gm

gm(1)                        General Commands Manual                       gm(1)



       NAME

              gm - command-line utility to create, edit, compare, convert, or
              display images


SYNOPSIS
       gm animate [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ]

       gm batch [ options ... ] [ script ]

       gm benchmark [ options ... ] subcommand

       gm compare [ options ... ] reference-image [ options ... ] compare-image
       [ options ... ]

       gm composite [ options ... ] change-image base-image [ mask-image ]
       output-image

       gm conjure [ options ] script.msl [ [ options ] script.msl ]

       gm convert [ [ options ... ] [ input-file ...  ] [ options ... ] ]
       output-file

       gm display [ options ... ] file ...  [ [options ... ]file ... ]

       gm identify file [ file ... ]

       gm import [ options ... ] file

       gm mogrify [ options ... ] file ...

       gm montage [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ] output-file

       gm time subcommand

       gm version

DESCRIPTION
       GraphicsMagick's gm provides a suite of utilities for creating,
       comparing, converting, editing, and displaying images.  All of the
       utilities are provided as sub-commands of a single gm executable.  The gm
       executable returns the exit code 0 to indicate success, or 1 to indicate
       failure:

       animate displays an animation (e.g. a GIF file) on any workstation
       display running an X server.

       batch executes an arbitary number of the utility commands (e.g. convert)
       in the form of a simple linear batch script in order to improve execution
       efficiency, and/or to allow use as a subordinate co-process under the
       control of an arbitrary script or program.

       benchmark executes one of the other utility commands (e.g. convert) for a
       specified number of iterations, or execution time, and reports execution
       time and other profiling information such as CPU utilization. Benchmark
       provides various operating modes including executing the command with a
       varying number of threads, and alternate reporting formats such as comma-
       separated value (CSV).

       compare compares two images and reports difference statistics according
       to specified metrics and/or outputs an image with a visual representation
       of the differences.  It may also be used to test if images are similar
       within a particular range and specified metric, returning a truth value
       to the executing environment.

       composite composites images (blends or merges images together) to create
       new images.

       conjure interprets and executes scripts in the Magick Scripting Language
       (MSL).

       convert converts an input file using one image format to an output file
       with the same or differing image format while applying an arbitrary
       number of image transformations.

       display is a machine architecture independent image processing and
       display facility. It can display an image on any workstation display
       running an X server.

       identify describes the format and characteristics of one or more image
       files. It will also report if an image is incomplete or corrupt.

       import reads an image from any visible window on an X server and outputs
       it as an image file. You can capture a single window, the entire screen,
       or any rectangular portion of the screen.

       mogrify transforms an image or a sequence of images. These transforms
       include image scaling, image rotation, color reduction, and others. The
       transmogrified image overwrites the original image.

       montage creates a composite by combining several separate images. The
       images are tiled on the composite image with the name of the image
       optionally appearing just below the individual tile.

       time executes a subcommand and reports the user, system, and total
       execution time consumed.

       version reports the GraphicsMagick release version, maximum sample-depth,
       copyright notice, supported features, and the options used while building
       the software.

       The GraphicsMagick utilities recognize the following image formats:


       Name  Mode Description
        o  3FR       r-- Hasselblad Photo RAW
        o  8BIM      rw- Photoshop resource format
        o  8BIMTEXT  rw- Photoshop resource text format
        o  8BIMWTEXT rw- Photoshop resource wide text format
        o  APP1      rw- Raw application information
        o  APP1JPEG  rw- Raw JPEG binary data
        o  ART       r-- PF1: 1st Publisher
        o  ARW       r-- Sony Alpha DSLR RAW
        o  AVS       rw+ AVS X image
        o  BIE       rw- Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                         interchange format
        o  BMP       rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
        o  BMP2      -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v2
        o  BMP3      -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v3
        o  CACHE     --- Magick Persistent Cache image format
        o  CALS      rw- Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle
                         Support Type 1 image
        o  CAPTION   r-- Caption (requires separate size info)
        o  CIN       rw- Kodak Cineon Format
        o  CMYK      rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black
                         samples (8 or 16 bits, depending on
                         the image depth)
        o  CMYKA     rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and
                         matte samples (8 or 16 bits, depending
                         on the image depth)
        o  CR2       r-- Canon Photo RAW
        o  CRW       r-- Canon Photo RAW
        o  CUR       r-- Microsoft Cursor Icon
        o  CUT       r-- DR Halo
        o  DCM       r-- Digital Imaging and Communications in
                         Medicine image
        o  DCR       r-- Kodak Photo RAW
        o  DCX       rw+ ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush
        o  DNG       r-- Adobe Digital Negative
        o  DPS       r-- Display PostScript Interpreter
        o  DPX       rw- Digital Moving Picture Exchange
        o  EPDF      rw- Encapsulated Portable Document Format
        o  EPI       rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
                         Interchange format
        o  EPS       rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPS2      -w- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPS3      -w- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPSF      rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPSI      rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
                         Interchange format
        o  EPT       rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with MS-DOS
                         TIFF preview
        o  EPT2      rw- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
                         with MS-DOS TIFF preview
        o  EPT3      rw- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
                         with MS-DOS TIFF preview
        o  EXIF      rw- Exif digital camera binary data
        o  FAX       rw+ Group 3 FAX (Not TIFF Group3 FAX!)
        o  FITS      rw- Flexible Image Transport System
        o  FRACTAL   r-- Plasma fractal image
        o  FPX       rw- FlashPix Format
        o  GIF       rw+ CompuServe graphics interchange format
        o  GIF87     rw- CompuServe graphics interchange format
                         (version 87a)
        o  GRADIENT  r-- Gradual passing from one shade to
                         another
        o  GRAY      rw+ Raw gray samples (8/16/32 bits,
                         depending on the image depth)
        o  HISTOGRAM -w- Histogram of the image
        o  HRZ       r-- HRZ: Slow scan TV
        o  HTML      -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
                         client-side image map
        o  ICB       rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  ICC       rw- ICC Color Profile
        o  ICM       rw- ICC Color Profile
        o  ICO       r-- Microsoft icon
        o  ICON      r-- Microsoft icon
        o  IDENTITY  r-- Hald CLUT identity image
        o  IMAGE     r-- GraphicsMagick Embedded Image
        o  INFO      -w+ Image descriptive information and
                          statistics
        o  IPTC      rw- IPTC Newsphoto
        o  IPTCTEXT  rw- IPTC Newsphoto text format
        o  IPTCWTEXT rw- IPTC Newsphoto wide text format
        o  JBG       rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                         interchange format
        o  JBIG      rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                         interchange format
        o  JNG       rw- JPEG Network Graphics
        o  JP2       rw- JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format Syntax
        o  JPC       rw- JPEG-2000 Code Stream Syntax
        o  JPEG      rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
                         JFIF format
        o  JPG       rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
                         JFIF format
        o  K25       r-- Kodak Photo RAW
        o  KDC       r-- Kodak Photo RAW
        o  LABEL     r-- Text image format
        o  M2V       rw+ MPEG-2 Video Stream
        o  MAP       rw- Colormap intensities and indices
        o  MAT       r-- MATLAB image format
        o  MATTE     -w+ MATTE format
        o  MIFF      rw+ Magick Image File Format
        o  MNG       rw+ Multiple-image Network Graphics
        o  MONO      rw- Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-
                         -byte-first order
        o  MPC       rw+ Magick Persistent Cache image format
        o  MPEG      rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
        o  MPG       rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
        o  MRW       r-- Minolta Photo Raw
        o  MSL       r-- Magick Scripting Language
        o  MTV       rw+ MTV Raytracing image format
        o  MVG       rw- Magick Vector Graphics
        o  NEF       r-- Nikon Electronic Format
        o  NULL      r-- Constant image of uniform color
        o  OTB       rw- On-the-air bitmap
        o  P7        rw+ Xv thumbnail format
        o  PAL       rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
        o  PALM      rw- Palm Pixmap
        o  PBM       rw+ Portable bitmap format (black and white)
        o  PCD       rw- Photo CD
        o  PCDS      rw- Photo CD
        o  PCL       -w- Page Control Language
        o  PCT       rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
        o  PCX       rw- ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush
        o  PDB       rw+ Palm Database ImageViewer Format
        o  PDF       rw+ Portable Document Format
        o  PEF       r-- Pentax Electronic File
        o  PFA       r-- TrueType font
        o  PFB       r-- TrueType font
        o  PGM       rw+ Portable graymap format (gray scale)
        o  PGX       r-- JPEG-2000 VM Format
        o  PICON     rw- Personal Icon
        o  PICT      rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
        o  PIX       r-- Alias/Wavefront RLE image format
        o  PLASMA    r-- Plasma fractal image
        o  PNG       rw- Portable Network Graphics
        o  PNG24     rw- Portable Network Graphics, 24 bit RGB
                         opaque only
        o  PNG32     rw- Portable Network Graphics, 32 bit RGBA
                         semitransparency OK
        o  PNG8      rw- Portable Network Graphics, 8-bit
                         indexed, binary transparency only
        o  PNM       rw+ Portable anymap
        o  PPM       rw+ Portable pixmap format (color)
        o  PREVIEW   -w- Show a preview an image enhancement,
                         effect, or f/x
        o  PS        rw+ Adobe PostScript
        o  PS2       -w+ Adobe Level II PostScript
        o  PS3       -w+ Adobe Level III PostScript
        o  PSD       rw- Adobe Photoshop bitmap
        o  PTIF      rw- Pyramid encoded TIFF
        o  PWP       r-- Seattle Film Works
        o  RAF       r-- Fuji Photo RAW
        o  RAS       rw+ SUN Rasterfile
        o  RGB       rw+ Raw red, green, and blue samples
        o  RGBA      rw+ Raw red, green, blue, and matte samples
        o  RLA       r-- Alias/Wavefront image
        o  RLE       r-- Utah Run length encoded image
        o  SCT       r-- Scitex HandShake
        o  SFW       r-- Seattle Film Works
        o  SGI       rw+ Irix RGB image
        o  SHTML     -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
                         client-side image map
        o  STEGANO   r-- Steganographic image
        o  SUN       rw+ SUN Rasterfile
        o  SVG       rw+ Scalable Vector Gaphics
        o  TEXT      rw+ Raw text
        o  TGA       rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  TIFF      rw+ Tagged Image File Format
        o  TILE      r-- Tile image with a texture
        o  TIM       r-- PSX TIM
        o  TOPOL     r-- TOPOL X Image
        o  TTF       r-- TrueType font
        o  TXT       rw+ Raw text
        o  UIL       -w- X-Motif UIL table
        o  UYVY      rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
        o  VDA       rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  VICAR     rw- VICAR rasterfile format
        o  VID       rw+ Visual Image Directory
        o  VIFF      rw+ Khoros Visualization image
        o  VST       rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  WBMP      rw- Wireless Bitmap (level 0) image
        o  WMF       r-- Windows Metafile
        o  WPG       r-- Word Perfect Graphics
        o  X         rw- X Image
        o  X3F       r-- Foveon X3 (Sigma/Polaroid) RAW
        o  XBM       rw- X Windows system bitmap (black
                         and white)
        o  XC        r-- Constant image uniform color
        o  XCF       r-- GIMP image
        o  XMP       rw- Adobe XML metadata
        o  XPM       rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
        o  XV        rw+ Khoros Visualization image
        o  XWD       rw- X Windows system window dump (color)
        o  YUV       rw- CCIR 601 4:1:1 or 4:2:2 (8-bit only)

