GLOB(3)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   GLOB(3)

       glob, globfree - find pathnames matching a pattern, free memory from

       #include <glob.h>

       int glob(const char *pattern, int flags,
                int (*errfunc) (const char *epath, int eerrno),
                glob_t *pglob);
       void globfree(glob_t *pglob);

       The glob() function searches for all the pathnames matching pattern
       according to the rules used by the shell (see glob(7)).  No tilde
       expansion or parameter substitution is done; if you want these, use

       The globfree() function frees the dynamically allocated storage from an
       earlier call to glob().

       The results of a glob() call are stored in the structure pointed to by
       pglob.  This structure is of type glob_t (declared in <glob.h>) and
       includes the following elements defined by POSIX.2 (more may be present
       as an extension):

           typedef struct {
               size_t   gl_pathc;    /* Count of paths matched so far  */
               char   **gl_pathv;    /* List of matched pathnames.  */
               size_t   gl_offs;     /* Slots to reserve in gl_pathv.  */
           } glob_t;

       Results are stored in dynamically allocated storage.

       The argument flags is made up of the bitwise OR of zero or more the
       following symbolic constants, which modify the behavior of glob():

              Return upon a read error (because a directory does not have read
              permission, for example).  By default, glob() attempts carry on
              despite errors, reading all of the directories that it can.

              Append a slash to each path which corresponds to a directory.

              Don't sort the returned pathnames.  The only reason to do this
              is to save processing time.  By default, the returned pathnames
              are sorted.

              Reserve pglob->gl_offs slots at the beginning of the list of
              strings in pglob->pathv.  The reserved slots contain null

              If no pattern matches, return the original pattern.  By default,
              glob() returns GLOB_NOMATCH if there are no matches.

              Append the results of this call to the vector of results
              returned by a previous call to glob().  Do not set this flag on
              the first invocation of glob().

              Don't allow backslash ('\') to be used as an escape character.
              Normally, a backslash can be used to quote the following
              character, providing a mechanism to turn off the special meaning

       flags may also include any of the following, which are GNU extensions
       and not defined by POSIX.2:

              Allow a leading period to be matched by metacharacters.  By
              default, metacharacters can't match a leading period.

              Use alternative functions pglob->gl_closedir, pglob->gl_readdir,
              pglob->gl_opendir, pglob->gl_lstat, and pglob->gl_stat for
              filesystem access instead of the normal library functions.

              Expand csh(1) style brace expressions of the form {a,b}.  Brace
              expressions can be nested.  Thus, for example, specifying the
              pattern "{foo/{,cat,dog},bar}" would return the same results as
              four separate glob() calls using the strings: "foo/", "foo/cat",
              "foo/dog", and "bar".

              If the pattern contains no metacharacters, then it should be
              returned as the sole matching word, even if there is no file
              with that name.

              Carry out tilde expansion.  If a tilde ('~') is the only
              character in the pattern, or an initial tilde is followed
              immediately by a slash ('/'), then the home directory of the
              caller is substituted for the tilde.  If an initial tilde is
              followed by a username (e.g., "~andrea/bin"), then the tilde and
              username are substituted by the home directory of that user.  If
              the username is invalid, or the home directory cannot be
              determined, then no substitution is performed.

              This provides behavior similar to that of GLOB_TILDE.  The
              difference is that if the username is invalid, or the home
              directory cannot be determined, then instead of using the
              pattern itself as the name, glob() returns GLOB_NOMATCH to
              indicate an error.

              This is a hint to glob() that the caller is interested only in
              directories that match the pattern.  If the implementation can
              easily determine file-type information, then nondirectory files
              are not returned to the caller.  However, the caller must still
              check that returned files are directories.  (The purpose of this
              flag is merely to optimize performance when the caller is
              interested only in directories.)

       If errfunc is not NULL, it will be called in case of an error with the
       arguments epath, a pointer to the path which failed, and eerrno, the
       value of errno as returned from one of the calls to opendir(3),
       readdir(3), or stat(2).  If errfunc returns nonzero, or if GLOB_ERR is
       set, glob() will terminate after the call to errfunc.

       Upon successful return, pglob->gl_pathc contains the number of matched
       pathnames and pglob->gl_pathv contains a pointer to the list of
       pointers to matched pathnames.  The list of pointers is terminated by a
       null pointer.

       It is possible to call glob() several times.  In that case, the
       GLOB_APPEND flag has to be set in flags on the second and later

       As a GNU extension, pglob->gl_flags is set to the flags specified, ored
       with GLOB_MAGCHAR if any metacharacters were found.

       On successful completion, glob() returns zero.  Other possible returns

              for running out of memory,

              for a read error, and

              for no found matches.

       For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see

       │Interface  Attribute     Value                    │
       │glob()     │ Thread safety │ MT-Unsafe race:utent env │
       │           │               │ sig:ALRM timer locale    │
       │globfree() │ Thread safety │ MT-Safe                  │
       In the above table, utent in race:utent signifies that if any of the
       functions setutent(3), getutent(3), or endutent(3) are used in parallel
       in different threads of a program, then data races could occur.  glob()
       calls those functions, so we use race:utent to remind users.

       POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, POSIX.2.

       The structure elements gl_pathc and gl_offs are declared as size_t in
       glibc 2.1, as they should be according to POSIX.2, but are declared as
       int in glibc 2.0.

       The glob() function may fail due to failure of underlying function
       calls, such as malloc(3) or opendir(3).  These will store their error
       code in errno.

       One example of use is the following code, which simulates typing

           ls -l *.c ../*.c

       in the shell:

           glob_t globbuf;

           globbuf.gl_offs = 2;
           glob("*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS, NULL, &globbuf);
           glob("../*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS | GLOB_APPEND, NULL, &globbuf);
           globbuf.gl_pathv[0] = "ls";
           globbuf.gl_pathv[1] = "-l";
           execvp("ls", &globbuf.gl_pathv[0]);

       ls(1), sh(1), stat(2), exec(3), fnmatch(3), malloc(3), opendir(3),
       readdir(3), wordexp(3), glob(7)

       This page is part of release 5.04 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

GNU                               2019-03-06                           GLOB(3)