git‐show − Show various types of objects

git show [<options>] [<object>...]

Shows one or more objects (blobs, trees, tags and commits).

For commits it shows the log message and textual diff. It
also presents the merge commit in a special format as
produced by git diff−tree −−cc.

For tags, it shows the tag message and the referenced

For trees, it shows the names (equivalent to git ls−tree
with −−name−only).

For plain blobs, it shows the plain contents.

The command takes options applicable to the git diff−tree
command to control how the changes the commit introduces are

This manual page describes only the most frequently used

     The names of objects to show (defaults to HEAD). For a
     more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
     "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).

     −−pretty[=<format>], −−format=<format>
     Pretty−print the contents of the commit logs in a given
     format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short,
     medium, full, fuller, reference, email, raw,
     format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When <format> is
     none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts
     as if −−pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

     See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional
     details for each format. When =<format> part is
     omitted, it defaults to medium.

     Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the
     repository configuration (see git‐config(1)).

     Instead of showing the full 40−byte hexadecimal commit


     object name, show only a partial prefix. Non default
     number of digits can be specified with "−−abbrev=<n>"
     (which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).

     This should make "−−pretty=oneline" a whole lot more
     readable for people using 80−column terminals.

     Show the full 40−byte hexadecimal commit object name.
     This negates −−abbrev−commit and those options which
     imply it such as "−−oneline". It also overrides the
     log.abbrevCommit variable.

     This is a shorthand for "−−pretty=oneline
     −−abbrev−commit" used together.

     The commit objects record the encoding used for the log
     message in their encoding header; this option can be
     used to tell the command to re−code the commit log
     message in the encoding preferred by the user. For non
     plumbing commands this defaults to UTF−8. Note that if
     an object claims to be encoded in X and we are
     outputting in X, we will output the object verbatim;
     this means that invalid sequences in the original
     commit may be copied to the output.

     −−expand−tabs=<n>, −−expand−tabs, −−no−expand−tabs
     Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough
     spaces to fill to the next display column that is
     multiple of <n>) in the log message before showing it
     in the output.  −−expand−tabs is a short−hand for
     −−expand−tabs=8, and −−no−expand−tabs is a short−hand
     for −−expand−tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

     By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that
     indent the log message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which
     is the default, full, and fuller).

     Show the notes (see git‐notes(1)) that annotate the
     commit, when showing the commit log message. This is
     the default for git log, git show and git whatchanged
     commands when there is no −−pretty, −−format, or
     −−oneline option given on the command line.

     By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs
     listed in the core.notesRef and notes.displayRef
     variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See
     git‐config(1) for more details.

     With an optional <ref> argument, use the ref to find
     the notes to display. The ref can specify the full


     refname when it begins with refs/notes/; when it begins
     with notes/, refs/ and otherwise refs/notes/ is
     prefixed to form a full name of the ref.

     Multiple −−notes options can be combined to control
     which notes are being displayed. Examples:
     "−−notes=foo" will show only notes from
     "refs/notes/foo"; "−−notes=foo −−notes" will show both
     notes from "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes

     Do not show notes. This negates the above −−notes
     option, by resetting the list of notes refs from which
     notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given
     on the command line, so e.g. "−−notes −−notes=foo
     −−no−notes −−notes=bar" will only show notes from

     −−show−notes[=<ref>], −−[no−]standard−notes
     These options are deprecated. Use the above
     −−notes/−−no−notes options instead.

     Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing
     the signature to gpg −−verify and show the output.

If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty−format is not
oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before
the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the
hashes of ancestral commits are printed, separated by
spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be
the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited
your view of history: for example, if you are only
interested in changes related to a certain directory or

There are several built−in formats, and you can define
additional formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option
to either another format name, or a format: string, as
described below (see git‐config(1)). Here are the details of
the built−in formats:

 •   oneline

          <hash> <title line>

     This is designed to be as compact as possible.

 •   short

          commit <hash>


          Author: <author>

          <title line>

 •   medium

          commit <hash>
          Author: <author>
          Date:   <author date>

          <title line>

          <full commit message>

 •   full

          commit <hash>
          Author: <author>
          Commit: <committer>

          <title line>

          <full commit message>

 •   fuller

          commit <hash>
          Author:     <author>
          AuthorDate: <author date>
          Commit:     <committer>
          CommitDate: <committer date>

          <title line>

          <full commit message>

 •   reference

          <abbrev hash> (<title line>, <short author date>)

     This format is used to refer to another commit in a
     commit message and is the same as
     −−pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'. By default, the
     date is formatted with −−date=short unless another
     −−date option is explicitly specified. As with any
     format: with format placeholders, its output is not
     affected by other options like −−decorate and

