git-shortlog

GIT-SHORTLOG(1)                   Git Manual                   GIT-SHORTLOG(1)



NAME
       git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output

SYNOPSIS
       git shortlog [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]
       git log --pretty=short | git shortlog [<options>]


DESCRIPTION
       Summarizes git log output in a format suitable for inclusion in release
       announcements. Each commit will be grouped by author and title.

       Additionally, "[PATCH]" will be stripped from the commit description.

       If no revisions are passed on the command line and either standard
       input is not a terminal or there is no current branch, git shortlog
       will output a summary of the log read from standard input, without
       reference to the current repository.

OPTIONS
       -n, --numbered
           Sort output according to the number of commits per author instead
           of author alphabetic order.

       -s, --summary
           Suppress commit description and provide a commit count summary
           only.

       -e, --email
           Show the email address of each author.

       --format[=<format>]
           Instead of the commit subject, use some other information to
           describe each commit.  <format> can be any string accepted by the
           --format option of git log, such as * [%h] %s. (See the "PRETTY
           FORMATS" section of git-log(1).)

               Each pretty-printed commit will be rewrapped before it is shown.

       -c, --committer
           Collect and show committer identities instead of authors.

       -w[<width>[,<indent1>[,<indent2>]]]
           Linewrap the output by wrapping each line at width. The first line
           of each entry is indented by indent1 spaces, and the second and
           subsequent lines are indented by indent2 spaces.  width, indent1,
           and indent2 default to 76, 6 and 9 respectively.

           If width is 0 (zero) then indent the lines of the output without
           wrapping them.

       <revision range>
           Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
           <revision range> is specified, it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the whole
           history leading to the current commit).  origin..HEAD specifies all
           the commits reachable from the current commit (i.e.  HEAD), but not
           from origin. For a complete list of ways to spell <revision range>,
           see the "Specifying Ranges" section of gitrevisions(7).

       [--] <path>...
           Consider only commits that are enough to explain how the files that
           match the specified paths came to be.

           Paths may need to be prefixed with -- to separate them from options
           or the revision range, when confusion arises.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a line
       that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

       --skip=<number>
           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
           that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
           than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches any of
           the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple
           --committer=<pattern>).

       --grep-reflog=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the
           given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
           --walk-reflogs is in use.

       --grep=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           When --notes is in effect, the message from the notes is matched as
           if it were part of the log message.

       --all-match
           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
           instead of ones that match at least one.

       --invert-grep
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
           the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
           letter case.

       --basic-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
           this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
           instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t interpret
           pattern as a regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular
           expressions.

           Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
           compile-time dependency. If Git wasn’t compiled with support for
           them providing this option will cause it to die.

       --remove-empty
           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

       --merges
           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as
           --min-parents=2.

       --no-merges
           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the
           same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
       --no-max-parents
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
           commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
           --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
           root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no
           limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has
           0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
           upper limit).

       --first-parent
           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
           This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution
           of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch
           tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to
           time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
           brought in to your history by such a merge. Cannot be combined with
           --bisect.

       --not
           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
           following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

       --all
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are listed on
           the command line as <commit>.

       --branches[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
           end is implied.

       --tags[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
           end is implied.

       --remotes[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
           remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
           pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --glob=<glob-pattern>
           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
           listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*
           at the end is implied.

       --exclude=<glob-pattern>
           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
           --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
           Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
           next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
           options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
           refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
           respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
           or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given
           explicitly.

       --reflog
           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
           command line as <commit>.

       --alternate-refs
           Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
           repositories were listed on the command line. An alternate
           repository is any repository whose object directory is specified in
           objects/info/alternates. The set of included objects may be
           modified by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

       --single-worktree
           By default, all working trees will be examined by the following
           options when there are more than one (see git-worktree(1)): --all,
           --reflog and --indexed-objects. This option forces them to examine
           the current working tree only.

       --ignore-missing
           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
           bad input was not given.

       --bisect
           Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was listed and
           as if it was followed by --not and the good bisection refs
           refs/bisect/good-* on the command line. Cannot be combined with
           --first-parent.

       --stdin
           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
           from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
           commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

       --cherry-mark
           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
           rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

       --cherry-pick
           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit
           on the “other side” when the set of commits are limited with
           symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list
           all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right (see the
           example below in the description of the --left-right option).
           However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the
           other branch (for example, “3rd on b” may be cherry-picked from
           branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded
           from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
           i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
           from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In
           other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
           precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact
           list.

       --cherry
           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to
           limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
           have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git
           log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream
           mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
           from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used
           you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline and reference (for obvious
           reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines of
           information taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the
           output may be shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the
           reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp}
           (with the timestamp for that entry), depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the index
               format.

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
               timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command line,
               show the timestamp in the format requested by --date.

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
           information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
           --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

           Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown at
           all.