           Modes:
                     r   Read
                     w   Write
                     +   Multi-image


       Support for some of these formats require additional programs or
       libraries.  See README in the source package for where to find optional
       additional software.

       Note, a format delineated with + means that if more than one image is
       specified, frames are combined into a single multi-image file. Use
       +adjoin if you want a single image produced for each frame.

       Your installation might not support all of the formats in the list.  To
       get an accurate listing of the formats supported by your particular
       configuration, run "gm convert -list format".

       Raw images are expected to have one byte per pixel unless gm is compiled
       in 16-bit quantum mode or in 32-bit quantum mode. Here, the raw data is
       expected to be stored two or four bytes per pixel, respectively, in most-
       significant-byte-first order.  For example, you can tell if gm was
       compiled in 16-bit mode by typing "gm version" without any options, and
       looking for "Q:16" in the first line of output.

FILES AND FORMATS
       By default, the image format is determined by its magic number, i.e., the
       first few bytes of the file. To specify a particular image format,
       precede the filename with an image format name and a colon (i.e.ps:image)
       or specify the image type as the filename suffix (i.e.image.ps).  The
       magic number takes precedence over the filename suffix and the prefix
       takes precedence over the magic number and the suffix in input files.
       When a file is read, its magic number is stored in the "image->magick"
       string.  In output files, the prefix takes precedence over the filename
       suffix, and the filename suffix takes precedence over the "image->magick"
       string.

       To read the "built-in" formats (GRANITE, H, LOGO, NETSCAPE, PLASMA, and
       ROSE) use a prefix (including the colon) without a filename or suffix.
       To read the XC format, follow the colon with a color specification.  To
       read the CAPTION format, follow the colon with a text string or with a
       filename prefixed with the at symbol (@).


       When you specify X as your image type, the filename has special meaning.
       It specifies an X window by id, name, or root. If no filename is
       specified, the window is selected by clicking the mouse in the desired
       window.

       Specify input_file as - for standard input, output_file as - for standard
       output.  If input_file has the extension .Z or .gz, the file is
       uncompressed with uncompress or gunzip respectively.  If output_file has
       the extension .Z or .gz, the file is compressed using with compress or
       gzip respectively.

       Use an optional index enclosed in brackets after an input file name to
       specify a desired subimage of a multi-resolution image format like Photo
       CD (e.g. "img0001.pcd[4]") or a range for MPEG images (e.g.
       "video.mpg[50-75]"). A subimage specification can be disjoint (e.g.
       "image.tiff[2,7,4]"). For raw images, specify a subimage with a geometry
       (e.g. -size 640x512 "image.rgb[320x256+50+50]").  Surround the image name
       with quotation marks to prevent your shell from interpreting the square
       brackets. Single images are written with the filename you specify.
       However, multi-part images (e.g., a multi-page PostScript document with
       +adjoin specified) may be written with the scene number included as part
       of the filename. In order to include the scene number in the filename, it
       is necessary to include a printf-style %d format specification in the
       file name and use the +adjoin option. For example,

           image%02d.miff


       writes files image00.miff, image01.miff, etc. Only a single specification
       is allowed within an output filename. If more than one specification is
       present, it will be ignored. It is best to embed the scene number in the
       base part of the file name, not in the extension, because the extension
       will not be a recognizeable image type.

       When running a commandline utility, you can prepend an at sign @ to a
       filename to read a list of image filenames from that file. This is
       convenient in the event you have too many image filenames to fit on the
       command line.

OPTIONS
       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
       until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop.
       Some options only affect the decoding of images and others only the
       encoding.  The latter can appear after the final group of input images.

       This is a combined list of the command-line options used by the
       GraphicsMagick utilities (animate, compare, composite, convert, display,
       identify, import, mogrify and montage).


       In this document, angle brackets ("<>") enclose variables and curly
       brackets ("{}") enclose optional parameters. For example, "-fuzz
       <distance>{%}" means you can use the option "-fuzz 10" or "-fuzz 2%".


       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

              By default, all images of an image sequence are stored in the same
              file. However, some formats (e.g. JPEG) do not support storing
              more than one image per file and only the first frame in an image
              sequence will be saved unless the result is saved to separate
              files. Use +adjoin to force saving multiple frames to multiple
              numbered files. If +adjoin is used, then the output filename must
              include a printf style formatting specification for the numeric
              part of the filename.  For example,

                  image%02d.miff


       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

              This option provides a transform matrix {sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty} for
              use by subsequent -draw or -transform options.

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

              By default antialiasing algorithms are used when drawing objects
              (e.g. lines) or rendering vector formats (e.g. WMF and
              Postscript). Use +antialias to disable use of antialiasing
              algorithms. Reasons to disable antialiasing include avoiding
              increasing colors in the image, or improving rendering speed.

       -append
              append a set of images

              This option creates a single image where the images in the
              original set are stacked top-to-bottom.  If they are not of the
              same width, any narrow images will be expanded to fit using the
              background color.  Use +append to stack images left-to-right.  The
              set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.  If
              the -append option appears after all of the input images, all
              images are appended.

        -asc-cdl <spec>
              apply ASC CDL color transform

              Applies ("bakes in") the ASC CDL, which is a format for the
              exchange of basic primary color grading information between
              equipment and software from different manufacturers. The format
              defines the math for three functions: slope, offset and power.
              Each function uses a number for the red, green, and blue color
              channels for a total of nine numbers comprising a single color
              decision. The tenth number (optional) is for chromiance
              (saturation) as specified by ASC CDL 1.2.

              The argument string is comma delimited and is in the following
              form (but without invervening spaces or line breaks)

                  redslope,redoffset,redpower:
                  greenslope,greenoffset,greenpower:
                  blueslope,blueoffset,bluepower:
                  saturation


              with the unity (no change) specification being:

                  "1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0"


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

              Use this option to supply a password for decrypting an image or an
              image sequence, if it is being read from a format such as PDF that
              supports encryption.  Encrypting images being written is not
              supported.

       -auto-orient
              orient (rotate) image so it is upright

              Adjusts the image orienation so that it is suitable for viewing.
              Uses the orientation tag obtained from the image file or as
              supplied by the -orient option.

       -average
              average a set of images

              The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.
              If the -average option appears after all of the input images, all
              images are averaged.

       -backdrop
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

              This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is useful
              for hiding other X window activity while viewing the image. The
              color of the backdrop is specified as the foreground color (X11
              default is black).  Refer to "X Resources", below, for details.

       -background <color>
              the background color

              The color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.

       -black-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels below the threshold become black

              Use -black-threshold to set pixels with values below the specified
              threshold to minimum value (black). If only one value is supplied,
              or the red, green, and blue values are identical, then intensity
              thresholding is used. If the color threshold values are not
              identical then channel-based thresholding is used, and color
              distortion will occur. Specify a negative value (e.g. -1) if you
              want a channel to be ignored but you do want to threshold a
              channel later in the list. If a percent (%) symbol is appended,
              then the values are treated as a percentage of maximum range.

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

              Blur with the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

              The color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -box <color>
              set the color of the annotation bounding box

              The color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.

              See -draw for further details.

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

              Choose from: Red, Green, Blue, Opacity, Matte, Cyan, Magenta,
              Yellow, Black, or Gray.

              Use this option to extract a particular channel from the image.
              Opacity, for example, is useful for extracting the opacity values
              from an image.

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

              Width and height give the number of columns and rows to remove,
              and x and y are offsets that give the location of the leftmost
              column and topmost row to remove.

