git-rev-list

GIT-REV-LIST(1)                    Git Manual                    GIT-REV-LIST(1)



NAME
       git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order

SYNOPSIS
       git rev-list [<options>] <commit>... [[--] <path>...]


DESCRIPTION
       List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the
       given commit(s), but exclude commits that are reachable from the one(s)
       given with a ^ in front of them. The output is given in reverse
       chronological order by default.

       You can think of this as a set operation. Commits reachable from any of
       the commits given on the command line form a set, and then commits
       reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are subtracted from
       that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in the command’s
       output. Various other options and paths parameters can be used to further
       limit the result.

       Thus, the following command:

           $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz


       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but not
       from baz".

       A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand for
       "^<commit1> <commit2>". For example, either of the following may be used
       interchangeably:

           $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
           $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin


       Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful for
       merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference between
       the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:

           $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
           $ git rev-list A...B


       rev-list is a very essential Git command, since it provides the ability
       to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a
       lot of different options that enables it to be used by commands as
       different as git bisect and git repack.

OPTIONS
   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a line
       that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

       --skip=<number>
           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
           Limit the commits output to specified time range.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
           that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more than
           one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple --committer=<pattern>).

       --grep-reflog=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
           --walk-reflogs is in use.

       --grep=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

       --all-match
           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, instead
           of ones that match at least one.

       --invert-grep
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
           the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
           letter case.

       --basic-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions; this
           is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
           instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t interpret
           pattern as a regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular
           expressions.

           Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
           compile-time dependency. If Git wasn’t compiled with support for them
           providing this option will cause it to die.

       --remove-empty
           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

       --merges
           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as
           --min-parents=2.

       --no-merges
           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the
           same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
       --no-max-parents
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
           commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
           --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
           root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no
           limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0
           or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
           upper limit).

       --first-parent
           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This
           option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution of a
           particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch tend to
           be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
           this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in to
           your history by such a merge.

       --not
           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
           following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

       --all
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are listed on
           the command line as <commit>.

       --branches[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end
           is implied.

       --tags[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones matching
           given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is
           implied.

       --remotes[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit remote-tracking
           branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or
           [, /* at the end is implied.

       --glob=<glob-pattern>
           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
           listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*
           at the end is implied.

       --exclude=<glob-pattern>
           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
           --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
           Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
           next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
           options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
           refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
           respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
           or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given explicitly.

       --reflog
           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
           command line as <commit>.

       --alternate-refs
           Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
           repositories were listed on the command line. An alternate repository
           is any repository whose object directory is specified in
           objects/info/alternates. The set of included objects may be modified
           by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

       --single-worktree
           By default, all working trees will be examined by the following
           options when there are more than one (see git-worktree(1)): --all,
           --reflog and --indexed-objects. This option forces them to examine
           the current working tree only.

       --ignore-missing
           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
           bad input was not given.

       --stdin
           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
           from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
           commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

       --quiet
           Don’t print anything to standard output. This form is primarily meant
           to allow the caller to test the exit status to see if a range of
           objects is fully connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting
           stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.

       --cherry-mark
           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
           rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

       --cherry-pick
           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on
           the “other side” when the set of commits are limited with symmetric
           difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list
           all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right (see the
           example below in the description of the --left-right option).
           However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the other
           branch (for example, “3rd on b” may be cherry-picked from branch A).
           With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
           i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
           from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In
           other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
           precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact
           list.

       --cherry
           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to limit
           the output to the commits on our side and mark those that have been
           applied to the other side of a forked history with git log --cherry
           upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
           from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used you
           cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline and reference (for obvious
           reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines of
           information taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the
           output may be shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the
           reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp}
           (with the timestamp for that entry), depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the index
               format.

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
               timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command line,
               show the timestamp in the format requested by --date.

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
           information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
           --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

           Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown at all.

       --merge
           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict
           and don’t exist on all heads to merge.

       --boundary
           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed with
           -.

       --use-bitmap-index
           Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if one is
           available). Note that when traversing with --objects, trees and blobs
           will not have their associated path printed.

       --progress=<header>
           Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The
           <header> text will be printed with each progress update.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
       the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
       History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

       <paths>
           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

       --simplify-by-decoration
           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
           state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
           the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same
           content)

       --show-pulls
           Include all commits from the default mode, but also any merge commits
           that are not TREESAME to the first parent but are TREESAME to a later
           parent. This mode is helpful for showing the merge commits that
           "first introduced" a change to a branch.

