GIT-SHORTLOG(1)                    Git Manual                    GIT-SHORTLOG(1)

       git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output

       git shortlog [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]
       git log --pretty=short | git shortlog [<options>]

       Summarizes git log output in a format suitable for inclusion in release
       announcements. Each commit will be grouped by author and title.

       Additionally, "[PATCH]" will be stripped from the commit description.

       If no revisions are passed on the command line and either standard input
       is not a terminal or there is no current branch, git shortlog will output
       a summary of the log read from standard input, without reference to the
       current repository.

       -n, --numbered
           Sort output according to the number of commits per author instead of
           author alphabetic order.

       -s, --summary
           Suppress commit description and provide a commit count summary only.

       -e, --email
           Show the email address of each author.

           Instead of the commit subject, use some other information to describe
           each commit.  <format> can be any string accepted by the --format
           option of git log, such as * [%h] %s. (See the "PRETTY FORMATS"
           section of git-log(1).)

               Each pretty-printed commit will be rewrapped before it is shown.

           Group commits based on <type>. If no --group option is specified, the
           default is author.  <type> is one of:

           •   author, commits are grouped by author

           •   committer, commits are grouped by committer (the same as -c)

           •   trailer:<field>, the <field> is interpreted as a case-insensitive
               commit message trailer (see git-interpret-trailers(1)). For
               example, if your project uses Reviewed-by trailers, you might
               want to see who has been reviewing with git shortlog -ns

               Note that commits that do not include the trailer will not be
               counted. Likewise, commits with multiple trailers (e.g., multiple
               signoffs) may be counted more than once (but only once per unique
               trailer value in that commit).

               Shortlog will attempt to parse each trailer value as a name
               <email> identity. If successful, the mailmap is applied and the
               email is omitted unless the --email option is specified. If the
               value cannot be parsed as an identity, it will be taken literally
               and completely.

           If --group is specified multiple times, commits are counted under
           each value (but again, only once per unique value in that commit).
           For example, git shortlog --group=author
           --group=trailer:co-authored-by counts both authors and co-authors.

       -c, --committer
           This is an alias for --group=committer.

           Linewrap the output by wrapping each line at width. The first line of
           each entry is indented by indent1 spaces, and the second and
           subsequent lines are indented by indent2 spaces.  width, indent1, and
           indent2 default to 76, 6 and 9 respectively.

           If width is 0 (zero) then indent the lines of the output without
           wrapping them.

       <revision range>
           Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no <revision
           range> is specified, it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the whole history
           leading to the current commit).  origin..HEAD specifies all the
           commits reachable from the current commit (i.e.  HEAD), but not from
           origin. For a complete list of ways to spell <revision range>, see
           the "Specifying Ranges" section of gitrevisions(7).

       [--] <path>...
           Consider only commits that are enough to explain how the files that
           match the specified paths came to be.

           Paths may need to be prefixed with -- to separate them from options
           or the revision range, when confusion arises.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a line
       that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
           that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more than
           one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple --committer=<pattern>).

           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
           --walk-reflogs is in use.

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           When --notes is in effect, the message from the notes is matched as
           if it were part of the log message.

           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, instead
           of ones that match at least one.

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
           the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
           letter case.

           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions; this
           is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
           instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t interpret
           pattern as a regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular

           Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
           compile-time dependency. If Git wasn’t compiled with support for them
           providing this option will cause it to die.

           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the
           same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
           commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
           --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
           root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no
           limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0
           or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
           upper limit).

           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This
           option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution of a
           particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch tend to
           be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
           this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in to
           your history by such a merge.

           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
           following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are listed on
           the command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end
           is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones matching
           given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit remote-tracking
           branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or
           [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
           listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*
           at the end is implied.

           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
           --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
           Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
           next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
           options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
           refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
           respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
           or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given explicitly.

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
           command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
           repositories were listed on the command line. An alternate repository
           is any repository whose object directory is specified in
           objects/info/alternates. The set of included objects may be modified
           by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

           By default, all working trees will be examined by the following
           options when there are more than one (see git-worktree(1)): --all,
           --reflog and --indexed-objects. This option forces them to examine
           the current working tree only.

           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
           bad input was not given.

           Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was listed and as
           if it was followed by --not and the good bisection refs
           refs/bisect/good-* on the command line.

           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
           from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
           commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
           rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on
           the “other side” when the set of commits are limited with symmetric

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list
           all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right (see the
           example below in the description of the --left-right option).
           However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the other
           branch (for example, “3rd on b” may be cherry-picked from branch A).
           With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
           i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
           from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In
           other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
           precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact

           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to limit
           the output to the commits on our side and mark those that have been
           applied to the other side of a forked history with git log --cherry
           upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
           from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used you
           cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline and reference (for obvious
           reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines of
           information taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the
           output may be shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the
           reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp}
           (with the timestamp for that entry), depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the index

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
               timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command line,
               show the timestamp in the format requested by --date.

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
           information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
           --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

           Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown at all.

           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict
           and don’t exist on all heads to merge.

           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed with

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
       the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
       History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
           state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
           the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same

           Include all commits from the default mode, but also any merge commits
           that are not TREESAME to the first parent but are TREESAME to a later
           parent. This mode is helpful for showing the merge commits that
           "first introduced" a change to a branch.

           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful

           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges
           from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits
           contributing to this merge.

           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
           commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that exist directly on the
           ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that are
           both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo,
       they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
       each merge. The commits are:

       •   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents “asdf”,
           and a file quux exists with contents “quux”. Initial commits are
           compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       •   In A, foo contains just “foo”.

       •   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
           TREESAME to all parents.

       •   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to “foobar”, so it
           is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   D sets foo to “baz”. Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to
           “foobarbaz”; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   E changes quux to “xyzzy”, and its merge P combines the strings to
           “quux xyzzy”.  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       •   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
           modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and Q
           is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding commits
       based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via --parents or
       --children) are used. The following settings are available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a merge,
           and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent. (Even if
           there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of them.)
           Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                        /     /   /

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
           available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was considered
           via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree,
           so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
           not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
           parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
           parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if
           more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this
           does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and B
           were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
           about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
           them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though this
           can be changed, see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
           Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
           themselves. This results in

                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was
           pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
           rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C and N, and
           X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to any

           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if
           one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
           sides of the merge are never walked.

           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with
           parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
           history according to the following rules:

           •   Set C' to C.

           •   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the
               process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that
               are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove
               duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that we are
               TREESAME to.

           •   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit (has
               zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
               Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

           •   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the
               other parent M. Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

           •   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed
               completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

           •   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed,
               because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then removed completely,
               because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       There is another simplification mode available:

           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain
           between the “from” and “to” commits in the given commit range. I.e.
           only display commits that are ancestor of the “to” commit and
           descendants of the “from” commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                          /     \       \
                        /                     \

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
           but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to see
           what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the sense that
           “what does M have that did not exist in D”. The result in this
           example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the
           bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to view
           only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of D, i.e.
           excluding C and K. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path option
           does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

                                \       \

       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create a new
       example history.

       A common problem users face when looking at simplified history is that a
       commit they know changed a file somehow does not appear in the file’s
       simplified history. Let’s demonstrate a new example and show how options
       such as --full-history and --simplify-merges works in that case:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`-Z'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `---Y--'

       For this example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified by A, B,
       and X in different ways. The single-parent commits C, Z, and Y do not
       change file.txt. The merge commit M was created by resolving the merge
       conflict to include both changes from A and B and hence is not TREESAME
       to either. The merge commit R, however, was created by ignoring the
       contents of file.txt at M and taking only the contents of file.txt at X.
       Hence, R is TREESAME to X but not M. Finally, the natural merge
       resolution to create N is to take the contents of file.txt at R, so N is
       TREESAME to R but not C. The merge commits O and P are TREESAME to their
       first parents, but not to their second parents, Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a TREESAME parent, so
       those edges are walked and the others are ignored. The resulting history
       graph is:


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge. This will discover the
       commits A and B and the merge M, but also will reveal the merge commits O
       and P. With parent rewriting, the resulting graph is:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`--'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `------'

