git-stash






git‐stash − Stash the changes in a dirty working directory
away



git stash list [<options>]
git stash show [<options>] [<stash>]
git stash drop [−q|−−quiet] [<stash>]
git stash ( pop | apply ) [−−index] [−q|−−quiet] [<stash>]
git stash branch <branchname> [<stash>]
git stash [push [−p|−−patch] [−k|−−[no−]keep−index] [−q|−−quiet]
             [−u|−−include−untracked] [−a|−−all] [−m|−−message <message>]
             [−−pathspec−from−file=<file> [−−pathspec−file−nul]]
             [−−] [<pathspec>...]]
git stash clear
git stash create [<message>]
git stash store [−m|−−message <message>] [−q|−−quiet] <commit>




Use git stash when you want to record the current state of
the working directory and the index, but want to go back to
a clean working directory. The command saves your local
modifications away and reverts the working directory to
match the HEAD commit.

The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed
with git stash list, inspected with git stash show, and
restored (potentially on top of a different commit) with git
stash apply. Calling git stash without any arguments is
equivalent to git stash push. A stash is by default listed
as "WIP on branchname ...", but you can give a more
descriptive message on the command line when you create one.

The latest stash you created is stored in refs/stash; older
stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be
named using the usual reflog syntax (e.g. stash@{0} is the
most recently created stash, stash@{1} is the one before it,
stash@{2.hours.ago} is also possible). Stashes may also be
referenced by specifying just the stash index (e.g. the
integer n is equivalent to stash@{n}).



     push [−p|−−patch] [−k|−−[no−]keep−index]
[−u|−−include−untracked] [−a|−−all] [−q|−−quiet]
[−m|−−message <message>] [−−pathspec−from−file=<file>
[−−pathspec−file−nul]] [−−] [<pathspec>...]
     Save your local modifications to a new stash entry and
     roll them back to HEAD (in the working tree and in the
     index). The <message> part is optional and gives the
     description along with the stashed state.










                             ‐2‐


     For quickly making a snapshot, you can omit "push". In
     this mode, non−option arguments are not allowed to
     prevent a misspelled subcommand from making an unwanted
     stash entry. The two exceptions to this are stash −p
     which acts as alias for stash push −p and pathspec
     elements, which are allowed after a double hyphen −−
     for disambiguation.

     save [−p|−−patch] [−k|−−[no−]keep−index]
[−u|−−include−untracked] [−a|−−all] [−q|−−quiet] [<message>]
     This option is deprecated in favour of git stash push.
     It differs from "stash push" in that it cannot take
     pathspec. Instead, all non−option arguments are
     concatenated to form the stash message.

     list [<options>]
     List the stash entries that you currently have. Each
     stash entry is listed with its name (e.g.  stash@{0} is
     the latest entry, stash@{1} is the one before, etc.),
     the name of the branch that was current when the entry
     was made, and a short description of the commit the
     entry was based on.

          stash@{0}: WIP on submit: 6ebd0e2... Update git−stash documentation
          stash@{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git−stash

     The command takes options applicable to the git log
     command to control what is shown and how. See git‐
     log(1).

     show [<options>] [<stash>]
     Show the changes recorded in the stash entry as a diff
     between the stashed contents and the commit back when
     the stash entry was first created. By default, the
     command shows the diffstat, but it will accept any
     format known to git diff (e.g., git stash show −p
     stash@{1} to view the second most recent entry in patch
     form). You can use stash.showStat and/or
     stash.showPatch config variables to change the default
     behavior.

     pop [−−index] [−q|−−quiet] [<stash>]
     Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and
     apply it on top of the current working tree state,
     i.e., do the inverse operation of git stash push. The
     working directory must match the index.

     Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this
     case, it is not removed from the stash list. You need
     to resolve the conflicts by hand and call git stash
     drop manually afterwards.

     apply [−−index] [−q|−−quiet] [<stash>]
     Like pop, but do not remove the state from the stash









                             ‐3‐


     list. Unlike pop, <stash> may be any commit that looks
     like a commit created by stash push or stash create.

     branch <branchname> [<stash>]
     Creates and checks out a new branch named <branchname>
     starting from the commit at which the <stash> was
     originally created, applies the changes recorded in
     <stash> to the new working tree and index. If that
     succeeds, and <stash> is a reference of the form
     stash@{<revision>}, it then drops the <stash>.

     This is useful if the branch on which you ran git stash
     push has changed enough that git stash apply fails due
     to conflicts. Since the stash entry is applied on top
     of the commit that was HEAD at the time git stash was
     run, it restores the originally stashed state with no
     conflicts.

     clear
     Remove all the stash entries. Note that those entries
     will then be subject to pruning, and may be impossible
     to recover (see Examples below for a possible
     strategy).

     drop [−q|−−quiet] [<stash>]
     Remove a single stash entry from the list of stash
     entries.

     create
     Create a stash entry (which is a regular commit object)
     and return its object name, without storing it anywhere
     in the ref namespace. This is intended to be useful for
     scripts. It is probably not the command you want to
     use; see "push" above.

     store
     Store a given stash created via git stash create (which
     is a dangling merge commit) in the stash ref, updating
     the stash reflog. This is intended to be useful for
     scripts. It is probably not the command you want to
     use; see "push" above.



     −a, −−all
     This option is only valid for push and save commands.