 •   email

          From <hash> <date>
          From: <author>
          Date: <author date>


          Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

          <full commit message>

 •   mboxrd

     Like email, but lines in the commit message starting
     with "From " (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted
     with ">" so they aren’t confused as starting a new

 •   raw

     The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as
     stored in the commit object. Notably, the hashes are
     displayed in full, regardless of whether −−abbrev or
     −−no−abbrev are used, and parents information show the
     true parent commits, without taking grafts or history
     simplification into account. Note that this format
     affects the way commits are displayed, but not the way
     the diff is shown e.g. with git log −−raw. To get full
     object names in a raw diff format, use −−no−abbrev.

 •   format:<string>

     The format:<string> format allows you to specify which
     information you want to show. It works a little bit
     like printf format, with the notable exception that you
     get a newline with %n instead of \n.

     E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title
     was >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

          The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
          The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing −p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

     The placeholders are:

      •   Placeholders that expand to a single literal


               a raw %

               print a byte from a hex code

      •   Placeholders that affect formatting of later


               switch color to red

               switch color to green

               switch color to blue

               reset color

               color specification, as described under
               Values in the "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of
               git‐config(1). By default, colors are shown
               only when enabled for log output (by
               color.diff, color.ui, or −−color, and
               respecting the auto settings of the former if
               we are going to a terminal).  %C(auto,...)
               is accepted as a historical synonym for the
               default (e.g., %C(auto,red)). Specifying
               %C(always,...)  will show the colors even
               when color is not otherwise enabled (though
               consider just using −−color=always to enable
               color for the whole output, including this
               format and anything else git might color).
               auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on auto
               coloring on the next placeholders until the
               color is switched again.

               left (<), right (>) or boundary () mark

               switch line wrapping, like the −w option of

               make the next placeholder take at least N
               columns, padding spaces on the right if
               necessary. Optionally truncate at the
               beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc) or
               the end (trunc) if the output is longer than
               N columns. Note that truncating only works
               correctly with N >= 2.

               make the next placeholder take at least until
               Nth columns, padding spaces on the right if

               %>(<N>), %>|(<N>)
               similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively,


               but padding spaces on the left

               %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>)
               similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively,
               except that if the next placeholder takes
               more spaces than given and there are spaces
               on its left, use those spaces

               %><(<N>), %><|(<N>)
               similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively,
               but padding both sides (i.e. the text is

      •   Placeholders that expand to information extracted
          from the commit:

               commit hash

               abbreviated commit hash

               tree hash

               abbreviated tree hash

               parent hashes

               abbreviated parent hashes

               author name

               author name (respecting .mailmap, see git‐
               shortlog(1) or git‐blame(1))

               author email

               author email (respecting .mailmap, see git‐
               shortlog(1) or git‐blame(1))

               author email local−part (the part before the
               @ sign)

               author local−part (see %al) respecting


               .mailmap, see git‐shortlog(1) or git‐

               author date (format respects −−date= option)

               author date, RFC2822 style

               author date, relative

               author date, UNIX timestamp

               author date, ISO 8601−like format

               author date, strict ISO 8601 format

               author date, short format (YYYY−MM−DD)

               committer name

               committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git‐
               shortlog(1) or git‐blame(1))

               committer email

               committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
               git‐shortlog(1) or git‐blame(1))

               committer email local−part (the part before
               the @ sign)

               committer local−part (see %cl) respecting
               .mailmap, see git‐shortlog(1) or git‐

               committer date (format respects −−date=

               committer date, RFC2822 style


               committer date, relative

               committer date, UNIX timestamp

               committer date, ISO 8601−like format

               committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

               committer date, short format (YYYY−MM−DD)

               ref names, like the −−decorate option of git‐

               ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

               ref name given on the command line by which
               the commit was reached (like git log
               −−source), only works with git log



               sanitized subject line, suitable for a


               raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

               commit notes

               raw verification message from GPG for a
               signed commit

               show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B"
               for a bad signature, "U" for a good signature
               with unknown validity, "X" for a good


               signature that has expired, "Y" for a good
               signature made by an expired key, "R" for a
               good signature made by a revoked key, "E" if
               the signature cannot be checked (e.g. missing
               key) and "N" for no signature

               show the name of the signer for a signed

               show the key used to sign a signed commit

               show the fingerprint of the key used to sign
               a signed commit

               show the fingerprint of the primary key whose
               subkey was used to sign a signed commit

               show the trust level for the key used to sign
               a signed commit

               reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or
               refs/stash@{2 minutes ago}; the format
               follows the rules described for the −g
               option. The portion before the @ is the
               refname as given on the command line (so git
               log −g refs/heads/master would yield

               shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but
               the refname portion is shortened for human
               readability (so refs/heads/master becomes
               just master).