       --full-history
           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

       --dense
           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful
           history.

       --sparse
           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

       --simplify-merges
           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges
           from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits
           contributing to this merge.

       --ancestry-path
           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
           commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that exist directly on the
           ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that are
           both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo,
       they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

                     .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X


       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
       each merge. The commits are:

       •   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents “asdf”,
           and a file quux exists with contents “quux”. Initial commits are
           compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       •   In A, foo contains just “foo”.

       •   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
           TREESAME to all parents.

       •   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to “foobar”, so it
           is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   D sets foo to “baz”. Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to
           “foobarbaz”; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   E changes quux to “xyzzy”, and its merge P combines the strings to
           “quux xyzzy”.  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       •   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
           modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and Q
           is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding commits
       based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via --parents or
       --children) are used. The following settings are available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a merge,
           and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent. (Even if
           there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of them.)
           Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                         .-A---N---O
                        /     /   /
                       I---------D

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
           available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was considered
           via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree,
           so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
           not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
           parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
           parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if
           more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this
           does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and B
           were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not
           appear.

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
           about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
           them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though this
           can be changed, see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
           Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
           themselves. This results in

                         .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /
                         `-------------'

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was
           pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
           rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C and N, and
           X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

       --dense
           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to any
           parent.

       --sparse
           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if
           one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
           sides of the merge are never walked.

       --simplify-merges
           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with
           parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
           history according to the following rules:

           •   Set C' to C.

           •   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the
               process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that
               are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove
               duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that we are
               TREESAME to.

           •   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit (has
               zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
               Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                         .-A---M---N---O
                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /
                         `---------'

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

           •   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the
               other parent M. Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

           •   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed
               completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

           •   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed,
               because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then removed completely,
               because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       There is another simplification mode available:

       --ancestry-path
           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain
           between the “from” and “to” commits in the given commit range. I.e.
           only display commits that are ancestor of the “to” commit and
           descendants of the “from” commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                           D---E-------F
                          /     \       \
                         B---C---G---H---I---J
                        /                     \
                       A-------K---------------L--M

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
           but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to see
           what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the sense that
           “what does M have that did not exist in D”. The result in this
           example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of
           course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the
           bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to view
           only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of D, i.e.
           excluding C and K. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path option
           does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

                               E-------F
                                \       \
                                 G---H---I---J
                                              \
                                               L--M


       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create a new
       example history.

       A common problem users face when looking at simplified history is that a
       commit they know changed a file somehow does not appear in the file’s
       simplified history. Let’s demonstrate a new example and show how options
       such as --full-history and --simplify-merges works in that case:

                     .-A---M-----C--N---O---P
                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`-Z'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `---Y--'


       For this example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified by A, B,
       and X in different ways. The single-parent commits C, Z, and Y do not
       change file.txt. The merge commit M was created by resolving the merge
       conflict to include both changes from A and B and hence is not TREESAME
       to either. The merge commit R, however, was created by ignoring the
       contents of file.txt at M and taking only the contents of file.txt at X.
       Hence, R is TREESAME to X but not M. Finally, the natural merge
       resolution to create N is to take the contents of file.txt at R, so N is
       TREESAME to R but not C. The merge commits O and P are TREESAME to their
       first parents, but not to their second parents, Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a TREESAME parent, so
       those edges are walked and the others are ignored. The resulting history
       graph is:

                   I---X


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge. This will discover the
       commits A and B and the merge M, but also will reveal the merge commits O
       and P. With parent rewriting, the resulting graph is:

                     .-A---M--------N---O---P
                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`--'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `------'


       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra noise, as they did not
       actually contribute a change to file.txt. They only merged a topic that
       was based on an older version of file.txt. This is a common issue in
       repositories using a workflow where many contributors work in parallel
       and merge their topic branches along a single trunk: manu unrelated
       merges appear in the --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges option, the commits O and P disappear
       from the results. This is because the rewritten second parents of O and P
       are reachable from their first parents. Those edges are removed and then
       the commits look like single-parent commits that are TREESAME to their
       parent. This also happens to the commit N, resulting in a history view as
       follows:

                     .-A---M--.
                    /     /    \
                   I     B      R
                    \   /      /
                     \ /      /
                      `---X--'


       In this view, we see all of the important single-parent changes from A,
       B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved merge M and the
       not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is usually enough information to
       determine why the commits A and B "disappeared" from history in the
       default view. However, there are a few issues with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the
       --simplify-merges option requires walking the entire commit history
       before returning a single result. This can make the option difficult to
       use for very large repositories.

