gitcredentials

GITCREDENTIALS(7)                  Git Manual                  GITCREDENTIALS(7)



NAME
       gitcredentials - Providing usernames and passwords to Git

SYNOPSIS
       git config credential.https://example.com.username myusername
       git config credential.helper "$helper $options"


DESCRIPTION
       Git will sometimes need credentials from the user in order to perform
       operations; for example, it may need to ask for a username and password
       in order to access a remote repository over HTTP. This manual describes
       the mechanisms Git uses to request these credentials, as well as some
       features to avoid inputting these credentials repeatedly.

REQUESTING CREDENTIALS
       Without any credential helpers defined, Git will try the following
       strategies to ask the user for usernames and passwords:

        1. If the GIT_ASKPASS environment variable is set, the program specified
           by the variable is invoked. A suitable prompt is provided to the
           program on the command line, and the user’s input is read from its
           standard output.

        2. Otherwise, if the core.askPass configuration variable is set, its
           value is used as above.

        3. Otherwise, if the SSH_ASKPASS environment variable is set, its value
           is used as above.

        4. Otherwise, the user is prompted on the terminal.

AVOIDING REPETITION
       It can be cumbersome to input the same credentials over and over. Git
       provides two methods to reduce this annoyance:

        1. Static configuration of usernames for a given authentication context.

        2. Credential helpers to cache or store passwords, or to interact with a
           system password wallet or keychain.

       The first is simple and appropriate if you do not have secure storage
       available for a password. It is generally configured by adding this to
       your config:

           [credential "https://example.com"]
                   username = me


       Credential helpers, on the other hand, are external programs from which
       Git can request both usernames and passwords; they typically interface
       with secure storage provided by the OS or other programs.

       To use a helper, you must first select one to use. Git currently includes
       the following helpers:

       cache
           Cache credentials in memory for a short period of time. See git-
           credential-cache(1) for details.

       store
           Store credentials indefinitely on disk. See git-credential-store(1)
           for details.

       You may also have third-party helpers installed; search for credential-*
       in the output of git help -a, and consult the documentation of individual
       helpers. Once you have selected a helper, you can tell Git to use it by
       putting its name into the credential.helper variable.

        1. Find a helper.

               $ git help -a | grep credential-
               credential-foo


        2. Read its description.

               $ git help credential-foo


        3. Tell Git to use it.

               $ git config --global credential.helper foo


CREDENTIAL CONTEXTS
       Git considers each credential to have a context defined by a URL. This
       context is used to look up context-specific configuration, and is passed
       to any helpers, which may use it as an index into secure storage.

       For instance, imagine we are accessing https://example.com/foo.git. When
       Git looks into a config file to see if a section matches this context, it
       will consider the two a match if the context is a more-specific subset of
       the pattern in the config file. For example, if you have this in your
       config file:

           [credential "https://example.com"]
                   username = foo


       then we will match: both protocols are the same, both hosts are the same,
       and the "pattern" URL does not care about the path component at all.
       However, this context would not match:

           [credential "https://kernel.org"]
                   username = foo


       because the hostnames differ. Nor would it match foo.example.com; Git
       compares hostnames exactly, without considering whether two hosts are
       part of the same domain. Likewise, a config entry for http://example.com
       would not match: Git compares the protocols exactly. However, you may use
       wildcards in the domain name and other pattern matching techniques as
       with the http.<url>.* options.

       If the "pattern" URL does include a path component, then this too must
       match exactly: the context https://example.com/bar/baz.git will match a
       config entry for https://example.com/bar/baz.git (in addition to matching
       the config entry for https://example.com) but will not match a config
       entry for https://example.com/bar.

CONFIGURATION OPTIONS
       Options for a credential context can be configured either in credential.*
       (which applies to all credentials), or credential.<url>.*, where <url>
       matches the context as described above.

       The following options are available in either location:

       helper
           The name of an external credential helper, and any associated
           options. If the helper name is not an absolute path, then the string
           git credential- is prepended. The resulting string is executed by the
           shell (so, for example, setting this to foo --option=bar will execute
           git credential-foo --option=bar via the shell. See the manual of
           specific helpers for examples of their use.