               reflog identity name

               reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap,
               see git‐shortlog(1) or git‐blame(1))

               reflog identity email

               reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap,
               see git‐shortlog(1) or git‐blame(1))


               reflog subject

               display the trailers of the body as
               interpreted by git‐interpret‐trailers(1). The
               trailers string may be followed by a colon
               and zero or more comma−separated options:

                •   key=<K>: only show trailers with
                    specified key. Matching is done
                    case−insensitively and trailing colon is
                    optional. If option is given multiple
                    times trailer lines matching any of the
                    keys are shown. This option
                    automatically enables the only option so
                    that non−trailer lines in the trailer
                    block are hidden. If that is not desired
                    it can be disabled with only=false.
                    E.g., %(trailers:key=Reviewed−by) shows
                    trailer lines with key Reviewed−by.

                •   only[=val]: select whether non−trailer
                    lines from the trailer block should be
                    included. The only keyword may
                    optionally be followed by an equal sign
                    and one of true, on, yes to omit or
                    false, off, no to show the non−trailer
                    lines. If option is given without value
                    it is enabled. If given multiple times
                    the last value is used.

                •   separator=<SEP>: specify a separator
                    inserted between trailer lines. When
                    this option is not given each trailer
                    line is terminated with a line feed
                    character. The string SEP may contain
                    the literal formatting codes described
                    above. To use comma as separator one
                    must use %x2C as it would otherwise be
                    parsed as next option. If separator
                    option is given multiple times only the
                    last one is used. E.g.,
                    %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C )
                    shows all trailer lines whose key is
                    "Ticket" separated by a comma and a

                •   unfold[=val]: make it behave as if
                    interpret−trailer’s −−unfold option was
                    given. In same way as to for only it can
                    be followed by an equal sign and
                    explicit value. E.g.,
                    %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and


                    shows all trailer lines.

                •   valueonly[=val]: skip over the key part
                    of the trailer line and only show the
                    value part. Also this optionally allows
                    explicit value.


     Some placeholders may depend on other options given to
     the revision traversal engine. For example, the %g*
     reflog options will insert an empty string unless we
     are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log −g).
     The %d and %D placeholders will use the "short"
     decoration format if −−decorate was not already
     provided on the command line.

If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a
line−feed is inserted immediately before the expansion if
and only if the placeholder expands to a non−empty string.

If you add a (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all
consecutive line−feeds immediately preceding the expansion
are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an
empty string.

If you add a ‘ ‘ (space) after % of a placeholder, a space
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if
the placeholder expands to a non−empty string.

 •   tformat:

     The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except
     that it provides "terminator" semantics instead of
     "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has
     the message terminator character (usually a newline)
     appended, rather than a separator placed between
     entries. This means that the final entry of a
     single−line format will be properly terminated with a
     new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For

          $ git log −2 −−pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
            | perl −pe '$_ .= " −− NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
          7134973 −− NO NEWLINE

          $ git log −2 −−pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
            | perl −pe '$_ .= " −− NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

     In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it
     is interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it.


     For example, these two are equivalent:

          $ git log −2 −−pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
          $ git log −2 −−pretty=%h 4da45bef

     −p, −u, −−patch
     Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

     −s, −−no−patch
     Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show
     that show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect
     of −−patch.

     −U<n>, −−unified=<n>
     Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the
     usual three. Implies −−patch. Implies −p.

     Output to a specific file instead of stdout.

     Specify the character used to indicate new, old or
     context lines in the generated patch. Normally they are
     +, and ' ' respectively.

     For each commit, show a summary of changes using the
     raw diff format. See the "RAW OUTPUT FORMAT" section of
     git‐diff(1). This is different from showing the log
     itself in raw format, which you can achieve with

     Synonym for −p −−raw.

     Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries
     to make patches easier to read. This is the default.

     Disable the indent heuristic.

     Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
     diff is produced.

     Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.


     Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

     Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.

     This option may be specified more than once.

     If a line exists in both the source and destination,
     exists only once, and starts with this text, this
     algorithm attempts to prevent it from appearing as a
     deletion or addition in the output. It uses the
     "patience diff" algorithm internally.

     Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

          default, myers
          The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this
          is the default.

          Spend extra time to make sure the smallest
          possible diff is produced.

          Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating

          This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to
          "support low−occurrence common elements".

