git-reset

GIT-RESET(1)                       Git Manual                       GIT-RESET(1)



NAME
       git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state

SYNOPSIS
       git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
       git reset [-q] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]] [<tree-ish>]
       git reset (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
       git reset [--soft | --mixed [-N] | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]


DESCRIPTION
       In the first three forms, copy entries from <tree-ish> to the index. In
       the last form, set the current branch head (HEAD) to <commit>, optionally
       modifying index and working tree to match. The <tree-ish>/<commit>
       defaults to HEAD in all forms.

       git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>..., git reset [-q]
       [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]] [<tree-ish>]
           These forms reset the index entries for all paths that match the
           <pathspec> to their state at <tree-ish>. (It does not affect the
           working tree or the current branch.)

           This means that git reset <pathspec> is the opposite of git add
           <pathspec>. This command is equivalent to git restore
           [--source=<tree-ish>] --staged <pathspec>....

           After running git reset <pathspec> to update the index entry, you can
           use git-restore(1) to check the contents out of the index to the
           working tree. Alternatively, using git-restore(1) and specifying a
           commit with --source, you can copy the contents of a path out of a
           commit to the index and to the working tree in one go.

       git reset (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
           Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index and
           <tree-ish> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied in
           reverse to the index.

           This means that git reset -p is the opposite of git add -p, i.e. you
           can use it to selectively reset hunks. See the “Interactive Mode”
           section of git-add(1) to learn how to operate the --patch mode.

       git reset [<mode>] [<commit>]
           This form resets the current branch head to <commit> and possibly
           updates the index (resetting it to the tree of <commit>) and the
           working tree depending on <mode>. If <mode> is omitted, defaults to
           --mixed. The <mode> must be one of the following:

           --soft
               Does not touch the index file or the working tree at all (but
               resets the head to <commit>, just like all modes do). This leaves
               all your changed files "Changes to be committed", as git status
               would put it.

           --mixed
               Resets the index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed
               files are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what
               has not been updated. This is the default action.

               If -N is specified, removed paths are marked as intent-to-add
               (see git-add(1)).

           --hard
               Resets the index and working tree. Any changes to tracked files
               in the working tree since <commit> are discarded.

           --merge
               Resets the index and updates the files in the working tree that
               are different between <commit> and HEAD, but keeps those which
               are different between the index and working tree (i.e. which have
               changes which have not been added). If a file that is different
               between <commit> and the index has unstaged changes, reset is
               aborted.

               In other words, --merge does something like a git read-tree -u -m
               <commit>, but carries forward unmerged index entries.

           --keep
               Resets index entries and updates files in the working tree that
               are different between <commit> and HEAD. If a file that is
               different between <commit> and HEAD has local changes, reset is
               aborted.

           --[no-]recurse-submodules
               When the working tree is updated, using --recurse-submodules will
               also recursively reset the working tree of all active submodules
               according to the commit recorded in the superproject, also
               setting the submodules' HEAD to be detached at that commit.

       See "Reset, restore and revert" in git(1) for the differences between the
       three commands.

OPTIONS
       -q, --quiet, --no-quiet
           Be quiet, only report errors. The default behavior is set by the
           reset.quiet config option.  --quiet and --no-quiet will override the
           default behavior.

       --pathspec-from-file=<file>
           Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline args. If <file>
           is exactly - then standard input is used. Pathspec elements are
           separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be quoted as
           explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-
           config(1)). See also --pathspec-file-nul and global
           --literal-pathspecs.

       --pathspec-file-nul
           Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements are
           separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
           literally (including newlines and quotes).

       --
           Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

       <pathspec>...
           Limits the paths affected by the operation.

           For more details, see the pathspec entry in gitglossary(7).

EXAMPLES
       Undo add

               $ edit                                     (1)
               $ git add frotz.c filfre.c
               $ mailx                                    (2)
               $ git reset                                (3)
               $ git pull git://info.example.com/ nitfol  (4)

           1. You are happily working on something, and find the changes in
           these files are in good order. You do not want to see them when you
           run git diff, because you plan to work on other files and changes
           with these files are distracting.
           2. Somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sound worthy of
           merging.
           3. However, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your index does not
           match the HEAD commit). But you know the pull you are going to make
           does not affect frotz.c or filfre.c, so you revert the index changes
           for these two files. Your changes in working tree remain there.
           4. Then you can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c changes
           still in the working tree.

       Undo a commit and redo

               $ git commit ...
               $ git reset --soft HEAD^      (1)
               $ edit                        (2)
               $ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD  (3)

           1. This is most often done when you remembered what you just
           committed is incomplete, or you misspelled your commit message, or
           both. Leaves working tree as it was before "reset".
           2. Make corrections to working tree files.
           3. "reset" copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; redo the commit by
           starting with its log message. If you do not need to edit the message
           further, you can give -C option instead.