              The x offset normally specifies the leftmost column to remove.  If
              the -gravity option is present with NorthEast, East, or SouthEast
              gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge of the
              image to the rightmost column to remove.  Similarly, the y offset
              normally specifies the topmost row to remove, but if the -gravity
              option is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast gravity, it
              specifies the distance upward from the bottom edge of the image to
              the bottom row to remove.

              The -chop option removes entire rows and columns, and moves the
              remaining corner blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps.

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

              If a clipping path is present, it will be applied to subsequent
              operations.

              For example, if you type the following command:

                  gm convert -clip -negate cockatoo.tif negated.tif


              only the pixels within the clipping path are negated.

              The -clip feature requires the XML library.  If the XML library is
              not present, the option is ignored.

       -coalesce
              merge a sequence of images

              Each image N in the sequence after Image 0 is replaced with the
              image created by flattening images 0 through N.

              The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.
              If the -coalesce option appears after all of the input images, all
              images are coalesced.

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

              Specify the amount of colorization as a percentage. You can apply
              separate colorization values to the red, green, and blue channels
              of the image with a colorization value list delimited with slashes
              (e.g. 0/0/50).

              The -colorize option may be used in conjunction with -modulate to
              produce a nice sepia toned image like:

                  gm convert input.ppm -modulate 115,0,100 \
                            -colorize 7,21,50 output.ppm.


       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

              Choose between shared or private.

              This option only applies when the default X server visual is
              PseudoColor or GRAYScale. Refer to -visual for more details. By
              default, a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares colors
              with other X clients.  Some image colors could be approximated,
              therefore your image may look very different than intended. Choose
              Private and the image colors appear exactly as they are defined.
              However, other clients may go technicolor when the image colormap
              is installed.

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

              The actual number of colors in the image may be less than your
              request, but never more. Note, this is a color reduction option.
              Images with less unique colors than specified with this option
              will have any duplicate or unused colors removed. The ordering of
              an existing color palette may be altered. When converting an image
              from color to grayscale, convert the image to the gray colorspace
              before reducing the number of colors since doing so is most
              efficient. Refer to <a href="quantize.html">quantize for more
              details.

              Note, options -dither, -colorspace, and -treedepth affect the
              color reduction algorithm.

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

              Choices are: CineonLog, CMYK, GRAY, HSL, HWB, OHTA, RGB,
              Rec601Luma, Rec709Luma, Rec601YCbCr, Rec709YCbCr, Transparent,
              XYZ, YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, or YUV.

              Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color space.
              Empirical evidence suggests that distances in color spaces such as
              YUV or YIQ correspond to perceptual color differences more closely
              than do distances in RGB space.  These color spaces may give
              better results when color reducing an image.  Refer to quantize
              for more details.  Two gray colorspaces are supported. The
              Rec601Luma space is based on the recommendations for legacy NTSC
              television (ITU-R BT.601-5).  The Rec709Luma space is based on the
              recommendations for HDTV (Rec. ITU-R BT.709-5) and is suitable for
              use with computer graphics, and for contemporary CRT displays. The
              GRAY colorspace currently selects the Rec601Luma colorspace by
              default for backwards compatibly reasons. This default may be re-
              considered in the future.

              Two YCbCr colorspaces are supported. The Rec601YCbCr space is
              based on the recommendations for legacy NTSC television (ITU-R
              BT.601-5). The Rec709CbCr space is based on the recommendations
              for HDTV (Rec.  ITU-R BT.709-5) and is suitable for suitable for
              use with computer graphics, and for contemporary CRT displays. The
              YCbCr colorspace specification is equivalent toRec601YCbCr.


              The Transparent color space behaves uniquely in that it preserves
              the matte channel of the image if it exists.

              The -colors or -monochrome option, or saving to a file format
              which requires color reduction, is required for this option to
              take effect.

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

              Use this option to assign a specific comment to the image, when
              writing to an image format that supports comments. You can include
              the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute
              by embedding special format characters listed under the -format
              option.  The comment is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in
              the image datastream via a "Comment" tag or similar mechanism.  If
              you want the comment to be visible on the image itself, use the
              -draw option instead.

              For example,

                   -comment "%m:%f %wx%h"


              produces an image comment of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @, the image comment is read
              from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.
              Please note that if the string comes from an untrusted source that
              it should be sanitized before use since otherwise the content of
              an arbitrary readable file could be incorporated in a comment in
              the output file (a security risk).

              If the -comment option appears multiple times, only the last
              comment is stored.

              In PNG images, the comment is stored in a tEXt or zTXt chunk with
              the keyword "comment".

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

              The description of composition uses abstract terminology in order
              to allow the the description to be more clear, while avoiding
              constant values which are specific to a particular build
              configuration. Each image pixel is represented by red, green, and
              blue levels (which are equal for a gray pixel). MaxRGB is the
              maximum integral value which may be stored in the red, green, or
              blue channels of the image. Each image pixel may also optionally
              (if the image matte channel is enabled) have an associated level
              of opacity (ranging from opaque to transparent), which may be used
              to determine the influence of the pixel color when compositing the
              pixel with another image pixel. If the image matte channel is
              disabled, then all pixels in the image are treated as opaque.  The
              color of an opaque pixel is fully visible while the color of a
              transparent pixel color is entirely absent (pixel color is
              ignored).

              By definition, raster images have a rectangular shape. All image
              rows are of equal length, and all image columns have the same
              number of rows. By treating the opacity channel as a visual "mask"
              the rectangular image may be given a "shape" by treating the
              opacity channel as a cookie-cutter for the image. Pixels within
              the shape are opaque, while pixels outside the shape are
              transparent. Pixels on the boundary of the shape may be between
              opaque and transparent in order to provide antialiasing (visually
              smooth edges). The description of the composition operators use
              this concept of image "shape" in order to make the description of
              the operators easier to understand. While it is convenient to
              describe the operators in terms of "shapes" they are by no means
              limited to mask-style operations since they are based on
              continuous floating-point mathematics rather than simple boolean
              operations.

              By default, the Over composite operator is used. The following
              composite operators are available:

                   Over
                   In
                   Out
                   Atop
                   Xor
                   Plus
                   Minus
                   Add
                   Subtract
                   Difference
                   Divide
                   Multiply
                   Bumpmap
                   Copy
                   CopyRed
                   CopyGreen
                   CopyBlue
                   CopyOpacity
                   CopyCyan
                   CopyMagenta
                   CopyYellow
                   CopyBlack


              The behavior of each operator is described below.


               Over

                    The result will be the union of the two image shapes, with
                    opaque areas of change-image obscuring base-image in the
                    region of overlap.

               In

                    The result is simply change-image cut by the shape of base-
                    image. None of the image data of base-image will be in the
                    result.

               Out

                    The resulting image is change-image with the shape of base-
                    image cut out.

               Atop

                    The result is the same shape as base-image, with change-
                    image obscuring base-image where the image shapes overlap.
                    Note this differs from over because the portion of change-
                    image outside base-image's shape does not appear in the
                    result.

               Xor

                    The result is the image data from both change-image and
                    base-image that is outside the overlap region. The overlap
                    region will be blank.

               Plus

                    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values
                    are cropped to MaxRGB (no overflow). This operation is
                    independent of the matte channels.

               Minus

                    The result of change-image - base-image, with underflow
                    cropped to zero. The matte channel is ignored (set to
                    opaque, full coverage).

               Add

                    The result of change-image + base-image, with overflow
                    wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1).

               Subtract

                    The result of change-image - base-image, with underflow
                    wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1). The add and subtract
                    operators can be used to perform reversible transformations.

               Difference

                    The result of abs(change-image - base-image). This is useful
                    for comparing two very similar images.

               Divide

                    The result of change-image / base-image. This is useful for
                    improving the readability of text on unevenly illuminated
                    photos (by using a gaussian blurred copy of change-image as
                    base-image).

               Multiply

                    The result of change-image * base-image. This is useful for
                    the creation of drop-shadows.

               Bumpmap

                    The result base-image shaded by change-image.

               Copy

                    The resulting image is base-image replaced with change-
                    image. Here the matte information is ignored.

               CopyRed

                    The resulting image is the red channel in base-image
                    replaced with the red channel in change-image. The other
                    channels are copied untouched.

               CopyGreen

                    The resulting image is the green channel in base-image
                    replaced with the green channel in change-image. The other
                    channels are copied untouched.

               CopyBlue

                    The resulting image is the blue channel in base-image
                    replaced with the blue channel in change-image. The other
                    channels are copied untouched.

               CopyOpacity

                    The resulting image is the opacity channel in base-image
                    replaced with the opacity channel in change-image. The other
                    channels are copied untouched.

               CopyCyan

                    The resulting image is the cyan channel in base-image
                    replaced with the cyan channel in change-image. The other
                    channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires
                    that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace.

               CopyMagenta

                    The resulting image is the magenta channel in base-image
                    replaced with the magenta channel in change-image. The other
                    channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires
                    that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace.

               CopyYellow

                    The resulting image is the yellow channel in base-image
                    replaced with the yellow channel in change-image. The other
                    channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires
                    that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace.

               CopyBlack

                    The resulting image is the black channel in base-image
                    replaced with the black channel in change-image. The other
                    channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires
                    that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace. If change-image is
                    not in CMYK space, then the change-image pixel intensities
                    are used.




       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

              Choices are: None, BZip, Fax, Group3, Group4, JPEG, Lossless, LZW,
              RLE, Zip, LZMA, JPEG2000, JPEG2000, JBIG, JBIG2, WebP, or ZSTD.


              Specify +compress to store the binary image in an uncompressed
              format.  The default is the compression type of the specified
              image file.

