-out phase as well even if --stdout is used.

           This is used to imply --all-progress whenever progress display is
           activated. Unlike --all-progress this flag doesn’t actually force any
           progress display by itself.

           This flag makes the command not to report its progress on the
           standard error stream.

           When creating a packed archive in a repository that has existing
           packs, the command reuses existing deltas. This sometimes results in
           a slightly suboptimal pack. This flag tells the command not to reuse
           existing deltas but compute them from scratch.

           This flag tells the command not to reuse existing object data at all,
           including non deltified object, forcing recompression of everything.
           This implies --no-reuse-delta. Useful only in the obscure case where
           wholesale enforcement of a different compression level on the packed
           data is desired.

           Specifies compression level for newly-compressed data in the
           generated pack. If not specified, pack compression level is
           determined first by pack.compression, then by core.compression, and
           defaults to -1, the zlib default, if neither is set. Add
           --no-reuse-object if you want to force a uniform compression level on
           all data no matter the source.

           Toggle the "sparse" algorithm to determine which objects to include
           in the pack, when combined with the "--revs" option. This algorithm
           only walks trees that appear in paths that introduce new objects.
           This can have significant performance benefits when computing a pack
           to send a small change. However, it is possible that extra objects
           are added to the pack-file if the included commits contain certain
           types of direct renames. If this option is not included, it defaults
           to the value of pack.useSparse, which is true unless otherwise

           Create a "thin" pack by omitting the common objects between a sender
           and a receiver in order to reduce network transfer. This option only
           makes sense in conjunction with --stdout.

           Note: A thin pack violates the packed archive format by omitting
           required objects and is thus unusable by Git without making it
           self-contained. Use git index-pack --fix-thin (see git-index-pack(1))
           to restore the self-contained property.

           Optimize a pack that will be provided to a client with a shallow
           repository. This option, combined with --thin, can result in a
           smaller pack at the cost of speed.

           A packed archive can express the base object of a delta as either a
           20-byte object name or as an offset in the stream, but ancient
           versions of Git don’t understand the latter. By default, git
           pack-objects only uses the former format for better compatibility.
           This option allows the command to use the latter format for
           compactness. Depending on the average delta chain length, this option
           typically shrinks the resulting packfile by 3-5 per-cent.

           Note: Porcelain commands such as git gc (see git-gc(1)), git repack
           (see git-repack(1)) pass this option by default in modern Git when
           they put objects in your repository into pack files. So does git
           bundle (see git-bundle(1)) when it creates a bundle.

           Specifies the number of threads to spawn when searching for best
           delta matches. This requires that pack-objects be compiled with
           pthreads otherwise this option is ignored with a warning. This is
           meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor machines. The required
           amount of memory for the delta search window is however multiplied by
           the number of threads. Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the
           number of CPU’s and set the number of threads accordingly.

           This is intended to be used by the test suite only. It allows to
           force the version for the generated pack index, and to force 64-bit
           index entries on objects located above the given offset.

           With this option, parents that are hidden by grafts are packed

           Requires --stdout. Omits certain objects (usually blobs) from the
           resulting packfile. See git-rev-list(1) for valid <filter-spec>

           Turns off any previous --filter= argument.

           A debug option to help with future "partial clone" development. This
           option specifies how missing objects are handled.

           The form --missing=error requests that pack-objects stop with an
           error if a missing object is encountered. If the repository is a
           partial clone, an attempt to fetch missing objects will be made
           before declaring them missing. This is the default action.

           The form --missing=allow-any will allow object traversal to continue
           if a missing object is encountered. No fetch of a missing object will
           occur. Missing objects will silently be omitted from the results.

           The form --missing=allow-promisor is like allow-any, but will only
           allow object traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor missing
           objects. No fetch of a missing object will occur. An unexpected
           missing object will raise an error.

           Omit objects that are known to be in the promisor remote. (This
           option has the purpose of operating only on locally created objects,
           so that when we repack, we still maintain a distinction between
           locally created objects [without .promisor] and objects from the
           promisor remote [with .promisor].) This is used with partial clone.