           See also the --amend option to git-commit(1).

       Undo a commit, making it a topic branch

               $ git branch topic/wip          (1)
               $ git reset --hard HEAD~3       (2)
               $ git switch topic/wip          (3)

           1. You have made some commits, but realize they were premature to be
           in the master branch. You want to continue polishing them in a topic
           branch, so create topic/wip branch off of the current HEAD.
           2. Rewind the master branch to get rid of those three commits.
           3. Switch to topic/wip branch and keep working.

       Undo commits permanently

               $ git commit ...
               $ git reset --hard HEAD~3   (1)

           1. The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad and you
           do not want to ever see them again. Do not do this if you have
           already given these commits to somebody else. (See the "RECOVERING
           FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1) for the implications
           of doing so.)

       Undo a merge or pull

               $ git pull                         (1)
               Auto-merging nitfol
               CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol
               Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
               $ git reset --hard                 (2)
               $ git pull . topic/branch          (3)
               Updating from 41223... to 13134...
               Fast-forward
               $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD       (4)

           1. Try to update from the upstream resulted in a lot of conflicts;
           you were not ready to spend a lot of time merging right now, so you
           decide to do that later.
           2. "pull" has not made merge commit, so git reset --hard which is a
           synonym for git reset --hard HEAD clears the mess from the index file
           and the working tree.
           3. Merge a topic branch into the current branch, which resulted in a
           fast-forward.
           4. But you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public
           consumption yet. "pull" or "merge" always leaves the original tip of
           the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it brings your
           index file and the working tree back to that state, and resets the
           tip of the branch to that commit.

       Undo a merge or pull inside a dirty working tree

               $ git pull                         (1)
               Auto-merging nitfol
               Merge made by recursive.
                nitfol                |   20 +++++----
                ...
               $ git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD      (2)

           1. Even if you may have local modifications in your working tree, you
           can safely say git pull when you know that the change in the other
           branch does not overlap with them.
           2. After inspecting the result of the merge, you may find that the
           change in the other branch is unsatisfactory. Running git reset
           --hard ORIG_HEAD will let you go back to where you were, but it will
           discard your local changes, which you do not want.  git reset --merge
           keeps your local changes.

       Interrupted workflow
           Suppose you are interrupted by an urgent fix request while you are in
           the middle of a large change. The files in your working tree are not
           in any shape to be committed yet, but you need to get to the other
           branch for a quick bugfix.

               $ git switch feature  ;# you were working in "feature" branch and
               $ work work work      ;# got interrupted
               $ git commit -a -m "snapshot WIP"                 (1)
               $ git switch master
               $ fix fix fix
               $ git commit ;# commit with real log
               $ git switch feature
               $ git reset --soft HEAD^ ;# go back to WIP state  (2)
               $ git reset                                       (3)

           1. This commit will get blown away so a throw-away log message is OK.
           2. This removes the WIP commit from the commit history, and sets your
           working tree to the state just before you made that snapshot.
           3. At this point the index file still has all the WIP changes you
           committed as snapshot WIP. This updates the index to show your WIP
           files as uncommitted.

           See also git-stash(1).

       Reset a single file in the index
           Suppose you have added a file to your index, but later decide you do
           not want to add it to your commit. You can remove the file from the
           index while keeping your changes with git reset.

               $ git reset -- frotz.c                      (1)
               $ git commit -m "Commit files in index"     (2)
               $ git add frotz.c                           (3)

           1. This removes the file from the index while keeping it in the
           working directory.
           2. This commits all other changes in the index.
           3. Adds the file to the index again.

       Keep changes in working tree while discarding some previous commits
           Suppose you are working on something and you commit it, and then you
           continue working a bit more, but now you think that what you have in
           your working tree should be in another branch that has nothing to do
           with what you committed previously. You can start a new branch and
           reset it while keeping the changes in your working tree.

               $ git tag start
               $ git switch -c branch1
               $ edit
               $ git commit ...                            (1)
               $ edit
               $ git switch -c branch2                     (2)
               $ git reset --keep start                    (3)

           1. This commits your first edits in branch1.
           2. In the ideal world, you could have realized that the earlier
           commit did not belong to the new topic when you created and switched
           to branch2 (i.e.  git switch -c branch2 start), but nobody is
           perfect.
           3. But you can use reset --keep to remove the unwanted commit after
           you switched to branch2.

       Split a commit apart into a sequence of commits
           Suppose that you have created lots of logically separate changes and
           committed them together. Then, later you decide that it might be
           better to have each logical chunk associated with its own commit. You
           can use git reset to rewind history without changing the contents of
           your local files, and then successively use git add -p to
           interactively select which hunks to include into each commit, using
           git commit -c to pre-populate the commit message.