       The second issue is one of auditing. When many contributors are working
       on the same repository, it is important which merge commits introduced a
       change into an important branch. The problematic merge R above is not
       likely to be the merge commit that was used to merge into an important
       branch. Instead, the merge N was used to merge R and X into the important
       branch. This commit may have information about why the change X came to
       override the changes from A and B in its commit message.

       --show-pulls
           In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show each
           merge commit that is not TREESAME to its first parent but is TREESAME
           to a later parent.

           When a merge commit is included by --show-pulls, the merge is treated
           as if it "pulled" the change from another branch. When using
           --show-pulls on this example (and no other options) the resulting
           graph is:

                       I---X---R---N

           Here, the merge commits R and N are included because they pulled the
           commits X and R into the base branch, respectively. These merges are
           the reason the commits A and B do not appear in the default history.

           When --show-pulls is paired with --simplify-merges, the graph
           includes all of the necessary information:

                         .-A---M--.   N
                        /     /    \ /
                       I     B      R
                        \   /      /
                         \ /      /
                          `---X--'

           Notice that since M is reachable from R, the edge from N to M was
           simplified away. However, N still appears in the history as an
           important commit because it "pulled" the change R into the main
           branch.

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not
       referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other words, kept
       after history simplification rules described above) if (1) they are
       referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the paths given on
       the command line. All other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be
       simplified away).

   Bisection Helpers
       --bisect
           Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway
           between included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection
           ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the included commits (if it exists)
           and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* are added to the
           excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs
           in refs/bisect/, if

                       $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

           outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

                       $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
                       $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

           would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
           introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search:
           repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint’s until the commit chain
           is of length one.

       --bisect-vars
           This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in
           refs/bisect/ are not used, and except that this outputs text ready to
           be eval’ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of the
           midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and the expected number
           of commits to be tested after bisect_rev is tested to bisect_nr, the
           expected number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be
           good to bisect_good, the expected number of commits to be tested if
           bisect_rev turns out to be bad to bisect_bad, and the number of
           commits we are bisecting right now to bisect_all.

       --bisect-all
           This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
           commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
           commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not used. The farthest from them is
           displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by --bisect.)

           This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
           test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason
           (they may not compile for example).

           This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this case, after
           all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
           --bisect-vars had been used alone.

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

       --date-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
           show commits in the commit timestamp order.

       --author-date-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
           show commits in the author timestamp order.

       --topo-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid
           showing commits on multiple lines of history intermixed.

           For example, in a commit history like this:

                   ---1----2----4----7
                       \              \
                        3----5----6----8---

           where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git rev-list
           and friends with --date-order show the commits in the timestamp
           order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

           With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5 3
           1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to avoid
           showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
           together.

       --reverse
           Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting section
           above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

       --objects
           Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed commits.
           --objects foo ^bar thus means “send me all object IDs which I need to
           download if I have the commit object bar but not foo”.

       --in-commit-order
           Print tree and blob ids in order of the commits. The tree and blob
           ids are printed after they are first referenced by a commit.

       --objects-edge
           Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits
           prefixed with a “-” character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1) to
           build a “thin” pack, which records objects in deltified form based on
           objects contained in these excluded commits to reduce network
           traffic.

       --objects-edge-aggressive
           Similar to --objects-edge, but it tries harder to find excluded
           commits at the cost of increased time. This is used instead of
           --objects-edge to build “thin” packs for shallow repositories.

       --indexed-objects
           Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed on the
           command line. Note that you probably want to use --objects, too.

       --unpacked
           Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in
           packs.

       --object-names
           Only useful with --objects; print the names of the object IDs that
           are found. This is the default behavior.

       --no-object-names
           Only useful with --objects; does not print the names of the object
           IDs that are found. This inverts --object-names. This flag allows the
           output to be more easily parsed by commands such as git-cat-file(1).

       --filter=<filter-spec>
           Only useful with one of the --objects*; omits objects (usually blobs)
           from the list of printed objects. The <filter-spec> may be one of the
           following:

           The form --filter=blob:none omits all blobs.

           The form --filter=blob:limit=<n>[kmg] omits blobs larger than n bytes
           or units. n may be zero. The suffixes k, m, and g can be used to name
           units in KiB, MiB, or GiB. For example, blob:limit=1k is the same as
           blob:limit=1024.

