glob

glob(3tcl)                   Tcl Built-In Commands                  glob(3tcl)



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NAME
       glob - Return names of files that match patterns

SYNOPSIS
       glob ?switches? ?pattern ...?
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DESCRIPTION
       This command performs file name “globbing” in a fashion similar to the
       csh shell or bash shell.  It returns a list of the files whose names
       match any of the pattern arguments. No particular order is guaranteed
       in the list, so if a sorted list is required the caller should use
       lsort.

   OPTIONS
       If the initial arguments to glob start with - then they are treated as
       switches. The following switches are currently supported:

       -directory directory
              Search for files which match the given patterns starting in the
              given directory. This allows searching of directories whose name
              contains glob-sensitive characters without the need to quote
              such characters explicitly. This option may not be used in
              conjunction with -path, which is used to allow searching for
              complete file paths whose names may contain glob-sensitive
              characters.

       -join  The remaining pattern arguments, after option processing, are
              treated as a single pattern obtained by joining the arguments
              with directory separators.

       -nocomplain
              Allows an empty list to be returned without error; without this
              switch an error is returned if the result list would be empty.

       -path pathPrefix
              Search for files with the given pathPrefix where the rest of the
              name matches the given patterns. This allows searching for files
              with names similar to a given file (as opposed to a directory)
              even when the names contain glob-sensitive characters. This
              option may not be used in conjunction with -directory. For
              example, to find all files with the same root name as $path, but
              differing extensions, you should use “glob -path [file rootname
              $path] .*”  which will work even if $path contains numerous
              glob-sensitive characters.

       -tails Only return the part of each file found which follows the last
              directory named in any -directory or -path path specification.
              Thus “glob -tails -directory $dir *” is equivalent to “set pwd
              [pwd]; cd $dir; glob *; cd $pwd”.  For -path specifications, the
              returned names will include the last path segment, so “glob
              -tails -path [file rootname ~/foo.tex] .*”  will return paths
              like foo.aux foo.bib foo.tex etc.

       -types typeList
              Only list files or directories which match typeList, where the
              items in the list have two forms. The first form is like the
              -type option of the Unix find command: b (block special file), c
              (character special file), d (directory), f (plain file), l
              (symbolic link), p (named pipe), or s (socket), where multiple
              types may be specified in the list.  Glob will return all files
              which match at least one of the types given.  Note that symbolic
              links will be returned both if -types l is given, or if the
              target of a link matches the requested type. So, a link to a
              directory will be returned if -types d was specified.

              The second form specifies types where all the types given must
              match.  These are r, w, x as file permissions, and readonly,
              hidden as special permission cases. On the Macintosh, MacOS
              types and creators are also supported, where any item which is
              four characters long is assumed to be a MacOS type (e.g. TEXT).
              Items which are of the form {macintosh type XXXX} or {macintosh
              creator XXXX} will match types or creators respectively.
              Unrecognized types, or specifications of multiple MacOS
              types/creators will signal an error.

              The two forms may be mixed, so -types {d f r w} will find all
              regular files OR directories that have both read AND write
              permissions.  The following are equivalent:

                     glob -type d *
                     glob */

              except that the first case doesn't return the trailing “/” and
              is more platform independent.

       --     Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will
              be treated as a pattern even if it starts with a -.

   GLOBBING PATTERNS
       The pattern arguments may contain any of the following special
       characters, which are a superset of those supported by string match:

       ?         Matches any single character.

       *         Matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

       [chars]   Matches any single character in chars. If chars contains a
                 sequence of the form a-b then any character between a and b
                 (inclusive) will match.

       \x        Matches the character x.

       {a,b,...} Matches any of the sub-patterns a, b, etc.

       On Unix, as with csh, a “.” at the beginning of a file's name or just
       after a “/” must be matched explicitly or with a {} construct, unless
       the -types hidden flag is given (since “.” at the beginning of a file's
       name indicates that it is hidden). On other platforms, files beginning
       with a “.” are handled no differently to any others, except the special
       directories “.” and “..” which must be matched explicitly (this is to
       avoid a recursive pattern like “glob -join * * * *” from recursing up
       the directory hierarchy as well as down). In addition, all “/”
       characters must be matched explicitly.

       If the first character in a pattern is “~” then it refers to the home
       directory for the user whose name follows the “~”.  If the “~” is
       followed immediately by “/” then the value of the HOME environment
       variable is used.

       The glob command differs from csh globbing in two ways.  First, it does
       not sort its result list (use the lsort command if you want the list
       sorted).  Second, glob only returns the names of files that actually
       exist; in csh no check for existence is made unless a pattern contains
       a ?, *, or [] construct.

       When the glob command returns relative paths whose filenames start with
       a tilde “~” (for example through glob * or glob -tails, the returned
       list will not quote the tilde with “./”.  This means care must be taken
       if those names are later to be used with file join, to avoid them being
       interpreted as absolute paths pointing to a given user's home
       directory.

WINDOWS PORTABILITY ISSUES
       For Windows UNC names, the servername and sharename components of the
       path may not contain ?, *, or [] constructs. On Windows NT, if pattern
       is of the form “~username@domain”, it refers to the home directory of
       the user whose account information resides on the specified NT domain
       server. Otherwise, user account information is obtained from the local
       computer.

       Since the backslash character has a special meaning to the glob
       command, glob patterns containing Windows style path separators need
       special care. The pattern “C:\\foo\\*” is interpreted as “C:\foo\*”
       where “\f” will match the single character “f” and “\*” will match the
       single character “*” and will not be interpreted as a wildcard
       character. One solution to this problem is to use the Unix style
       forward slash as a path separator. Windows style paths can be converted
       to Unix style paths with the command “file join $path” or “file
       normalize $path”.

EXAMPLES
       Find all the Tcl files in the current directory:

              glob *.tcl

       Find all the Tcl files in the user's home directory, irrespective of
       what the current directory is:

              glob -directory ~ *.tcl

       Find all subdirectories of the current directory:

              glob -type d *

       Find all files whose name contains an “a”, a “b” or the sequence “cde”:

              glob -type f *{a,b,cde}*

SEE ALSO
       file(3tcl)

KEYWORDS
       exist, file, glob, pattern



Tcl                                   8.3                           glob(3tcl)