     For instance, if you configured the diff.algorithm
     variable to a non−default value and want to use the
     default one, then you have to use
     −−diff−algorithm=default option.

     Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as
     necessary will be used for the filename part, and the
     rest for the graph part. Maximum width defaults to
     terminal width, or 80 columns if not connected to a
     terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The width
     of the filename part can be limited by giving another
     width <name−width> after a comma. The width of the
     graph part can be limited by using
     −−stat−graph−width=<width> (affects all commands
     generating a stat graph) or by setting
     diff.statGraphWidth=<width> (does not affect git
     format−patch). By giving a third parameter <count>, you
     can limit the output to the first <count> lines,
     followed by ...  if there are more.


     These parameters can also be set individually with
     −−stat−width=<width>, −−stat−name−width=<name−width>
     and −−stat−count=<count>.

     Output a condensed summary of extended header
     information such as file creations or deletions ("new"
     or "gone", optionally "+l" if it’s a symlink) and mode
     changes ("+x" or "−x" for adding or removing executable
     bit respectively) in diffstat. The information is put
     between the filename part and the graph part. Implies

     Similar to −−stat, but shows number of added and
     deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
     abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
     binary files, outputs two instead of saying 0 0.

     Output only the last line of the −−stat format
     containing total number of modified files, as well as
     number of added and deleted lines.

     Output the distribution of relative amount of changes
     for each sub−directory. The behavior of −−dirstat can
     be customized by passing it a comma separated list of
     parameters. The defaults are controlled by the
     diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git‐
     config(1)). The following parameters are available:

          Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines
          that have been removed from the source, or added
          to the destination. This ignores the amount of
          pure code movements within a file. In other words,
          rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much
          as other changes. This is the default behavior
          when no parameter is given.

          Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular
          line−based diff analysis, and summing the
          removed/added line counts. (For binary files,
          count 64−byte chunks instead, since binary files
          have no natural concept of lines). This is a more
          expensive −−dirstat behavior than the changes
          behavior, but it does count rearranged lines
          within a file as much as other changes. The
          resulting output is consistent with what you get
          from the other −−*stat options.


          Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number
          of files changed. Each changed file counts equally
          in the dirstat analysis. This is the
          computationally cheapest −−dirstat behavior, since
          it does not have to look at the file contents at

          Count changes in a child directory for the parent
          directory as well. Note that when using
          cumulative, the sum of the percentages reported
          may exceed 100%. The default (non−cumulative)
          behavior can be specified with the noncumulative

          An integer parameter specifies a cut−off percent
          (3% by default). Directories contributing less
          than this percentage of the changes are not shown
          in the output.

     Example: The following will count changed files, while
     ignoring directories with less than 10% of the total
     amount of changed files, and accumulating child
     directory counts in the parent directories:

     Synonym for −−dirstat=cumulative

     Synonym for −−dirstat=files,param1,param2...

     Output a condensed summary of extended header
     information such as creations, renames and mode

     Synonym for −p −−stat.

     Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new

     Also, when −−raw or −−numstat has been given, do not
     munge pathnames and use NULs as output field

     Without this option, pathnames with "unusual"
     characters are quoted as explained for the
     configuration variable core.quotePath (see git‐


     Show only names of changed files.

     Show only names and status of changed files. See the
     description of the −−diff−filter option on what the
     status letters mean.

     Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When
     specifying −−submodule=short the short format is used.
     This format just shows the names of the commits at the
     beginning and end of the range. When −−submodule or
     −−submodule=log is specified, the log format is used.
     This format lists the commits in the range like git‐
     submodule(1) summary does. When −−submodule=diff is
     specified, the diff format is used. This format shows
     an inline diff of the changes in the submodule contents
     between the commit range. Defaults to diff.submodule or
     the short format if the config option is unset.

     Show colored diff.  −−color (i.e. without =<when>) is
     the same as −−color=always.  <when> can be one of
     always, never, or auto.

     Turn off colored diff. It is the same as −−color=never.

     Moved lines of code are colored differently. The <mode>
     defaults to no if the option is not given and to zebra
     if the option with no mode is given. The mode must be
     one of:

          Moved lines are not highlighted.

          Is a synonym for zebra. This may change to a more
          sensible mode in the future.

          Any line that is added in one location and was
          removed in another location will be colored with
          color.diff.newMoved. Similarly color.diff.oldMoved
          will be used for removed lines that are added
          somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
          moved line, but it is not very useful in a review
          to determine if a block of code was moved without

          Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric


          characters are detected greedily. The detected
          blocks are painted using either the
          color.diff.{old,new}Moved color. Adjacent blocks
          cannot be told apart.