           The form --filter=sparse:oid=<blob-ish> uses a sparse-checkout
           specification contained in the blob (or blob-expression) <blob-ish>
           to omit blobs that would not be not required for a sparse checkout on
           the requested refs.

           The form --filter=tree:<depth> omits all blobs and trees whose depth
           from the root tree is >= <depth> (minimum depth if an object is
           located at multiple depths in the commits traversed). <depth>=0 will
           not include any trees or blobs unless included explicitly in the
           command-line (or standard input when --stdin is used). <depth>=1 will
           include only the tree and blobs which are referenced directly by a
           commit reachable from <commit> or an explicitly-given object.
           <depth>=2 is like <depth>=1 while also including trees and blobs one
           more level removed from an explicitly-given commit or tree.

           Note that the form --filter=sparse:path=<path> that wants to read
           from an arbitrary path on the filesystem has been dropped for
           security reasons.

           Multiple --filter= flags can be specified to combine filters. Only
           objects which are accepted by every filter are included.

           The form --filter=combine:<filter1>+<filter2>+...<filterN> can also
           be used to combined several filters, but this is harder than just
           repeating the --filter flag and is usually not necessary. Filters are
           joined by + and individual filters are %-encoded (i.e. URL-encoded).
           Besides the + and % characters, the following characters are reserved
           and also must be encoded: ~!@#$^&*()[]{}\;",<>?'` as well as all
           characters with ASCII code <= 0x20, which includes space and newline.

           Other arbitrary characters can also be encoded. For instance,
           combine:tree:3+blob:none and combine:tree%3A3+blob%3Anone are
           equivalent.

       --no-filter
           Turn off any previous --filter= argument.

       --filter-print-omitted
           Only useful with --filter=; prints a list of the objects omitted by
           the filter. Object IDs are prefixed with a “~” character.

       --missing=<missing-action>
           A debug option to help with future "partial clone" development. This
           option specifies how missing objects are handled.

           The form --missing=error requests that rev-list stop with an error if
           a missing object is encountered. This is the default action.

           The form --missing=allow-any will allow object traversal to continue
           if a missing object is encountered. Missing objects will silently be
           omitted from the results.

           The form --missing=allow-promisor is like allow-any, but will only
           allow object traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor missing
           objects. Unexpected missing objects will raise an error.

           The form --missing=print is like allow-any, but will also print a
           list of the missing objects. Object IDs are prefixed with a “?”
           character.

       --exclude-promisor-objects
           (For internal use only.) Prefilter object traversal at promisor
           boundary. This is used with partial clone. This is stronger than
           --missing=allow-promisor because it limits the traversal, rather than
           just silencing errors about missing objects.

       --no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]
           Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
           This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument unsorted
           is given, the commits are shown in the order they were given on the
           command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument was given), the
           commits are shown in reverse chronological order by commit time.
           Cannot be combined with --graph.

       --do-walk
           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more
       specialized family of commit log tools: git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-
       whatchanged(1)

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where
           <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
           reference, email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When
           <format> is none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts as
           if --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each
           format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
           show a prefix that names the object uniquely. "--abbrev=<n>" (which
           also modifies diff output, if it is displayed) option can be used to
           specify the minimum length of the prefix.

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
           --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied by other options such as
           "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

       --oneline
           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used
           together.

       --encoding=<encoding>
           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in
           their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command to
           re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the user.
           For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8. Note that if an
           object claims to be encoded in X and we are outputting in X, we will
           output the object verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the
           original commit may be copied to the output.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
           Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to fill
           to the next display column that is multiple of <n>) in the log
           message before showing it in the output.  --expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a short-hand
           for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

           By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
           message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and
           fuller).

       --show-signature
           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature
           to gpg --verify and show the output.

       --relative-date
           Synonym for --date=relative.

       --date=<format>
           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as
           when using --pretty.  log.date config variable sets a default value
           for the log command’s --date option. By default, dates are shown in
           the original time zone (either committer’s or author’s). If -local is
           appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user’s local time zone
           is used instead.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. “2
           hours ago”. The -local option has no effect for --date=relative.

           --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like
           format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:

           •   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

           •   a space between time and time zone

           •   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

           --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps in
           strict ISO 8601 format.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
           often found in email messages.

           --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD
           format.

           --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
           00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an
           offset from UTC (a + or - with four digits; the first two are hours,
           and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp were
           formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note that the -local option does
           not affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which is always measured in
           UTC), but does switch the accompanying timezone value.