              "Lossless" refers to lossless JPEG, which is only available if the
              JPEG library has been patched to support it. Use of lossless JPEG
              is generally not recommended.

              Use the -quality option to set the compression level to be used by
              the JPEG, JPEG-2000, PNG, MIFF, MPEG, and TIFF encoders. Use the
              -sampling-factor option to set the sampling factor to be used by
              the DPX, JPEG, MPEG, and YUV encoders for downsampling the chroma
              channels.

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

              This option enhances the intensity differences between the lighter
              and darker elements of the image. Use -contrast to enhance the
              image or +contrast to reduce the image contrast.


              For a more pronounced effect you can repeat the option:

                  gm convert rose: -contrast -contrast rose_c2.png


       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution kernel

              The kernel is specified as a comma-separated list of floating
              point values, ordered left-to right, starting with the top row.
              The order of the kernel is determined by the square root of the
              number of entries.  Presently only square kernels are supported.

       -create-directories
              create output directory if required

              Use this option with -output-directory if the input paths contain
              subdirectories and it is desired to create similar subdirectories
              in the output directory.  Without this option, mogrify will fail
              if the required output directory does not exist.

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.

              The width and height give the size of the image that remains after
              cropping, and x and y are offsets that give the location of the
              top left corner of the cropped image with respect to the original
              image.  To specify the amount to be removed, use -shave instead.

              If the x and y offsets are present, a single image is generated,
              consisting of the pixels from the cropping region.  The offsets
              specify the location of the upper left corner of the cropping
              region measured downward and rightward with respect to the upper
              left corner of the image.  If the -gravity option is present with
              NorthEast, East, or SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance
              leftward from the right edge of the image to the right edge of the
              cropping region.  Similarly, if the -gravity option is present
              with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast gravity, the distance is
              measured upward between the bottom edges.

              If the x and y offsets are omitted, a set of tiles of the
              specified geometry, covering the entire input image, is generated.
              The rightmost tiles and the bottom tiles are smaller if the
              specified geometry extends beyond the dimensions of the input
              image.

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

              Amount defines the number of positions each colormap entry
              isshifted.


       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

              The events parameter specifies which events are to be logged.  It
              can be either None, All, or a comma-separated list consisting of
              one or more of the following domains: Annotate, Blob, Cache,
              Coder, Configure, Deprecate, Error, Exception, FatalError,
              Information, Locale, Option, Render, Resource, TemporaryFile,
              Transform, User.  Warning, or X11, For example, to log cache and
              blob events, use

                  gm convert -debug "Cache,Blob" rose: rose.png


              The "User" domain is normally empty, but developers can log "User"
              events in their private copy of GraphicsMagick.

              Use the -log option to specify the format for debugging output.

              Use +debug to turn off all logging.

              An alternative to using -debug is to use the MAGICK_DEBUG
              environment variable. The allowed values for the MAGICK_DEBUG
              environment variable are the same as for the -debug option.

       -deconstruct
              break down an image sequence into constituent parts

              This option compares each image with the next in a sequence and
              returns the maximum bounding region of any pixel differences it
              discovers.  This method can undo a coalesced sequence returned by
              the -coalesce option, and is useful for removing redundant
              information from a GIF or MNG animation.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any
              option.  If the -deconstruct option appears after all of the input
              images, all images are deconstructed.

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options This option creates one or more
              definitions for coders and decoders to use while reading and
              writing image data. Definitions may be passed to coders and
              decoders to control options that are specific to certain image
              formats. If value is missing for a definition, an empty-valued
              definition of a flag will be created with that name. This is used
              to control on/off options. Use +define <key>,... to remove
              definitions previously created. Use +define "*" to remove all
              existing definitions.

              The following definitions may be created:


               cineon:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog}

                    Use the cineon:colorspace option when reading a Cineon file
                    to specify the colorspace the Cineon file uses. This
                    overrides the colorspace type implied by the DPX header (if
                    any).

               dpx:bits-per-sample=<value>

                    If the dpx:bits-per-sample key is defined, GraphicsMagick
                    will write DPX images with the specified bits per sample,
                    overriding any existing depth value. If this option is not
                    specified, then the value is based on the existing image
                    depth value from the original image file. The DPX standard
                    supports bits per sample values of 1, 8, 10, 12, and 16.
                    Many DPX readers demand a sample size of 10 bits with type A
                    padding (see below).

               dpx:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog}

                    Use the dpx:colorspace option when reading a DPX file to
                    specify the colorspace the DPX file uses. This overrides the
                    colorspace type implied by the DPX header (if any).

               dpx:packing-method={packed|a|b|lsbpad|msbpad}

                    DPX samples are output within 32-bit words. They may be
                    tightly packed end-to-end within the words ("packed"),
                    padded with null bits to the right of the sample ("a" or
                    "lsbpad"), or padded with null bits to the left of the
                    sample ("b" or "msbpad"). This option only has an effect for
                    sample sizes of 10 or 12 bits. If samples are not packed,
                    the DPX standard recommends type A padding. Many DPX readers
                    demand a sample size of 10 bits with type A padding.

               dpx:pixel-endian={lsb|msb}

                    Allows the user to specify the endian order of the pixels
                    when reading or writing the DPX files. Sometimes this is
                    useful if the file is (or must be) written incorrectly so
                    that the file header and the pixels use different
                    endianness.

               dpx:swap-samples={true|false}

                    GraphicsMagick strives to adhere to the DPX standard but
                    certain aspects of the standard can be quite confusing. As a
                    result, some 10-bit DPX files have Red and Blue
                    interchanged, or Cb and Cr interchanged due to an different
                    interpretation of the standard, or getting the wires
                    crossed. The swap-samples option may be supplied when
                    reading or writing in order to read or write using the
                    necessary sample order.

               jp2:rate=<value>

                    Specify the compression factor to use while writing
                    JPEG-2000 files. The compression factor is the reciprocal of
                    the compression ratio. The valid range is 0.0 to 1.0, with
                    1.0 indicating lossless compression. If defined, this value
                    overrides the -quality setting. The default quality setting
                    of 75 results in a rate value of 0.06641.

               jpeg:block-smoothing={true|false}

                    Enables or disables block smoothing when reading a JPEG file
                    (default enabled).

               jpeg:dct-method=<value>

                    Selects the IJG JPEG library DCT implementation to use. The
                    encoding implementations vary in speed and encoding error.
                    The available choices for value are islow, ifast, float,
                    default and fastest. Note that fastest might not necessarily
                    be fastest on your CPU, depending on the choices made when
                    the JPEG library was built and how your CPU behaves.

               jpeg:fancy-upsampling={true|false}

                    Enables or disables fancy upsampling when reading a JPEG
                    file (default enabled).

               jpeg:max-scan-number=<value>

                    Specifies an integer value for the maximum number of
                    progressive scans allowed in a JPEG file.  The default
                    maximum is 100 scans.  This limit is imposed due to a
                    weakness in the JPEG standard which allows small JPEG files
                    to take many minutes or hours to be read.

               jpeg:max-warnings=<value>

                    Specifies an integer value for how many warnings are allowed
                    for any given error type before being promoted to a hard
                    error.  JPEG files producing excessive warnings indicate a
                    problem with the file.

               jpeg:optimize-coding={true|false}

                    Selects if huffman encoding should be used. Huffman encoding
                    is enabled by default, but may be disabled for very large
                    images since it encoding requires that the entire image be
                    buffered in memory. Huffman encoding produces smaller JPEG
                    files at the expense of added compression time and memory
                    consumption.

               jpeg:preserve-settings

                    If the jpeg:preserve-settings flag is defined, the JPEG
                    encoder will use the same "quality" and "sampling-factor"
                    settings that were found in the input file, if the input was
                    in JPEG format. These settings are also preserved if the
                    input is a JPEG file and the output is a JNG file.  If the
                    colorspace of the output file differs from that of the input
                    file, the quality setting is preserved but the sampling-
                    factors are not.

               pcl:fit-to-page

                    If the pcl:fit-to-page flag is defined, then the printer is
                    requested to scale the image to fit the page size (width
                    and/or height).
               mng:maximum-loops=<value>

                    mng:maximum-loops specifies the maximum number of loops
                    allowed to be specified by a MNG LOOP chunk. Without an
                    imposed limit, a MNG file could request up to 2147483647
                    loops, which could run for a very long time.  The current
                    default limit is 512 loops.

               pdf:use-cropbox={true|false}

                    If the pdf:use-cropbox flag is set to true, then Ghostscript
                    is requested to apply the PDF crop box.

               pdf:stop-on-error={true|false}

                    If the pdf:stop-on-error flag is set to true, then
                    Ghostscript is requested to stop processing the PDF when the
                    first error is encountered.  Otherwise it will attempt to
                    process all requested pages.

               ps:imagemask

                    If the ps:imagemask flag is defined, the PS3 and EPS3 coders
                    will create Postscript files that render bilevel images with
                    the Postscript imagemask operator instead of the image
                    operator.

               ptif:minimum-geometry=<geometry>

                    If the ptif:minimum-geometry key is defined, GraphicsMagick
                    will use it to determine the minimum frame size to output
                    when writing a pyramid TIFF file (a TIFF file containing a
                    succession of reduced versions of the first frame). The
                    default minimum geometry is 32x32.