           Objects unreachable from the refs in packs named with --unpacked=
           option are added to the resulting pack, in addition to the reachable
           objects that are not in packs marked with *.keep files. This implies

           Pack unreachable loose objects (and their loose counterparts
           removed). This implies --revs.

           Keep unreachable objects in loose form. This implies --revs.

           Restrict delta matches based on "islands". See DELTA ISLANDS below.

       When possible, pack-objects tries to reuse existing on-disk deltas to
       avoid having to search for new ones on the fly. This is an important
       optimization for serving fetches, because it means the server can avoid
       inflating most objects at all and just send the bytes directly from disk.
       This optimization can’t work when an object is stored as a delta against
       a base which the receiver does not have (and which we are not already
       sending). In that case the server "breaks" the delta and has to find a
       new one, which has a high CPU cost. Therefore it’s important for
       performance that the set of objects in on-disk delta relationships match
       what a client would fetch.

       In a normal repository, this tends to work automatically. The objects are
       mostly reachable from the branches and tags, and that’s what clients
       fetch. Any deltas we find on the server are likely to be between objects
       the client has or will have.

       But in some repository setups, you may have several related but separate
       groups of ref tips, with clients tending to fetch those groups
       independently. For example, imagine that you are hosting several "forks"
       of a repository in a single shared object store, and letting clients view
       them as separate repositories through GIT_NAMESPACE or separate repos
       using the alternates mechanism. A naive repack may find that the optimal
       delta for an object is against a base that is only found in another fork.
       But when a client fetches, they will not have the base object, and we’ll
       have to find a new delta on the fly.

       A similar situation may exist if you have many refs outside of
       refs/heads/ and refs/tags/ that point to related objects (e.g., refs/pull
       or refs/changes used by some hosting providers). By default, clients
       fetch only heads and tags, and deltas against objects found only in those
       other groups cannot be sent as-is.

       Delta islands solve this problem by allowing you to group your refs into
       distinct "islands". Pack-objects computes which objects are reachable
       from which islands, and refuses to make a delta from an object A against
       a base which is not present in all of A's islands. This results in
       slightly larger packs (because we miss some delta opportunities), but
       guarantees that a fetch of one island will not have to recompute deltas
       on the fly due to crossing island boundaries.

       When repacking with delta islands the delta window tends to get clogged
       with candidates that are forbidden by the config. Repacking with a big
       --window helps (and doesn’t take as long as it otherwise might because we
       can reject some object pairs based on islands before doing any
       computation on the content).

       Islands are configured via the pack.island option, which can be specified
       multiple times. Each value is a left-anchored regular expressions
       matching refnames. For example:

           island = refs/heads/
           island = refs/tags/

       puts heads and tags into an island (whose name is the empty string; see
       below for more on naming). Any refs which do not match those regular
       expressions (e.g., refs/pull/123) is not in any island. Any object which
       is reachable only from refs/pull/ (but not heads or tags) is therefore
       not a candidate to be used as a base for refs/heads/.

       Refs are grouped into islands based on their "names", and two regexes
       that produce the same name are considered to be in the same island. The
       names are computed from the regexes by concatenating any capture groups
       from the regex, with a - dash in between. (And if there are no capture
       groups, then the name is the empty string, as in the above example.) This
       allows you to create arbitrary numbers of islands. Only up to 14 such
       capture groups are supported though.

       For example, imagine you store the refs for each fork in refs/virtual/ID,
       where ID is a numeric identifier. You might then configure:

           island = refs/virtual/([0-9]+)/heads/
           island = refs/virtual/([0-9]+)/tags/
           island = refs/virtual/([0-9]+)/(pull)/

       That puts the heads and tags for each fork in their own island (named
       "1234" or similar), and the pull refs for each go into their own

       Note that we pick a single island for each regex to go into, using "last
       one wins" ordering (which allows repo-specific config to take precedence
       over user-wide config, and so forth).

       git-rev-list(1) git-repack(1) git-prune-packed(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.30.0                         12/28/2020                GIT-PACK-OBJECTS(1)