           --date=human shows the timezone if the timezone does not match the
           current time-zone, and doesn’t print the whole date if that matches
           (ie skip printing year for dates that are "this year", but also skip
           the whole date itself if it’s in the last few days and we can just
           say what weekday it was). For older dates the hour and minute is also
           omitted.

           --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since
           1970). As with --raw, this is always in UTC and therefore -local has
           no effect.

           --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system strftime,
           except for %z and %Z, which are handled internally. Use
           --date=format:%c to show the date in your system locale’s preferred
           format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of format
           placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is
           --date=format-local:....

           --date=default is the default format, and is similar to
           --date=rfc2822, with a few exceptions:

           •   there is no comma after the day-of-week

           •   the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used

       --header
           Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
           separated with a NUL character.

       --parents
           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit
           parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification above.

       --children
           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
           child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification
           above.

       --timestamp
           Print the raw commit timestamp.

       --left-right
           Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable from.
           Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those from the
           right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are prefixed
           with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a


       --graph
           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on
           the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines to be
           printed in between commits, in order for the graph history to be
           drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

           This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification above.

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the --date-order
           option may also be specified.

       --show-linear-break[=<barrier>]
           When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened which
           can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits do not
           belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in between them
           in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the string that will
           be shown instead of the default one.

       --count
           Print a number stating how many commits would have been listed, and
           suppress all other output. When used together with --left-right,
           instead print the counts for left and right commits, separated by a
           tab. When used together with --cherry-mark, omit patch equivalent
           commits from these counts and print the count for equivalent commits
           separated by a tab.

PRETTY FORMATS
       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email
       or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line
       begins with "Merge: " and the hashes of ancestral commits are printed,
       separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be
       the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited your view of
       history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a
       certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats
       by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another format name,
       or a format: string, as described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the
       details of the built-in formats:

       •   oneline

               <hash> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       •   short

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       •   medium

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   full

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   fuller

               commit <hash>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   reference

               <abbrev hash> (<title line>, <short author date>)

           This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit message
           and is the same as --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'. By
           default, the date is formatted with --date=short unless another
           --date option is explicitly specified. As with any format: with
           format placeholders, its output is not affected by other options like
           --decorate and --walk-reflogs.

       •   email

               From <hash> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   mboxrd

           Like email, but lines in the commit message starting with "From "
           (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted with ">" so they aren’t
           confused as starting a new commit.

       •   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed in full, regardless
           of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents information
           show the true parent commits, without taking grafts or history
           simplification into account. Note that this format affects the way
           commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown e.g. with
           git log --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff format, use
           --no-abbrev.

       •   format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information
           you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with the
           notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
           would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           •   Placeholders that expand to a single literal character:

               %n
                   newline

               %%
                   a raw %

               %x00
                   print a byte from a hex code

           •   Placeholders that affect formatting of later placeholders:

               %Cred
                   switch color to red

               %Cgreen
                   switch color to green

               %Cblue
                   switch color to blue

               %Creset
                   reset color

               %C(...)
                   color specification, as described under Values in the
                   "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1). By default,
                   colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
                   color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto
                   settings of the former if we are going to a terminal).
                   %C(auto,...)  is accepted as a historical synonym for the
                   default (e.g., %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...)  will
                   show the colors even when color is not otherwise enabled
                   (though consider just using --color=always to enable color
                   for the whole output, including this format and anything else
                   git might color).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on
                   auto coloring on the next placeholders until the color is
                   switched again.

               %m
                   left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

               %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]])
                   switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-shortlog(1).

               %<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])
                   make the next placeholder take at least N columns, padding
                   spaces on the right if necessary. Optionally truncate at the
                   beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc) or the end (trunc) if
                   the output is longer than N columns. Note that truncating
                   only works correctly with N >= 2.