               $ git reset -N HEAD^                        (1)
               $ git add -p                                (2)
               $ git diff --cached                         (3)
               $ git commit -c HEAD@{1}                    (4)
               ...                                         (5)
               $ git add ...                               (6)
               $ git diff --cached                         (7)
               $ git commit ...                            (8)

           1. First, reset the history back one commit so that we remove the
           original commit, but leave the working tree with all the changes. The
           -N ensures that any new files added with HEAD are still marked so
           that git add -p will find them.
           2. Next, we interactively select diff hunks to add using the git add
           -p facility. This will ask you about each diff hunk in sequence and
           you can use simple commands such as "yes, include this", "No don’t
           include this" or even the very powerful "edit" facility.
           3. Once satisfied with the hunks you want to include, you should
           verify what has been prepared for the first commit by using git diff
           --cached. This shows all the changes that have been moved into the
           index and are about to be committed.
           4. Next, commit the changes stored in the index. The -c option
           specifies to pre-populate the commit message from the original
           message that you started with in the first commit. This is helpful to
           avoid retyping it. The HEAD@{1} is a special notation for the commit
           that HEAD used to be at prior to the original reset commit (1 change
           ago). See git-reflog(1) for more details. You may also use any other
           valid commit reference.
           5. You can repeat steps 2-4 multiple times to break the original code
           into any number of commits.
           6. Now you’ve split out many of the changes into their own commits,
           and might no longer use the patch mode of git add, in order to select
           all remaining uncommitted changes.
           7. Once again, check to verify that you’ve included what you want to.
           You may also wish to verify that git diff doesn’t show any remaining
           changes to be committed later.
           8. And finally create the final commit.

DISCUSSION
       The tables below show what happens when running:

           git reset --option target


       to reset the HEAD to another commit (target) with the different reset
       options depending on the state of the files.

       In these tables, A, B, C and D are some different states of a file. For
       example, the first line of the first table means that if a file is in
       state A in the working tree, in state B in the index, in state C in HEAD
       and in state D in the target, then git reset --soft target will leave the
       file in the working tree in state A and in the index in state B. It
       resets (i.e. moves) the HEAD (i.e. the tip of the current branch, if you
       are on one) to target (which has the file in state D).

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------
            A       B     C    D     --soft   A       B     D
                                     --mixed  A       D     D
                                     --hard   D       D     D
                                     --merge (disallowed)
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------
            A       B     C    C     --soft   A       B     C
                                     --mixed  A       C     C
                                     --hard   C       C     C
                                     --merge (disallowed)
                                     --keep   A       C     C

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------
            B       B     C    D     --soft   B       B     D
                                     --mixed  B       D     D
                                     --hard   D       D     D
                                     --merge  D       D     D
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------
            B       B     C    C     --soft   B       B     C
                                     --mixed  B       C     C
                                     --hard   C       C     C
                                     --merge  C       C     C
                                     --keep   B       C     C

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------
            B       C     C    D     --soft   B       C     D
                                     --mixed  B       D     D
                                     --hard   D       D     D
                                     --merge (disallowed)
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------
            B       C     C    C     --soft   B       C     C
                                     --mixed  B       C     C
                                     --hard   C       C     C
                                     --merge  B       C     C
                                     --keep   B       C     C

       reset --merge is meant to be used when resetting out of a conflicted
       merge. Any mergy operation guarantees that the working tree file that is
       involved in the merge does not have a local change with respect to the
       index before it starts, and that it writes the result out to the working
       tree. So if we see some difference between the index and the target and
       also between the index and the working tree, then it means that we are
       not resetting out from a state that a mergy operation left after failing
       with a conflict. That is why we disallow --merge option in this case.

       reset --keep is meant to be used when removing some of the last commits
       in the current branch while keeping changes in the working tree. If there
       could be conflicts between the changes in the commit we want to remove
       and the changes in the working tree we want to keep, the reset is
       disallowed. That’s why it is disallowed if there are both changes between
       the working tree and HEAD, and between HEAD and the target. To be safe,
       it is also disallowed when there are unmerged entries.

       The following tables show what happens when there are unmerged entries:

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------
            X       U     A    B     --soft  (disallowed)
                                     --mixed  X       B     B
                                     --hard   B       B     B
                                     --merge  B       B     B
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------
            X       U     A    A     --soft  (disallowed)
                                     --mixed  X       A     A
                                     --hard   A       A     A
                                     --merge  A       A     A
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

       X means any state and U means an unmerged index.

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 2.28.0                         07/27/2020                       GIT-RESET(1)