               tiff:alpha={unspecified|associated|unassociated}

                    Specify the TIFF alpha channel type when reading or writing
                    TIFF files, overriding the normal value. The default alpha
                    channel type for new files is unspecified alpha. Existing
                    alpha settings are preserved when converting from one TIFF
                    file to another. When a TIFF file uses associated alpha, the
                    image pixels are pre-multiplied (i.e. altered) with the
                    alpha channel. Files with "associated" alpha appear as if
                    they were alpha composited on a black background when the
                    matte channel is disabled. If the unassociated alpha type is
                    selected, then the alpha channel is saved without altering
                    the pixels. Photoshop recognizes associated alpha as
                    transparency information, if the file is saved with
                    unassociated alpha, the alpha information is loaded as an
                    independent channel.  Note that for many years, ImageMagick
                    and GraphicsMagick marked TIFF files as using associated
                    alpha, without properly pre-multiplying the pixels.

               tiff:fill-order={msb2lsb|lsb2msb}

                    If the tiff:fill-order key is defined, GraphicsMagick will
                    use it to determine the bit fill order used while writing
                    TIFF files. The normal default is "msb2lsb", which matches
                    the native bit order of all modern CPUs. The only exception
                    to this is when Group3 or Group4 FAX compression is
                    requested since FAX machines send data in bit-reversed order
                    and therefore RFC 2301 recommends using reverse order.

               tiff:group-three-options=<value>

                    If the tiff:group-three-options key is defined,
                    GraphicsMagick will use it to set the group3 options tag
                    when writing group3-compressed TIFF.  Please see the TIFF
                    specification for the usage of this tag.  The default value
                    is 4.

               tiff:ignore-tags=<tags>

                    If the tiff:ignore-tags key is defined, then it is used as a
                    list of comma-delimited integer TIFF tag values to ignore
                    while reading the TIFF file.  This is useful in order to be
                    able to read files which which otherwise fail to read due to
                    problems with TIFF tags.  Note that some TIFF tags are
                    required in order to be able to read the image data at all.

               tiff:report-warnings={false|true}

                    If the tiff:report-warnings key is defined and set to true,
                    then TIFF warnings are reported as a warning exception
                    rather than as a coder log message.  Such warnings are
                    reported after the image has been read or written.  Most
                    TIFF warnings are benign but sometimes they may help deduce
                    problems with the TIFF file, or help detect that the TIFF
                    file requires a special application to read successfully due
                    to the use of proprietary or specialized extensions.

               tiff:sample-format={unsigned|ieeefp}

                    If the tiff:sample-format key is defined, GraphicsMagick
                    will use it to determine the sample format used while
                    writing TIFF files. The default is "unsigned". Specify
                    "ieeefp" in order to write floating-point TIFF files with
                    float (32-bit) or double (64-bit) values. Use the tiff:bits-
                    per-sample define to determine the type of floating-point
                    value to use.

               tiff:max-sample-value=<value>

                    If the tiff:max-sample-value key is defined, GraphicsMagick
                    will use the assigned value as the maximum floating point
                    value while reading or writing IEEE floating point TIFFs.
                    Otherwise the maximum value is 1.0 or the value obtained
                    from the file's SMaxSampleValue tag (if present). The
                    floating point data is currently not scanned in advance to
                    determine a best maximum sample value so if the range is not
                    1.0, or the SMaxSampleValue tag is not present, it may be
                    necessary to (intelligently) use this parameter to properly
                    read a file.

               tiff:min-sample-value=<value>

                    If the tiff:min-sample-value key is defined, GraphicsMagick
                    will use the assigned value as the minimum floating point
                    value while reading or writing IEEE floating point TIFFs.
                    Otherwise the minimum value is 0.0 or the value obtained
                    from the file's SMinSampleValue tag (if present).

               tiff:bits-per-sample=<value>

                    If the tiff:bits-per-sample key is defined, GraphicsMagick
                    will write images with the specified bits per sample,
                    overriding any existing depth value. Value may be any in the
                    range of 1 to 32, or 64 when the default ´unsigned' format
                    is written, or 16/32/24/64 if IEEEFP format is written.
                    Please note that the baseline TIFF 6.0 specification only
                    requires readers to handle certain powers of two, and the
                    values to be handled depend on the nature of the image (e.g.
                    colormapped, grayscale, RGB, CMYK).

               tiff:samples-per-pixel=<value>

                    If the tiff:samples-per-pixel key is defined to a value, the
                    TIFF coder will write TIFF images with the defined samples
                    per pixel, overriding any value stored in the image. This
                    option should not normally be used.

               tiff:rows-per-strip=<value>

                    Allows the user to specify the number of rows per TIFF
                    strip.  Rounded up to a multiple of 16 when using JPEG
                    compression. Ignored when using tiles.

               tiff:strip-per-page=true

                    Requests that the image is written in a single TIFF strip.
                    This is normally the default when group3 or group4
                    compression is requested within reasonable limits.
                    Requesting a single strip for large images may result in
                    failure due to resource consumption in the writer or reader.

               tiff:tile

                    Enable writing tiled TIFF (rather than stripped) using the
                    default tile size. Tiled TIFF organizes the image as an
                    array of smaller images (tiles) in order to enable random
                    access.

               tiff:tile-geometry=<width>x<height>

                    Specify the tile size to use while writing tiled TIFF. Width
                    and height should be a multiple of 16. If the value is not a
                    multiple of 16, then it will be rounded down. Enables tiled
                    TIFF if it has not already been enabled. GraphicsMagick does
                    not use tiled storage internally so tiles need to be
                    converted back and forth from the internal scanline-oriented
                    storage to tile-oriented storage. Testing with typical RGB
                    images shows that useful square tile size values range from
                    128x128 to 1024x1024. Large images which require using a
                    disk-based pixel cache benefit from large tile sizes while
                    images which fit in memory work well with smaller tile
                    sizes.

               tiff:tile-width=<width>

                    Specify the tile width to use while writing tiled TIFF. The
                    tile height is then defaulted to an appropriate size. Width
                    should be a multiple of 16. If the value is not a multiple
                    of 16, then it will be rounded down.  Enables tiled TIFF if
                    it has not already been enabled.

               tiff:tile-height=<height>

                    Specify the tile height to use while writing tiled TIFF. The
                    tile width is then defaulted to an appropriate size. Height
                    should be a multiple of 16. If the value is not a multiple
                    of 16, then it will be rounded down.  Enables tiled TIFF if
                    it has not already been enabled.

               tiff:webp-lossless={TRUE|FALSE}

                    Specify a value of TRUE to enable lossless mode while
                    writing WebP-compressed TIFF files. The WebP webp:lossless
                    option may also be used.  The quality factor set by the
                    -quality option may be used to influence the level of effort
                    expended while compressing.

               tiff:zstd-compress-level=<value>

                    Specify the compression level to use while writing Zstd-
                    compressed TIFF files. The valid range is 1 to 22. If this
                    define is not specified, then the 'quality' value is used
                    such that the default quality setting of 75 is translated to
                    a compress level of 9 such that ´quality' has a useful range
                    of 10-184 if used for this purpose.

               webp:lossless={true|false}

                    Enable lossless encoding.

               webp:method={0-6}

                    Quality/speed trade-off.

               webp:image-hint={default,graph,photo,picture}

                    Hint for image type.

               webp:target-size=<integer>

                    Target size in bytes.

               webp:target-psnr=<float>

                    Minimal distortion to try to achieve.

               webp:segments={1-4}

                    Maximum number of segments to use.

               webp:sns-strength={0-100}

                    Spatial Noise Shaping.

               webp:filter-strength={0-100}

                    Filter strength.

               webp:filter-sharpness={0-7}

                    Filter sharpness.

               webp:filter-type={0,1}

                    Filtering type. 0 = simple, 1 = strong (only used if filter-
                    strength > 0 or autofilter is enabled).

               webp:auto-filter={true|false}

                    Auto adjust filter's strength.

               webp:alpha-compression=<integer>

                    Algorithm for encoding the alpha plane (0 = none, 1 =
                    compressed with WebP lossless). Default is 1.

               webp:alpha-filtering=<integer>

                    Predictive filtering method for alpha plane. 0: none, 1:
                    fast, 2: best. Default is 1.

               webp:alpha-quality={0-100}

                    Between 0 (smallest size) and 100 (lossless). Default is
                    100.

               webp:pass=[1..10]

                    Number of entropy-analysis passes.

               webp:show-compressed={true|false}

                    Export the compressed picture back.  In-loop filtering is
                    not applied.

               webp:preprocessing=[0,1,2]

                    0=none, 1=segment-smooth, 2=pseudo-random dithering

               webp:partitions=[0-3]

                    log2(number of token partitions) in [0..3].  Default is 0
                    for easier progressive decoding.

               webp:partition-limit={0-100}

                    Quality degradation allowed to fit the 512k limit on
                    prediction modes coding (0: no degradation, 100: maximum
                    possible degradation).

               webp:emulate-jpeg-size={true|false}

                    If true, compression parameters will be remapped to better
                    match the expected output size from JPEG compression.
                    Generally, the output size will be similar but the
                    degradation will be lower.

               webp:thread-level=<integer>

                    If non-zero, try and use multi-threaded encoding.

               webp:low-memory={true|false}

                    If set, reduce memory usage (but increase CPU use)

               webp:use-sharp-yuv={true|false}

                    If set, if needed, use sharp (and slow) RGB->YUV conversion




               For example, to create a postscript file that will render only
               the black pixels of a bilevel image, use:

                   gm convert bilevel.tif -define ps:imagemask eps3:stencil.ps


       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

              This option is useful for regulating the animation of image
              sequences Delay/100 seconds must expire before the display of the
              next image. The default is no delay between each showing of the
              image sequence. The maximum delay is 65535.

              You can specify a delay range (e.g. -delay 10-500) which sets the
              minimum and maximum delay.