               %<|(<N>)
                   make the next placeholder take at least until Nth columns,
                   padding spaces on the right if necessary

               %>(<N>), %>|(<N>)
                   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding spaces
                   on the left

               %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>)
                   similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively, except that if the
                   next placeholder takes more spaces than given and there are
                   spaces on its left, use those spaces

               %><(<N>), %><|(<N>)
                   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding both
                   sides (i.e. the text is centered)

           •   Placeholders that expand to information extracted from the
               commit:

               %H
                   commit hash

               %h
                   abbreviated commit hash

               %T
                   tree hash

               %t
                   abbreviated tree hash

               %P
                   parent hashes

               %p
                   abbreviated parent hashes

               %an
                   author name

               %aN
                   author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-
                   blame(1))

               %ae
                   author email

               %aE
                   author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
                   git-blame(1))

               %al
                   author email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

               %aL
                   author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap, see git-
                   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %ad
                   author date (format respects --date= option)

               %aD
                   author date, RFC2822 style

               %ar
                   author date, relative

               %at
                   author date, UNIX timestamp

               %ai
                   author date, ISO 8601-like format

               %aI
                   author date, strict ISO 8601 format

               %as
                   author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

               %cn
                   committer name

               %cN
                   committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
                   git-blame(1))

               %ce
                   committer email

               %cE
                   committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
                   git-blame(1))

               %cl
                   committer email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

               %cL
                   committer local-part (see %cl) respecting .mailmap, see git-
                   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %cd
                   committer date (format respects --date= option)

               %cD
                   committer date, RFC2822 style

               %cr
                   committer date, relative

               %ct
                   committer date, UNIX timestamp

               %ci
                   committer date, ISO 8601-like format

               %cI
                   committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

               %cs
                   committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

               %d
                   ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

               %D
                   ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

               %S
                   ref name given on the command line by which the commit was
                   reached (like git log --source), only works with git log

               %e
                   encoding

               %s
                   subject

               %f
                   sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

               %b
                   body

               %B
                   raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

               %GG
                   raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

               %G?
                   show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
                   signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown validity,
                   "X" for a good signature that has expired, "Y" for a good
                   signature made by an expired key, "R" for a good signature
                   made by a revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be checked
                   (e.g. missing key) and "N" for no signature

               %GS
                   show the name of the signer for a signed commit

               %GK
                   show the key used to sign a signed commit

               %GF
                   show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed commit

               %GP
                   show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was used
                   to sign a signed commit

               %GT
                   show the trust level for the key used to sign a signed commit

               %gD
                   reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
                   minutes ago}; the format follows the rules described for the
                   -g option. The portion before the @ is the refname as given
                   on the command line (so git log -g refs/heads/master would
                   yield refs/heads/master@{0}).

               %gd
                   shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
                   portion is shortened for human readability (so
                   refs/heads/master becomes just master).

               %gn
                   reflog identity name

               %gN
                   reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %ge
                   reflog identity email

               %gE
                   reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %gs
                   reflog subject

               %(trailers[:options])
                   display the trailers of the body as interpreted by git-
                   interpret-trailers(1). The trailers string may be followed by
                   a colon and zero or more comma-separated options:

                   •   key=<K>: only show trailers with specified key. Matching
                       is done case-insensitively and trailing colon is
                       optional. If option is given multiple times trailer lines
                       matching any of the keys are shown. This option
                       automatically enables the only option so that non-trailer
                       lines in the trailer block are hidden. If that is not
                       desired it can be disabled with only=false. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer lines with key
                       Reviewed-by.

                   •   only[=val]: select whether non-trailer lines from the
                       trailer block should be included. The only keyword may
                       optionally be followed by an equal sign and one of true,
                       on, yes to omit or false, off, no to show the non-trailer
                       lines. If option is given without value it is enabled. If
                       given multiple times the last value is used.

                   •   separator=<SEP>: specify a separator inserted between
                       trailer lines. When this option is not given each trailer
                       line is terminated with a line feed character. The string
                       SEP may contain the literal formatting codes described
                       above. To use comma as separator one must use %x2C as it
                       would otherwise be parsed as next option. If separator
                       option is given multiple times only the last one is used.
                       E.g., %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C ) shows all
                       trailer lines whose key is "Ticket" separated by a comma
                       and a space.

                   •   unfold[=val]: make it behave as if interpret-trailer’s
                       --unfold option was given. In same way as to for only it
                       can be followed by an equal sign and explicit value.
                       E.g., %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and shows all
                       trailer lines.

                   •   valueonly[=val]: skip over the key part of the trailer
                       line and only show the value part. Also this optionally
                       allows explicit value.

           Note
           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision
           traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an
           empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git
           log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will use the "short" decoration
           format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder
       expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all consecutive
       line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only if
       the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted
       immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands
       to a non-empty string.

       •   tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
           provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In
           other words, each commit has the message terminator character
           (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between
           entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line format will
           be properly terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format
           does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
           interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example, these
           two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef


GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 2.30.0                         12/28/2020                    GIT-REV-LIST(1)