          Blocks of moved text are detected as in blocks
          mode. The blocks are painted using either the
          color.diff.{old,new}Moved color or
          color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative. The change
          between the two colors indicates that a new block
          was detected.

          Similar to zebra, but additional dimming of
          uninteresting parts of moved code is performed.
          The bordering lines of two adjacent blocks are
          considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
          dimmed_zebra is a deprecated synonym.

     Turn off move detection. This can be used to override
     configuration settings. It is the same as

     This configures how whitespace is ignored when
     performing the move detection for −−color−moved. These
     modes can be given as a comma separated list:

          Do not ignore whitespace when performing move

          Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

          Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This
          ignores whitespace at line end, and considers all
          other sequences of one or more whitespace
          characters to be equivalent.

          Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This
          ignores differences even if one line has
          whitespace where the other line has none.

          Initially ignore any whitespace in the move
          detection, then group the moved code blocks only
          into a block if the change in whitespace is the
          same per line. This is incompatible with the other


     Do not ignore whitespace when performing move
     detection. This can be used to override configuration
     settings. It is the same as −−color−moved−ws=no.

     Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed
     words. By default, words are delimited by whitespace;
     see −−word−diff−regex below. The <mode> defaults to
     plain, and must be one of:

          Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies

          Show words as [−removed−] and {+added+}. Makes no
          attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear
          in the input, so the output may be ambiguous.

          Use a special line−based format intended for
          script consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs
          are printed in the usual unified diff format,
          starting with a +//‘ ‘ character at the beginning
          of the line and extending to the end of the line.
          Newlines in the input are represented by a tilde ~
          on a line of its own.

          Disable word diff again.

     Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is
     used to highlight the changed parts in all modes if

     Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of
     considering runs of non−whitespace to be a word. Also
     implies −−word−diff unless it was already enabled.

     Every non−overlapping match of the <regex> is
     considered a word. Anything between these matches is
     considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes
     of finding differences. You may want to append
     |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make sure
     that it matches all non−whitespace characters. A match
     that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the

     For example, −−word−diff−regex=.  will treat each
     character as a word and, correspondingly, show
     differences character by character.


     The regex can also be set via a diff driver or
     configuration option, see gitattributes(5) or git‐
     config(1). Giving it explicitly overrides any diff
     driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers override
     configuration settings.

     Equivalent to −−word−diff=color plus (if a regex was
     specified) −−word−diff−regex=<regex>.

     Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
     file gives the default to do so.

     Whether to use empty blobs as rename source.

     Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or
     whitespace errors. What are considered whitespace
     errors is controlled by core.whitespace configuration.
     By default, trailing whitespaces (including lines that
     consist solely of whitespaces) and a space character
     that is immediately followed by a tab character inside
     the initial indent of the line are considered
     whitespace errors. Exits with non−zero status if
     problems are found. Not compatible with −−exit−code.

     Highlight whitespace errors in the context, old or new
     lines of the diff. Multiple values are separated by
     comma, none resets previous values, default reset the
     list to new and all is a shorthand for old,new,context.
     When this option is not given, and the configuration
     variable diff.wsErrorHighlight is not set, only
     whitespace errors in new lines are highlighted. The
     whitespace errors are colored with

     Instead of the first handful of characters, show the
     full pre− and post−image blob object names on the
     "index" line when generating patch format output.

     In addition to −−full−index, output a binary diff that
     can be applied with git−apply. Implies −−patch.

     Instead of showing the full 40−byte hexadecimal object
     name in diff−raw format output and diff−tree header
     lines, show only a partial prefix. This is independent
     of the −−full−index option above, which controls the
     diff−patch output format. Non default number of digits


     can be specified with −−abbrev=<n>.

     −B[<n>][/<m>], −−break−rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
     Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
     create. This serves two purposes:

     It affects the way a change that amounts to a total
     rewrite of a file not as a series of deletion and
     insertion mixed together with a very few lines that
     happen to match textually as the context, but as a
     single deletion of everything old followed by a single
     insertion of everything new, and the number m controls
     this aspect of the −B option (defaults to 60%).  −B/70%
     specifies that less than 30% of the original should
     remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
     rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a
     series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
     context lines).

     When used with −M, a totally−rewritten file is also
     considered as the source of a rename (usually −M only
     considers a file that disappeared as the source of a
     rename), and the number n controls this aspect of the
     −B option (defaults to 50%).  −B20% specifies that a
     change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or
     more of the file’s size are eligible for being picked
     up as a possible source of a rename to another file.