     All ignored and untracked files are also stashed and
     then cleaned up with git clean.

     −u, −−include−untracked
     This option is only valid for push and save commands.

     All untracked files are also stashed and then cleaned









                             ‐4‐


     up with git clean.

     −−index
     This option is only valid for pop and apply commands.

     Tries to reinstate not only the working tree’s changes,
     but also the index’s ones. However, this can fail, when
     you have conflicts (which are stored in the index,
     where you therefore can no longer apply the changes as
     they were originally).

     −k, −−keep−index, −−no−keep−index
     This option is only valid for push and save commands.

     All changes already added to the index are left intact.

     −p, −−patch
     This option is only valid for push and save commands.

     Interactively select hunks from the diff between HEAD
     and the working tree to be stashed. The stash entry is
     constructed such that its index state is the same as
     the index state of your repository, and its worktree
     contains only the changes you selected interactively.
     The selected changes are then rolled back from your
     worktree. See the “Interactive Mode” section of git‐
     add(1) to learn how to operate the −−patch mode.

     The −−patch option implies −−keep−index. You can use
     −−no−keep−index to override this.

     −−pathspec−from−file=<file>
     This option is only valid for push command.

     Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline
     args. If <file> is exactly then standard input is
     used. Pathspec elements are separated by LF or CR/LF.
     Pathspec elements can be quoted as explained for the
     configuration variable core.quotePath (see git‐
     config(1)). See also −−pathspec−file−nul and global
     −−literal−pathspecs.

     −−pathspec−file−nul
     This option is only valid for push command.

     Only meaningful with −−pathspec−from−file. Pathspec
     elements are separated with NUL character and all other
     characters are taken literally (including newlines and
     quotes).

     −q, −−quiet
     This option is only valid for apply, drop, pop, push,
     save, store commands.










                             ‐5‐


     Quiet, suppress feedback messages.

     −−
     This option is only valid for push command.

     Separates pathspec from options for disambiguation
     purposes.

     <pathspec>...
     This option is only valid for push command.

     The new stash entry records the modified states only
     for the files that match the pathspec. The index
     entries and working tree files are then rolled back to
     the state in HEAD only for these files, too, leaving
     files that do not match the pathspec intact.

     For more details, see the pathspec entry in
     gitglossary(7).

     <stash>
     This option is only valid for apply, branch, drop, pop,
     show commands.

     A reference of the form stash@{<revision>}. When no
     <stash> is given, the latest stash is assumed (that is,
     stash@{0}).



A stash entry is represented as a commit whose tree records
the state of the working directory, and its first parent is
the commit at HEAD when the entry was created. The tree of
the second parent records the state of the index when the
entry is made, and it is made a child of the HEAD commit.
The ancestry graph looks like this:

            .−−−−W
           /    /
     −−−−−H−−−−I

where H is the HEAD commit, I is a commit that records the
state of the index, and W is a commit that records the state
of the working tree.



     Pulling into a dirty tree
     When you are in the middle of something, you learn that
     there are upstream changes that are possibly relevant
     to what you are doing. When your local changes do not
     conflict with the changes in the upstream, a simple git
     pull will let you move forward.










                             ‐6‐


     However, there are cases in which your local changes do
     conflict with the upstream changes, and git pull
     refuses to overwrite your changes. In such a case, you
     can stash your changes away, perform a pull, and then
     unstash, like this:

          $ git pull
           ...
          file foobar not up to date, cannot merge.
          $ git stash
          $ git pull
          $ git stash pop


     Interrupted workflow
     When you are in the middle of something, your boss
     comes in and demands that you fix something
     immediately. Traditionally, you would make a commit to
     a temporary branch to store your changes away, and
     return to your original branch to make the emergency
     fix, like this:

          # ... hack hack hack ...
          $ git switch −c my_wip
          $ git commit −a −m "WIP"
          $ git switch master
          $ edit emergency fix
          $ git commit −a −m "Fix in a hurry"
          $ git switch my_wip
          $ git reset −−soft HEAD^
          # ... continue hacking ...

     You can use git stash to simplify the above, like this:

          # ... hack hack hack ...
          $ git stash
          $ edit emergency fix
          $ git commit −a −m "Fix in a hurry"
          $ git stash pop
          # ... continue hacking ...


     Testing partial commits
     You can use git stash push −−keep−index when you want
     to make two or more commits out of the changes in the
     work tree, and you want to test each change before
     committing:

          # ... hack hack hack ...
          $ git add −−patch foo            # add just first part to the index
          $ git stash push −−keep−index    # save all other changes to the stash
          $ edit/build/test first part
          $ git commit −m 'First part'     # commit fully tested change
          $ git stash pop                  # prepare to work on all other changes









                             ‐7‐


          # ... repeat above five steps until one commit remains ...
          $ edit/build/test remaining parts
          $ git commit foo −m 'Remaining parts'


     Recovering stash entries that were cleared/dropped
erroneously
     If you mistakenly drop or clear stash entries, they
     cannot be recovered through the normal safety
     mechanisms. However, you can try the following
     incantation to get a list of stash entries that are
     still in your repository, but not reachable any more:

          git fsck −−unreachable |
          grep commit | cut −d\  −f3 |
          xargs git log −−merges −−no−walk −−grep=WIP




git‐checkout(1), git‐commit(1), git‐reflog(1), git‐reset(1),
git‐switch(1)



Part of the git(1) suite