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image This
              option specifies the image resolution to store while encoding a
              raster image or the canvas resolution while rendering (reading)
              vector formats such as Postscript, PDF, WMF, and SVG into a raster
              image. Image resolution provides the unit of measure to apply when
              rendering to an output device or raster image. The default unit of
              measure is in dots per inch (DPI). The -units option may be used
              to select dots per centimeter instead.
               The default resolution is 72 dots per inch, which is equivalent
              to one point per pixel (Macintosh and Postscript standard).
              Computer screens are normally 72 or 96 dots per inch while
              printers typically support 150, 300, 600, or 1200 dots per inch.
              To determine the resolution of your display, use a ruler to
              measure the width of your screen in inches, and divide by the
              number of horizontal pixels (1024 on a 1024x768 display).  If the
              file format supports it, this option may be used to update the
              stored image resolution. Note that Photoshop stores and obtains
              image resolution from a proprietary embedded profile. If this
              profile is not stripped from the image, then Photoshop will
              continue to treat the image using its former resolution, ignoring
              the image resolution specified in the standard file header.  The
              density option is an attribute and does not alter the underlying
              raster image. It may be used to adjust the rendered size for
              desktop publishing purposes by adjusting the scale applied to the
              pixels. To resize the image so that it is the same size at a
              different resolution, use the -resample option.

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

              This is the number of bits of color to preserve in the image. Any
              value between 1 and QuantumDepth (build option) may be specified,
              although 8 or 16 are the most common values. Use this option to
              specify the depth of raw images whose depth is unknown such as
              GRAY, RGB, or CMYK, or to change the depth of any image after it
              has been read.  The depth option is applied to the pixels
              immediately so it may be used as a form of simple compression by
              discarding the least significant bits. Reducing the depth in
              advance may speed up color quantization, and help create smaller
              file sizes when using a compression algorithm like LZW or ZIP.

       -descend
              obtain image by descending window hierarchy

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>
              shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

              With this option, composite image is used as a displacement map.
              Black, within the displacement map, is a maximum positive
              displacement.  White is a maximum negative displacement and middle
              gray is neutral.  The displacement is scaled to determine the
              pixel shift.  By default, the displacement applies in both the
              horizontal and vertical directions.  However, if you specify mask,
              composite image is the horizontal X displacement and mask the
              vertical Y displacement.

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

              This option is used with convert for obtaining image or font from
              this X server.  See X(1).

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

              The Disposal Method indicates the way in which the graphic is to
              be treated after being displayed.

              Here are the valid methods:

                  Undefined       No disposal specified.
                  None            Do not dispose between frames.
                  Background      Overwrite the image area with
                                  the background color.
                  Previous        Overwrite the image area with
                                  what was there prior to rendering
                                  the image.


       -dissolve <percent>
              dissolve an image into another by the given percent

              The opacity of the composite image is multiplied by the given
              percent, then it is composited over the main image.

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

              The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution
              for spatial resolution by averaging the intensities of several
              neighboring pixels.  Images which suffer from severe contouring
              when reducing colors can be improved with this option.

              The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to
              take effect.

              Use +dither to turn off dithering and to render PostScript without
              text or graphic aliasing. Disabling dithering often (but not
              always) leads to decreased processing time.

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

              Use this option to annotate an image with one or more graphic
              primitives.  The primitives include shapes, text, transformations,
              and pixel operations.  The shape primitives are

                   point           x,y
                   line            x0,y0 x1,y1
                   rectangle       x0,y0 x1,y1
                   roundRectangle  x0,y0 x1,y1 wc,hc
                   arc             x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1
                   ellipse         x0,y0 rx,ry a0,a1
                   circle          x0,y0 x1,y1
                   polyline        x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   polygon         x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   Bezier          x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   path            path specification
                   image           operator x0,y0 w,h filename


              The text primitive is

                   text            x0,y0 string


              The text gravity primitive is

                   gravity         NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center,
                                   East, SouthWest, South, or SouthEast


              The text gravity primitive only affects the placement of text and
              does not interact with the other primitives.  It is equivalent to
              using the -gravity commandline option, except that it is limited
              in scope to the -draw option in which it appears.

              The transformation primitives are

                   rotate          degrees
                   translate       dx,dy
                   scale           sx,sy
                   skewX           degrees
                   skewY           degrees


              The pixel operation primitives are

                   color           x0,y0 method
                   matte           x0,y0 method


              The shape primitives are drawn in the color specified in the
              preceding -stroke option. Except for the line and point
              primitives, they are filled with the color specified in the
              preceding -fill option.  For unfilled shapes, use -fill none.

              Point requires a single coordinate.

              Line requires a start and end coordinate.

              Rectangle expects an upper left and lower right coordinate.

              RoundRectangle has the upper left and lower right coordinates and
              the width and height of the corners.

              Circle has a center coordinate and a coordinate for the outer
              edge.

              Use Arc to inscribe an elliptical arc within a rectangle.  Arcs
              require a start and end point as well as the degree of rotation
              (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90).

              Use Ellipse to draw a partial ellipse centered at the given point
              with the x-axis and y-axis radius and start and end of arc in
              degrees (e.g. 100,100 100,150 0,360).

              Finally, polyline and polygon require three or more coordinates to
              define its boundaries.  Coordinates are integers separated by an
              optional comma.  For example, to define a circle centered at
              100,100 that extends to 150,150 use:

                   -draw 'circle 100,100 150,150'


              Paths (See Paths) represent an outline of an object which is
              defined in terms of moveto (set a new current point), lineto (draw
              a straight line), curveto (draw a curve using a cubic Bezier), arc
              (elliptical or circular arc) and closepath (close the current
              shape by drawing a line to the last moveto) elements. Compound
              paths (i.e., a path with subpaths, each consisting of a single
              moveto followed by one or more line or curve operations) are
              possible to allow effects such as "donut holes" in objects.

              Use image to composite an image with another image. Follow the
              image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image
              size, and filename:

                   -draw 'image Over 100,100 225,225 image.jpg'


              You can use 0,0 for the image size, which means to use the actual
              dimensions found in the image header. Otherwise, it will be scaled
              to the given dimensions.  See -compose for a description of the
              composite operators.

              Use text to annotate an image with text. Follow the text
              coordinates with a string. If the string has embedded spaces,
              enclose it in single or double quotes. Optionally you can include
              the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute
              by embedding special format character. See -comment for details.

              For example,


                   -draw 'text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"'


              annotates the image with MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @, the text is read from a
              file titled by the remaining characters in the string.  Please
              note that if the string comes from an untrusted source that it
              should be sanitized before use (a security risk).

              Rotate rotates subsequent shape primitives and text primitives
              about the origin of the main image. If the -region option precedes
              the -draw option, the origin for transformations is the upper left
              corner of the region.

              Translate translates them.

              Scale scales them.

              SkewX and SkewY skew them with respect to the origin of the main
              image or the region.

              The transformations modify the current affine matrix, which is
              initialized from the initial affine matrix defined by the -affine
              option.  Transformations are cumulative within the -draw option.
              The initial affine matrix is not affected; that matrix is only
              changed by the appearance of another -affine option.  If another
              -draw option appears, the current affine matrix is reinitialized
              from the initial affine matrix.

              Use color to change the color of a pixel to the fill color (see
              -fill). Follow the pixel coordinate with a method:

                   point
                   replace
                   floodfill
                   filltoborder
                   reset


              Consider the target pixel as that specified by your coordinate.
              The point method recolors the target pixel. The replace method
              recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel.
              Floodfill recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target
              pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder recolors any
              neighbor pixel that is not the border color. Finally, reset
              recolors all pixels.

              Use matte to the change the pixel matte value to transparent.
              Follow the pixel coordinate with a method (see the color primitive
              for a description of methods). The point method changes the matte
              value of the target pixel. The replace method changes the matte
              value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel.
              Floodfill changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the
              color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder
              changes the matte value of any neighbor pixel that is not the
              border color (-bordercolor).  Finally reset changes the matte
              value of all pixels.

              You can set the primitive color, font, and font bounding box color
              with -fill, -font, and -box respectively. Options are processed in
              command line order so be sure to use these options before the
              -draw option.

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

              Choose from AdobeCustom, AdobeExpert, AdobeStandard, AppleRoman,
              BIG5, GB2312, Latin 2, None, SJIScode, Symbol, Unicode, Wansung.

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

              MSB indicates big-endian (e.g. SPARC, Motorola 68K) while LSB
              indicates little-endian (e.g. Intel 'x86, VAX) byte ordering.
              Native indicates to use the normal ordering for the current CPU.
              This option currently only influences the CMYK, DPX, GRAY, RGB,
              and TIFF, formats.

              Use +endian to revert to unspecified endianness.

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -extent <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              composite image on background color canvas image

              This option composites the image on a new background color
              (-background) canvas image of size <width>x<height>. The existing
              image content is composited at the position specified by geometry
              x and y offset and/or desired gravity (-gravity) using the current
              image compose (-compose) method.  Image content which falls
              outside the bounds of the new image dimensions is discarded.

              For example, this command creates a thumbnail of an image, and
              centers it on a red color backdrop image, offsetting the canvas
              ten pixels to the left and five pixels up, with respect to the
              thumbnail:

                  gm convert infile.jpg -thumbnail 120x80 -background red
              -gravity center \
                            -extent 140x100-10-5 outfile.jpg


              This command reduces or expands a JPEG image to fit on an 800x600
              display:

                  gm convert -size 800x600 input.jpg \
                            -resize 800x600 -background black \
                            -compose Copy -gravity center \
                            -extent 800x600 \
                            -quality 92 output.jpg


              If the aspect ratio of the input image isn't exactly 4:3, then the
              image is centered on an 800x600 black canvas.