           If there are multiple instances of the credential.helper
           configuration variable, each helper will be tried in turn, and may
           provide a username, password, or nothing. Once Git has acquired both
           a username and a password, no more helpers will be tried.

           If credential.helper is configured to the empty string, this resets
           the helper list to empty (so you may override a helper set by a
           lower-priority config file by configuring the empty-string helper,
           followed by whatever set of helpers you would like).

       username
           A default username, if one is not provided in the URL.

       useHttpPath
           By default, Git does not consider the "path" component of an http URL
           to be worth matching via external helpers. This means that a
           credential stored for https://example.com/foo.git will also be used
           for https://example.com/bar.git. If you do want to distinguish these
           cases, set this option to true.

CUSTOM HELPERS
       You can write your own custom helpers to interface with any system in
       which you keep credentials.

       Credential helpers are programs executed by Git to fetch or save
       credentials from and to long-term storage (where "long-term" is simply
       longer than a single Git process; e.g., credentials may be stored
       in-memory for a few minutes, or indefinitely on disk).

       Each helper is specified by a single string in the configuration variable
       credential.helper (and others, see git-config(1)). The string is
       transformed by Git into a command to be executed using these rules:

        1. If the helper string begins with "!", it is considered a shell
           snippet, and everything after the "!" becomes the command.

        2. Otherwise, if the helper string begins with an absolute path, the
           verbatim helper string becomes the command.

        3. Otherwise, the string "git credential-" is prepended to the helper
           string, and the result becomes the command.

       The resulting command then has an "operation" argument appended to it
       (see below for details), and the result is executed by the shell.

       Here are some example specifications:

           # run "git credential-foo"
           [credential]
                   helper = foo

           # same as above, but pass an argument to the helper
           [credential]
                   helper = "foo --bar=baz"

           # the arguments are parsed by the shell, so use shell
           # quoting if necessary
           [credential]
                   helper = "foo --bar='whitespace arg'"

           # you can also use an absolute path, which will not use the git wrapper
           [credential]
                   helper = "/path/to/my/helper --with-arguments"

           # or you can specify your own shell snippet
           [credential "https://example.com"]
                   username = your_user
                   helper = "!f() { test \"$1\" = get && echo \"password=$(cat $HOME/.secret)\"; }; f"


       Generally speaking, rule (3) above is the simplest for users to specify.
       Authors of credential helpers should make an effort to assist their users
       by naming their program "git-credential-$NAME", and putting it in the
       $PATH or $GIT_EXEC_PATH during installation, which will allow a user to
       enable it with git config credential.helper $NAME.

       When a helper is executed, it will have one "operation" argument appended
       to its command line, which is one of:

       get
           Return a matching credential, if any exists.

       store
           Store the credential, if applicable to the helper.

       erase
           Remove a matching credential, if any, from the helper’s storage.

       The details of the credential will be provided on the helper’s stdin
       stream. The exact format is the same as the input/output format of the
       git credential plumbing command (see the section INPUT/OUTPUT FORMAT in
       git-credential(1) for a detailed specification).

       For a get operation, the helper should produce a list of attributes on
       stdout in the same format (see git-credential(1) for common attributes).
       A helper is free to produce a subset, or even no values at all if it has
       nothing useful to provide. Any provided attributes will overwrite those
       already known about by Git’s credential subsystem.

       While it is possible to override all attributes, well behaving helpers
       should refrain from doing so for any attribute other than username and
       password.

       If a helper outputs a quit attribute with a value of true or 1, no
       further helpers will be consulted, nor will the user be prompted (if no
       credential has been provided, the operation will then fail).

       Similarly, no more helpers will be consulted once both username and
       password had been provided.

       For a store or erase operation, the helper’s output is ignored.

       If a helper fails to perform the requested operation or needs to notify
       the user of a potential issue, it may write to stderr.

       If it does not support the requested operation (e.g., a read-only store),
       it should silently ignore the request.

       If a helper receives any other operation, it should silently ignore the
       request. This leaves room for future operations to be added (older
       helpers will just ignore the new requests).

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 2.30.0                         12/28/2020                  GITCREDENTIALS(7)