       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra noise, as they did not
       actually contribute a change to file.txt. They only merged a topic that
       was based on an older version of file.txt. This is a common issue in
       repositories using a workflow where many contributors work in parallel
       and merge their topic branches along a single trunk: manu unrelated
       merges appear in the --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges option, the commits O and P disappear
       from the results. This is because the rewritten second parents of O and P
       are reachable from their first parents. Those edges are removed and then
       the commits look like single-parent commits that are TREESAME to their
       parent. This also happens to the commit N, resulting in a history view as

                    /     /    \
                   I     B      R
                    \   /      /
                     \ /      /

       In this view, we see all of the important single-parent changes from A,
       B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved merge M and the
       not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is usually enough information to
       determine why the commits A and B "disappeared" from history in the
       default view. However, there are a few issues with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the
       --simplify-merges option requires walking the entire commit history
       before returning a single result. This can make the option difficult to
       use for very large repositories.

       The second issue is one of auditing. When many contributors are working
       on the same repository, it is important which merge commits introduced a
       change into an important branch. The problematic merge R above is not
       likely to be the merge commit that was used to merge into an important
       branch. Instead, the merge N was used to merge R and X into the important
       branch. This commit may have information about why the change X came to
       override the changes from A and B in its commit message.

           In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show each
           merge commit that is not TREESAME to its first parent but is TREESAME
           to a later parent.

           When a merge commit is included by --show-pulls, the merge is treated
           as if it "pulled" the change from another branch. When using
           --show-pulls on this example (and no other options) the resulting
           graph is:


           Here, the merge commits R and N are included because they pulled the
           commits X and R into the base branch, respectively. These merges are
           the reason the commits A and B do not appear in the default history.

           When --show-pulls is paired with --simplify-merges, the graph
           includes all of the necessary information:

                         .-A---M--.   N
                        /     /    \ /
                       I     B      R
                        \   /      /
                         \ /      /

           Notice that since M is reachable from R, the edge from N to M was
           simplified away. However, N still appears in the history as an
           important commit because it "pulled" the change R into the main

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not
       referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other words, kept
       after history simplification rules described above) if (1) they are
       referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the paths given on
       the command line. All other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be
       simplified away).

       The .mailmap feature is used to coalesce together commits by the same
       person in the shortlog, where their name and/or email address was spelled

       If the file .mailmap exists at the toplevel of the repository, or at the
       location pointed to by the mailmap.file or mailmap.blob configuration
       options, it is used to map author and committer names and email addresses
       to canonical real names and email addresses.

       In the simple form, each line in the file consists of the canonical real
       name of an author, whitespace, and an email address used in the commit
       (enclosed by < and >) to map to the name. For example:

           Proper Name <commit@email.xx>

       The more complex forms are:

           <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>

       which allows mailmap to replace only the email part of a commit, and:

           Proper Name <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>

       which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a commit
       matching the specified commit email address, and:

           Proper Name <proper@email.xx> Commit Name <commit@email.xx>

       which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a commit
       matching both the specified commit name and email address.

       Example 1: Your history contains commits by two authors, Jane and Joe,
       whose names appear in the repository under several forms:

           Joe Developer <>
           Joe R. Developer <>
           Jane Doe <>
           Jane Doe <jane@laptop.(none)>
           Jane D. <jane@desktop.(none)>

       Now suppose that Joe wants his middle name initial used, and Jane prefers
       her family name fully spelled out. A proper .mailmap file would look

           Jane Doe         <jane@desktop.(none)>
           Joe R. Developer <>

       Note how there is no need for an entry for <jane@laptop.(none)>, because
       the real name of that author is already correct.

       Example 2: Your repository contains commits from the following authors:

           nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
           nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
           nick2 <nick2@company.xx>
           santa <me@company.xx>
           claus <me@company.xx>
           CTO <cto@coompany.xx>

       Then you might want a .mailmap file that looks like:

           <cto@company.xx>                       <cto@coompany.xx>
           Some Dude <some@dude.xx>         nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
           Other Author <other@author.xx>   nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
           Other Author <other@author.xx>         <nick2@company.xx>
           Santa Claus <santa.claus@northpole.xx> <me@company.xx>

       Use hash # for comments that are either on their own line, or after the
       email address.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.30.0                         12/28/2020                    GIT-SHORTLOG(1)