       -file <filename>
              write annotated difference image to file

              If -file is specified, then an annotated difference image is
              generated and written to the specified file. Pixels which differ
              between the reference and compare images are modified from those
              in the compare image so that the changed pixels become more
              obvious.  Some images may require use of an alternative highlight
              style (see -highlight-style) or highlight color (see -highlight-
              color) before the changes are obvious.

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

              Colors are represented in GraphicsMagick in the same form used by
              SVG. Use "gm convert -list color" to list named colors:

                  name               (named color)
                  #RGB               (hex numbers, 4 bits each)
                  #RRGGBB            (8 bits each)
                  #RRRGGGBBB         (12 bits each)
                  #RRRRGGGGBBBB      (16 bits each)
                  #RGBA              (4 bits each)
                  #RRGGBBAA          (8 bits each)
                  #RRRGGGBBBAAA      (12 bits each)
                  #RRRRGGGGBBBBAAAA  (16 bits each)
                  rgb(r,g,b)         (r,g,b are decimal numbers)
                  rgba(r,g,b,a)      (r,g,b,a are decimal numbers)


              Enclose the color specification in quotation marks to prevent the
              "#" or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell.

              For example,

                  gm convert -fill blue ...
                  gm convert -fill "#ddddff" ...
                  gm convert -fill "rgb(65000,65000,65535)" ...


              The shorter forms are scaled up, if necessary by replication.  For
              example, #3af, #33aaff, and #3333aaaaffff are all equivalent.

              See -draw for further details.

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

              Use this option to affect the resizing operation of an image (see
              -geometry).  Choose from these filters (ordered by approximate
              increasing CPU time):

                   Point
                   Box
                   Triangle
                   Hermite
                   Hanning
                   Hamming
                   Blackman
                   Gaussian
                   Quadratic
                   Cubic
                   Catrom
                   Mitchell
                   Lanczos
                   Bessel
                   Sinc


              The default filter is automatically selected to provide the best
              quality while consuming a reasonable amount of time. The Mitchell
              filter is used if the image supports a palette, supports a matte
              channel, or is being enlarged, otherwise the Lanczos filter is
              used.

       -flatten
              flatten a sequence of images

              In some file formats (e.g. Photoshop's PSD) complex images may be
              represented by "layers" (independent images) which must be
              composited in order to obtain the final rendition.  The -flatten
              option accomplishes this composition.  The sequence of images is
              replaced by a single image created by compositing each image in
              turn, while respecting composition operators and page offsets.
              While -flatten is immediately useful for eliminating layers, it is
              also useful as a general-purpose composition tool.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any
              option.  If the -flatten option appears after all of the input
              images, all images are flattened.  Also see -mosaic which is
              similar to -flatten except that it adds a suitably-sized canvas
              base image.

              For example, this composites an image on top of a 640x400
              transparent black canvas image:

                  gm convert -size 640x300 xc:transparent \
                            -compose over -page +0-100 \
                            frame.png -flatten output.png


              and this flattens a Photoshop PSD file:

                  gm convert input.psd -flatten output.png


       -flip  create a "mirror image"

              reflect the scanlines in the vertical direction.

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

              reflect the scanlines in the horizontal direction.

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

              You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript,
              TrueType, or X11 font.  For example, Arial.ttf is a TrueType font,
              ps:helvetica is PostScript, and x:fixed is X11.

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

              The color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.

       -format <type>
              the image format type

              When used with the mogrify utility, this option will convert any
              image to the image format you specify.  See GraphicsMagick(1) for
              a list of image format types supported by GraphicsMagick, or see
              the output of 'gm -list format'.

              By default the file is written to its original name.  However, if
              the filename extension matches a supported format, the extension
              is replaced with the image format type specified with -format.
              For example, if you specify tiff as the format type and the input
              image filename is image.gif, the output image filename becomes
              image.tiff.

       -format <string>
              output formatted image characteristics

              When used with the identify utility, or the convert utility with
              output written to the 'info:-' file specification, use this option
              to print information about the image in a format of your choosing.
              You can include the image filename, type, width, height, Exif
              data, or other image attributes by embedding special format
              characters:

                   %b   file size
                   %c   comment
                   %d   directory
                   %e   filename extension
                   %f   filename
                   %g   page dimensions and offsets
                   %h   height
                   %i   input filename
                   %k   number of unique colors
                   %l   label
                   %m   magick
                   %n   number of scenes
                   %o   output filename
                   %p   page number
                   %q   image bit depth
                   %r   image type description
                   %s   scene number
                   %t   top of filename
                   %u   unique temporary filename
                   %w   width
                   %x   horizontal resolution
                   %y   vertical resolution
                   %A   transparency supported
                   %C   compression type
                   %D   GIF disposal method
                   %G   Original width and height
                   %H   page height
                   %M   original filename specification
                   %O   page offset (x,y)
                   %P   page dimensions (width,height)
                   %Q   compression quality
                   %T   time delay (in centi-seconds)
                   %U   resolution units
                   %W   page width
                   %X   page horizontal offset (x)
                   %Y   page vertical offset (y)
                   %@   trim bounding box
                   %#   signature
                   \n   newline
                   \r   carriage return
                   %%   %


              For example,

                   -format "%m:%f %wx%h"


              displays MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled bird.miff and
              whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @, the format is read from a
              file titled by the remaining characters in the string.  Please
              note that if the string comes from an untrusted source that it
              should be sanitized before use since this may be used to
              incorporate any readable file on the system (a security risk).

              The values of image type (%r) which may be returned include:

                   Bilevel
                   Grayscale
                   GrayscaleMatte
                   Palette
                   PaletteMatte
                   TrueColor
                   TrueColorMatte
                   ColorSeparation
                   ColorSeparationMatte
                   Optimize


              You can also use the following special formatting syntax to print
              Exif information contained in the file:

                   %[EXIF:<tag>]


              Where "<tag>" may be one of the following:

                   *  (print all Exif tags, in keyword=data format)
                   !  (print all Exif tags, in tag_number format)
                   #hhhh (print data for Exif tag #hhhh)
                   ImageWidth
                   ImageLength
                   BitsPerSample
                   Compression
                   PhotometricInterpretation
                   FillOrder
                   DocumentName
                   ImageDescription
                   Make
                   Model
                   StripOffsets
                   Orientation
                   SamplesPerPixel
                   RowsPerStrip
                   StripByteCounts
                   XResolution
                   YResolution
                   PlanarConfiguration
                   ResolutionUnit
                   TransferFunction
                   Software
                   DateTime
                   Artist
                   WhitePoint
                   PrimaryChromaticities
                   TransferRange
                   JPEGProc
                   JPEGInterchangeFormat
                   JPEGInterchangeFormatLength
                   YCbCrCoefficients
                   YCbCrSubSampling
                   YCbCrPositioning
                   ReferenceBlackWhite
                   CFARepeatPatternDim
                   CFAPattern
                   BatteryLevel
                   Copyright
                   ExposureTime
                   FNumber
                   IPTC/NAA
                   ExifOffset
                   InterColorProfile
                   ExposureProgram
                   SpectralSensitivity
                   GPSInfo
                   ISOSpeedRatings
                   OECF
                   ExifVersion
                   DateTimeOriginal
                   DateTimeDigitized
                   ComponentsConfiguration
                   CompressedBitsPerPixel
                   ShutterSpeedValue
                   ApertureValue
                   BrightnessValue
                   ExposureBiasValue
                   MaxApertureValue
                   SubjectDistance
                   MeteringMode
                   LightSource
                   Flash
                   FocalLength
                   MakerNote
                   UserComment
                   SubSecTime
                   SubSecTimeOriginal
                   SubSecTimeDigitized
                   FlashPixVersion
                   ColorSpace
                   ExifImageWidth
                   ExifImageLength
                   InteroperabilityOffset
                   FlashEnergy
                   SpatialFrequencyResponse
                   FocalPlaneXResolution
                   FocalPlaneYResolution
                   FocalPlaneResolutionUnit
                   SubjectLocation
                   ExposureIndex
                   SensingMethod
                   FileSource
                   SceneType


              JPEG specific information (from reading a JPEG file) may be
              obtained like this:

                   %[JPEG-<tag>]


              Where "<tag>" may be one of the following:

                   *                 (all JPEG-related tags, in
                                      keyword=data format)
                   Quality           IJG JPEG "quality" estimate
                   Colorspace        JPEG colorspace numeric ID
                   Colorspace-Name   JPEG colorspace name
                   Sampling-factors  JPEG sampling factors


              Please note that JPEG has no notion of "quality" and that the
              quality metric used by, and estimated by the software is based on
              the quality metric established by IJG JPEG 6b.  Other encoders
              (e.g. that used by Adobe Photoshop) use different encoding
              metrics.

              Surround the format specification with quotation marks to prevent
              your shell from misinterpreting any spaces and square brackets.

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.  The
              -frame option is not affected by the -gravity option.

              The color of the border is specified with the -mattecolor command
              line option.

       -frame include the X window frame in the imported image

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal

              A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the
              color must be exact. Use this option to match colors that are
              close (in Euclidean distance) to the target color in RGB 3D space.
              For example, if you want to automatically trim the edges of an
              image with -trim but the image was scanned and the target
              background color may differ by a small amount. This option can
              account for these differences.