     −M[<n>], −−find−renames[=<n>]
     If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each
     commit. For following files across renames while
     traversing history, see −−follow. If n is specified, it
     is a threshold on the similarity index (i.e. amount of
     addition/deletions compared to the file’s size). For
     example, −M90% means Git should consider a delete/add
     pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn’t
     changed. Without a % sign, the number is to be read as
     a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., −M5
     becomes 0.5, and is thus the same as −M50%. Similarly,
     −M05 is the same as −M5%. To limit detection to exact
     renames, use −M100%. The default similarity index is

     −C[<n>], −−find−copies[=<n>]
     Detect copies as well as renames. See also
     −−find−copies−harder. If n is specified, it has the
     same meaning as for −M<n>.

     For performance reasons, by default, −C option finds
     copies only if the original file of the copy was
     modified in the same changeset. This flag makes the
     command inspect unmodified files as candidates for the
     source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for


     large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more
     than one −C option has the same effect.

     −D, −−irreversible−delete
     Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the
     header but not the diff between the preimage and
     /dev/null. The resulting patch is not meant to be
     applied with patch or git apply; this is solely for
     people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
     text after the change. In addition, the output
     obviously lacks enough information to apply such a
     patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of the

     When used together with −B, omit also the preimage in
     the deletion part of a delete/create pair.

     The −M and −C options require O(n^2) processing time
     where n is the number of potential rename/copy targets.
     This option prevents rename/copy detection from running
     if the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the
     specified number.

     Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C),
     Deleted (D), Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type
     (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed
     (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown (X), or have had
     their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the filter
     characters (including none) can be used. When *
     (All−or−none) is added to the combination, all paths
     are selected if there is any file that matches other
     criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that
     matches other criteria, nothing is selected.

     Also, these upper−case letters can be downcased to
     exclude. E.g.  −−diff−filter=ad excludes added and
     deleted paths.

     Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For
     instance, diffs from the index to the working tree can
     never have Added entries (because the set of paths
     included in the diff is limited by what is in the
     index). Similarly, copied and renamed entries cannot
     appear if detection for those types is disabled.

     Look for differences that change the number of
     occurrences of the specified string (i.e.
     addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for the
     scripter’s use.

     It is useful when you’re looking for an exact block of


     code (like a struct), and want to know the history of
     that block since it first came into being: use the
     feature iteratively to feed the interesting block in
     the preimage back into −S, and keep going until you get
     the very first version of the block.

     Binary files are searched as well.

     Look for differences whose patch text contains
     added/removed lines that match <regex>.

     To illustrate the difference between −S<regex>
     −−pickaxe−regex and −G<regex>, consider a commit with
     the following diff in the same file:

          +    return frotz(nitfol, two−>ptr, 1, 0);
          −    hit = frotz(nitfol, mf2.ptr, 1, 0);

     While git log −G"frotz\(nitfol" will show this commit,
     git log −S"frotz\(nitfol" −−pickaxe−regex will not
     (because the number of occurrences of that string did
     not change).

     Unless −−text is supplied patches of binary files
     without a textconv filter will be ignored.

     See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more

     Look for differences that change the number of
     occurrences of the specified object. Similar to −S,
     just the argument is different in that it doesn’t
     search for a specific string but for a specific object

     The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It
     implies the −t option in git−log to also find trees.

     When −S or −G finds a change, show all the changes in
     that changeset, not just the files that contain the
     change in <string>.

     Treat the <string> given to −S as an extended POSIX
     regular expression to match.

     Control the order in which files appear in the output.
     This overrides the diff.orderFile configuration
     variable (see git‐config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile,


     use −O/dev/null.

     The output order is determined by the order of glob
     patterns in <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that
     match the first pattern are output first, all files
     with pathnames that match the second pattern (but not
     the first) are output next, and so on. All files with
     pathnames that do not match any pattern are output
     last, as if there was an implicit match−all pattern at
     the end of the file. If multiple pathnames have the
     same rank (they match the same pattern but no earlier
     patterns), their output order relative to each other is
     the normal order.

     <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

      •   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as
          separators for readability.

      •   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so
          they can be used for comments. Add a backslash
          ("\") to the beginning of the pattern if it starts
          with a hash.

      •   Each other line contains a single pattern.

     Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns
     used for fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag,
     except a pathname also matches a pattern if removing
     any number of the final pathname components matches the
     pattern. For example, the pattern "foo*bar" matches
     "fooasdfbar" and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

     Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index
     or on−disk file to tree contents.

     −−relative[=<path>], −−no−relative
     When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
     told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
     pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are
     not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
     can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
     to by giving a <path> as an argument.  −−no−relative
     can be used to countermand both diff.relative config
     option and previous −−relative.