       --merge
           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict
           and don’t exist on all heads to merge.

       --boundary
           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed
           with -.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
       the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
       History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the
       history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

       <paths>
           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

       --simplify-by-decoration
           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
           state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
           the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same
           content)

       --full-history
           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

       --dense
           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful
           history.

       --sparse
           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

       --simplify-merges
           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges
           from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits
           contributing to this merge.

       --ancestry-path
           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
           commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that exist directly on the
           ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that
           are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for
       foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

                     .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X


       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
       each merge. The commits are:

       ·   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents “asdf”,
           and a file quux exists with contents “quux”. Initial commits are
           compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       ·   In A, foo contains just “foo”.

       ·   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
           TREESAME to all parents.

       ·   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to “foobar”, so
           it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       ·   D sets foo to “baz”. Its merge O combines the strings from N and D
           to “foobarbaz”; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       ·   E changes quux to “xyzzy”, and its merge P combines the strings to
           “quux xyzzy”.  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       ·   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
           modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and
           Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding
       commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
       --parents or --children) are used. The following settings are
       available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a
           merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent.
           (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of
           them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                         .-A---N---O
                        /     /   /
                       I---------D

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
           available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was considered
           via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree,
           so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that
           does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have
           shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
           parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if
           more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this
           does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and B
           were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not
           appear.

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to
           talk about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
           we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is
           rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
           included themselves. This results in

                         .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /
                         `-------------'

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was
           pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
           rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C and N,
           and X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

       --dense
           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to
           any parent.

       --sparse
           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if
           one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the
           other sides of the merge are never walked.

       --simplify-merges
           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history
           with parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
           history according to the following rules:

           ·   Set C' to C.

           ·   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the
               process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or
               that are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove
               duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that we are
               TREESAME to.

           ·   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
               (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
               remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                         .-A---M---N---O
                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /
                         `---------'

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

           ·   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the
               other parent M. Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

           ·   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed
               completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

           ·   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed,
               because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then removed completely,
               because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

       --ancestry-path
           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain
           between the “from” and “to” commits in the given commit range. I.e.
           only display commits that are ancestor of the “to” commit and
           descendants of the “from” commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                           D---E-------F
                          /     \       \
                         B---C---G---H---I---J
                        /                     \
                       A-------K---------------L--M

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
           but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to
           see what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the sense
           that “what does M have that did not exist in D”. The result in this
           example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of
           course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with
           the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to
           view only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of D,
           i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path
           option does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

                               E-------F
                                \       \
                                 G---H---I---J
                                              \
                                               L--M


       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are
       not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
       words, kept after history simplification rules described above) if (1)
       they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the
       paths given on the command line. All other commits are marked as
       TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

MAPPING AUTHORS
       The .mailmap feature is used to coalesce together commits by the same
       person in the shortlog, where their name and/or email address was
       spelled differently.

       If the file .mailmap exists at the toplevel of the repository, or at
       the location pointed to by the mailmap.file or mailmap.blob
       configuration options, it is used to map author and committer names and
       email addresses to canonical real names and email addresses.

       In the simple form, each line in the file consists of the canonical
       real name of an author, whitespace, and an email address used in the
       commit (enclosed by < and >) to map to the name. For example:

           Proper Name <commit@email.xx>

       The more complex forms are:

           <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>

       which allows mailmap to replace only the email part of a commit, and:

           Proper Name <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>

       which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a commit
       matching the specified commit email address, and:

           Proper Name <proper@email.xx> Commit Name <commit@email.xx>

       which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a commit
       matching both the specified commit name and email address.

       Example 1: Your history contains commits by two authors, Jane and Joe,
       whose names appear in the repository under several forms:

           Joe Developer <joe@example.com>
           Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>
           Jane Doe <jane@example.com>
           Jane Doe <jane@laptop.(none)>
           Jane D. <jane@desktop.(none)>


       Now suppose that Joe wants his middle name initial used, and Jane
       prefers her family name fully spelled out. A proper .mailmap file would
       look like:

           Jane Doe         <jane@desktop.(none)>
           Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>


       Note how there is no need for an entry for <jane@laptop.(none)>,
       because the real name of that author is already correct.

       Example 2: Your repository contains commits from the following authors:

           nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
           nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
           nick2 <nick2@company.xx>
           santa <me@company.xx>
           claus <me@company.xx>
           CTO <cto@coompany.xx>


       Then you might want a .mailmap file that looks like:

           <cto@company.xx>                       <cto@coompany.xx>
           Some Dude <some@dude.xx>         nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
           Other Author <other@author.xx>   nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
           Other Author <other@author.xx>         <nick2@company.xx>
           Santa Claus <santa.claus@northpole.xx> <me@company.xx>


       Use hash # for comments that are either on their own line, or after the
       email address.

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Git 2.25.0                        01/13/2020                   GIT-SHORTLOG(1)