     −a, −−text
     Treat all files as text.

     Ignore carriage−return at the end of line when doing a


     Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

     −b, −−ignore−space−change
     Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores
     whitespace at line end, and considers all other
     sequences of one or more whitespace characters to be

     −w, −−ignore−all−space
     Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
     differences even if one line has whitespace where the
     other line has none.

     Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

     Show the context between diff hunks, up to the
     specified number of lines, thereby fusing hunks that
     are close to each other. Defaults to
     diff.interHunkContext or 0 if the config option is

     −W, −−function−context
     Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

     Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you
     set an external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you
     need to use this option with git‐log(1) and friends.

     Disallow external diff drivers.

     −−textconv, −−no−textconv
     Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to
     be run when comparing binary files. See
     gitattributes(5) for details. Because textconv filters
     are typically a one−way conversion, the resulting diff
     is suitable for human consumption, but cannot be
     applied. For this reason, textconv filters are enabled
     by default only for git‐diff(1) and git‐log(1), but not
     for git‐format‐patch(1) or diff plumbing commands.

     Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation.
     <when> can be either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or
     "all", which is the default. Using "none" will consider
     the submodule modified when it either contains
     untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from
     the commit recorded in the superproject and can be used
     to override any settings of the ignore option in git‐
     config(1) or gitmodules(5). When "untracked" is used


     submodules are not considered dirty when they only
     contain untracked content (but they are still scanned
     for modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all
     changes to the work tree of submodules, only changes to
     the commits stored in the superproject are shown (this
     was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all
     changes to submodules.

     Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

     Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

     Do not show any source or destination prefix.

     Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

     By default entries added by "git add −N" appear as an
     existing empty file in "git diff" and a new file in
     "git diff −−cached". This option makes the entry appear
     as a new file in "git diff" and non−existent in "git
     diff −−cached". This option could be reverted with
     −−ita−visible−in−index. Both options are experimental
     and could be removed in future.

For more detailed explanation on these common options, see
also gitdiffcore(7).

Running git‐diff(1), git‐log(1), git‐show(1), git‐diff‐
index(1), git‐diff‐tree(1), or git‐diff‐files(1) with the −p
option produces patch text. You can customize the creation
of patch text via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the
GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables.

What the −p option produces is slightly different from the
traditional diff format:

  1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like

          diff −−git a/file1 b/file2

     The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy
     is involved. Especially, even for a creation or a
     deletion, /dev/null is not used in place of the a/ or
     b/ filenames.

     When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the


     name of the source file of the rename/copy and the name
     of the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.

  2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

          old mode <mode>
          new mode <mode>
          deleted file mode <mode>
          new file mode <mode>
          copy from <path>
          copy to <path>
          rename from <path>
          rename to <path>
          similarity index <number>
          dissimilarity index <number>
          index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

     File modes are printed as 6−digit octal numbers
     including the file type and file permission bits.

     Path names in extended headers do not include the a/
     and b/ prefixes.

     The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged
     lines, and the dissimilarity index is the percentage of
     changed lines. It is a rounded down integer, followed
     by a percent sign. The similarity index value of 100%
     is thus reserved for two equal files, while 100%
     dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made
     it into the new one.

     The index line includes the blob object names before
     and after the change. The <mode> is included if the
     file mode does not change; otherwise, separate lines
     indicate the old and the new mode.

  3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
     explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath
     (see git‐config(1)).

  4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before
     the commit, and all the file2 files refer to files
     after the commit. It is incorrect to apply each change
     to each file sequentially. For example, this patch will
     swap a and b:

          diff −−git a/a b/b
          rename from a
          rename to b
          diff −−git a/b b/a
          rename from b
          rename to a


Any diff−generating command can take the −c or −−cc option
to produce a combined diff when showing a merge. This is the
default format when showing merges with git‐diff(1) or git‐
show(1). Note also that you can give the −m option to any of
these commands to force generation of diffs with individual
parents of a merge.

A "combined diff" format looks like this:

     diff −−combined describe.c
     index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
     −−− a/describe.c
     +++ b/describe.c
     @@@ −98,20 −98,12 +98,20 @@@
             return (a_date > b_date) ? −1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;

     − static void describe(char *arg)
      −static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
     ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
      +      unsigned char sha1[20];
      +      struct commit *cmit;
             struct commit_list *list;
             static int initialized = 0;
             struct commit_name *n;

      +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
      +              usage(describe_usage);
      +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
      +      if (!cmit)
      +              usage(describe_usage);
             if (!initialized) {
                     initialized = 1;

  1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks
     like this (when the −c option is used):

          diff −−combined file

     or like this (when the −−cc option is used):

          diff −−cc file

  2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines
     (this example shows a merge with two parents):

          index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>


          mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
          new file mode <mode>
          deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

     The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at
     least one of the <mode> is different from the rest.
     Extended headers with information about detected
     contents movement (renames and copying detection) are
     designed to work with diff of two <tree−ish> and are
     not used by combined diff format.

  3. It is followed by two−line from−file/to−file header

          −−− a/file
          +++ b/file

     Similar to two−line header for traditional unified diff
     format, /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted

     However, if the −−combined−all−paths option is
     provided, instead of a two−line from−file/to−file you
     get a N+1 line from−file/to−file header, where N is the
     number of parents in the merge commit

          −−− a/file
          −−− a/file
          −−− a/file
          +++ b/file

     This extended format can be useful if rename or copy
     detection is active, to allow you to see the original
     name of the file in different parents.

  4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
     accidentally feeding it to patch −p1. Combined diff
     format was created for review of merge commit changes,
     and was not meant to be applied. The change is similar
     to the change in the extended index header:

          @@@ <from−file−range> <from−file−range> <to−file−range> @@@

     There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the
     chunk header for combined diff format.

Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two
files A and B with a single column that has (minus —
appears in A but removed in B), + (plus — missing in A but
added to B), or " " (space — unchanged) prefix, this format
compares two or more files file1, file2,... with one file X,
and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for
each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how
X’s line is different from it.


A character in the column N means that the line appears in
fileN but it does not appear in the result. A + character in
the column N means that the line appears in the result, and
fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was
added, from the point of view of that parent).

In the above example output, the function signature was
changed from both files (hence two removals from both
file1 and file2, plus ++ to mean one line that was added
does not appear in either file1 or file2). Also eight other
lines are the same from file1 but do not appear in file2
(hence prefixed with +).

When shown by git diff−tree −c, it compares the parents of a
merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are
the parents). When shown by git diff−files −c, it compares
the two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file
(i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is stage 3
aka "their version").

     git show v1.0.0
     Shows the tag v1.0.0, along with the object the tags
     points at.

     git show v1.0.0^{tree}
     Shows the tree pointed to by the tag v1.0.0.

     git show −s −−format=%s v1.0.0^{commit}
     Shows the subject of the commit pointed to by the tag

     git show next~10:Documentation/README
     Shows the contents of the file Documentation/README as
     they were current in the 10th last commit of the branch

     git show master:Makefile master:t/Makefile
     Concatenates the contents of said Makefiles in the head
     of the branch master.

Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

 •   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted
     sequences of bytes. There is no encoding translation at
     the core level.

 •   Path names are encoded in UTF−8 normalization form C.
     This applies to tree objects, the index file, ref
     names, as well as path names in command line arguments,
     environment variables and config files (.git/config


     (see git‐config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5) and

     Note that Git at the core level treats path names
     simply as sequences of non−NUL bytes, there are no path
     name encoding conversions (except on Mac and Windows).
     Therefore, using non−ASCII path names will mostly work
     even on platforms and file systems that use legacy
     extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created
     on such systems will not work properly on UTF−8−based
     systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa.
     Additionally, many Git−based tools simply assume path
     names to be UTF−8 and will fail to display other
     encodings correctly.

 •   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF−8, but
     other extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This
     includes ISO−8859−x, CP125x and many others, but not
     UTF−16/32, EBCDIC and CJK multi−byte encodings (GBK,
     Shift−JIS, Big5, EUC−x, CP9xx etc.).

Although we encourage that the commit log messages are
encoded in UTF−8, both the core and Git Porcelain are
designed not to force UTF−8 on projects. If all participants
of a particular project find it more convenient to use
legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However, there are
a few things to keep in mind.

  1. git commit and git commit−tree issues a warning if the
     commit log message given to it does not look like a
     valid UTF−8 string, unless you explicitly say your
     project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is
     to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like

                  commitEncoding = ISO−8859−1

     Commit objects created with the above setting record
     the value of i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding
     header. This is to help other people who look at them
     later. Lack of this header implies that the commit log
     message is encoded in UTF−8.

  2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the
     encoding header of a commit object, and try to re−code
     the log message into UTF−8 unless otherwise specified.
     You can specify the desired output encoding with
     i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file, like this:

                  logOutputEncoding = ISO−8859−1

     If you do not have this configuration variable, the


     value of i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

Note that we deliberately chose not to re−code the commit
log message when a commit is made to force UTF−8 at the
commit object level, because re−coding to UTF−8 is not
necessarily a reversible operation.

Part of the git(1) suite