              The distance can be in absolute intensity units or, by appending
              "%", as a percentage of the maximum possible intensity (255,
              65535, or 4294967295).

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

              The same color image displayed on two different workstations may
              look different due to differences in the display monitor. Use
              gamma correction to adjust for this color difference. Reasonable
              values extend from 0.8 to 2.3. Gamma less than 1.0 darkens the
              image and gamma greater than 1.0 lightens it. Large adjustments to
              image gamma may result in the loss of some image information if
              the pixel quantum size is only eight bits (quantum range 0 to
              255).

              You can apply separate gamma values to the red, green, and blue
              channels of the image with a gamma value list delimited with
              slashes (e.g., 1.7/2.3/1.2).

              Use +gamma value to set the image gamma level without actually
              adjusting the image pixels. This option is useful if the image is
              of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute (e.g. PNG
              images).

       -gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

              Use the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

              The -geometry option is used for a number of different purposes,
              depending on the utility it is used with.

              For the X11 commands ('animate', 'display', and 'import'), it
              specifies the preferred size and location of the Image window.  By
              default, the window size is the image size and the location is
              chosen by you (or your window manager) when it is mapped.
               For the 'import', 'convert', 'mogrify' utility commands it may be
              used to specify the desired size when resizing an image.  In this
              case, symbols representing resize options may be appended to the
              geometry string to influence how the resize request is treated.

              See later notes corresponding to usage by particular commands.
              The following notes apply to when -geometry is used to express a
              resize request, taking into account the current properties of the
              image.

              By default, the width and height are maximum values. That is, the
              image is expanded or contracted to fit the width and height value
              while maintaining the aspect ratio of the image.

              Append a ^ to the geometry so that the image aspect ratio is
              maintained when the image is resized, but the resulting width or
              height are treated as minimum values rather than maximum values.

              Append a ! (exclamation point) to the geometry to force the image
              size to exactly the size you specify. For example, if you specify
              640x480! the image width is set to 640 pixels and height to 480.

              If only the width is specified, without the trailing 'x', then
              height is set to width (e.g., -geometry 100 is the same as
              -geometry 100x100).  If only the width is specified but with the
              trailing 'x', then width assumes the value and the height is
              chosen to maintain the aspect ratio of the image.  Similarly, if
              only the height is specified prefixed by 'x' (e.g., -geometry
              x256), the width is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio.

              To specify a percentage width or height instead, append %. The
              image size is multiplied by the width and height percentages to
              obtain the final image dimensions. To increase the size of an
              image, use a value greater than 100 (e.g. 125%). To decrease an
              image's size, use a percentage less than 100.

              Use @ to specify the maximum area in pixels of an image.

              Use > to change the dimensions of the image only if its width or
              height exceeds the geometry specification. < resizes the image
              only if both of its dimensions are less than the geometry
              specification. For example, if you specify '640x480>' and the
              image size is 256x256, the image size does not change. However, if
              the image is 512x512 or 1024x1024, it is resized to 480x480.
              Enclose the geometry specification in quotation marks to prevent
              the < or > from being interpreted by your shell as a file
              redirection.

              When used with animate and display, offsets are handled in the
              same manner as in X(1) and the -gravity option is not used.  If
              the x is negative, the offset is measured leftward from the right
              edge of the screen to the right edge of the image being displayed.
              Similarly, negative y is measured between the bottom edges.  The
              offsets are not affected by "%"; they are always measured in
              pixels.

              When used as a composite option, -geometry gives the dimensions of
              the image and its location with respect to the composite image.
              If the -gravity option is present with NorthEast, East, or
              SouthEast gravity, the x represents the distance from the right
              edge of the image to the right edge of the composite image.
              Similarly, if the -gravity option is present with SouthWest,
              South, or SouthEast gravity, y is measured between the bottom
              edges. Accordingly, a positive offset will never point in the
              direction outside of the image.  The offsets are not affected by
              "%"; they are always measured in pixels.  To specify the
              dimensions of the composite image, use the -resize option.

              When used as a convert, import or mogrify option, -geometry is
              synonymous with -resize and specifies the size of the output
              image.  The offsets, if present, are ignored.

              When used as a montage option, -geometry specifies the image size
              and border size for each tile; default is 256x256+0+0.  Negative
              offsets (border dimensions) are meaningless.  The -gravity option
              affects the placement of the image within the tile; the default
              gravity for this purpose is Center.  If the "%" sign appears in
              the geometry specification, the tile size is the specified
              percentage of the original dimensions of the first tile.  To
              specify the dimensions of the montage, use the -resize option.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

              Choices are: NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center, East,
              SouthWest, South, SouthEast.

              The direction you choose specifies where to position the text when
              annotating the image. For example Center gravity forces the text
              to be centered within the image. By default, the image gravity is
              NorthWest.  See -draw for more details about graphic primitives.
              Only the text primitive is affected by the -gravity option.

              The -gravity option is also used in concert with the -geometry
              option and other options that take <geometry> as a parameter, such
              as the -crop option.  See -geometry for details of how the
              -gravity option interacts with the <x> and <y> parameters of a
              geometry specification.

              When used as an option to composite, -gravity gives the direction
              that the image gravitates within the composite.

              When used as an option to montage, -gravity gives the direction
              that an image gravitates within a tile.  The default gravity is
              Center for this purpose.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -hald-clut <clut>
              apply a Hald CLUT to the image

              A Hald CLUT ("Color Look-Up Table") is a special square color
              image which contains a look-up table for red, green, and blue.
              The size of the Hald CLUT image is determined by its order.  The
              width (and height) of a Hald CLUT is the cube of the order.  For
              example, a Hald CLUT of order 8 is 512x512 pixels (262,144 colors)
              and of order 16 is 4096x4096 (16,777,216 colors).  A special CLUT
              is the identity CLUT which which causes no change to the input
              image.  In order to use the Hald CLUT, one takes an identity CLUT
              and adjusts its colors in some way.  The modified CLUT can then be
              used to transform any number of images in an identical way.

              GraphicsMagick contains a built-in identity CLUT generator via the
              IDENTITY coder.  For example reading from the file name IDENTITY:8
              returns an identity CLUT of order 8.  Typical Hald CLUT identity
              images have an order of between 8 and 16.  The default order for
              the IDENTITY CLUT generator is 8.  Interpolation is used so it is
              not usually necessary for CLUT images to be very large.  The PNG
              file format is ideal for storing Hald CLUT images because it
              compresses them very well.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -highlight-color <color>
              pixel annotation color

              Specifies the color to use when annotating difference pixels.

       -highlight-style <style>
              pixel annotation style

              Specifies the pixel difference annotation style used to draw
              attention to changed pixels. May be one of Assign, Threshold,
              Tint, or XOR; where Assign replaces the pixel with the highlight
              color (see -highlight-color), Threshold replaces the pixel with
              black or white based on the difference in intensity, Tint alpha
              tints the pixel with the highlight color, and XOR does an XOR
              between the pixel and the highlight color.

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
              specify the icon geometry

              Offsets, if present in the geometry specification, are handled in
              the same manner as the -geometry option, using X11 style to handle
              negative offsets.

       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -immutable
              make image immutable

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
              use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color

              Use this option to affect the the color management operation of an
              image (see -profile).  Choose from these intents: Absolute,
              Perceptual, Relative, Saturation.

              The default intent is undefined.

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

              Choices are: None, Line, Plane, or Partition. The default is None.

              This option is used to specify the type of interlacing scheme for
              raw image formats such as RGB or YUV.  None means do not interlace
              (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...),

              Line uses scanline interlacing
              (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...), and Plane uses plane
              interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).

              Partition is like plane except the different planes are saved to
              individual files (e.g. image.R, image.G, and image.B).

              Use Line to create an interlaced PNG or  GIF or progressive JPEG
              image.

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

              Use this option to assign a specific label to the image, when
              writing to an image format that supports labels, such as TIFF,
              PNG, MIFF, or PostScript. You can include the the image filename,
              type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special
              format character.  A label is not drawn on the image, but is
              embedded in the image datastream via a "Label" tag or similar
              mechanism.  If you want the label to be visible on the image
              itself, use the -draw option.  See -comment for details.

              For example,

                   -label "%m:%f %wx%h"


              produces an image label of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @, the image label is read
              from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.
              Please note that if the string comes from an untrusted source that
              it should be sanitized before use since otherwise the content of
              an arbitrary readable file might be incorporated into the image
              label (a security risk).

              If the -label option appears multiple times, only the last label
              is stored.

              In PNG images, the label is stored in a tEXt or zTXt chunk with
              the keyword "label".

              When converting to PostScript, use this option to specify a header
              string to print above the image. Specify the label font with
              -font.

              When creating a montage, by default the label associated with an
              image is displayed with the corresponding tile in the montage.
              Use the +label option to suppress this behavior.



       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

              Perform local adaptive thresholding using the specified width,
              height, and offset.  The offset is a distance in sample space from
              the mean, as an absolute integer ranging from 0 to the maximum
              sample value or as a percentage.  If the percent option is
              supplied, then the offset is computed as a percentage of the
              quantum range.  It is strongly recommended to use the percent
              option so that results are not sensitive to pixel quantum depth.

              For example,

                   -colorspace gray -lat "10x10-5%"


              will help clarify a scanned grayscale or color document, producing
              a bi-level equivalent.

       -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}
              adjust the level of image contrast

              Give one, two or three values delimited with commas: black-point,
              gamma, white-point (e.g. 10,1.0,250 or 2%,0.5,98%). The black and
              white points range from 0 to MaxRGB or from 0 to 100%; if the
              white point is omitted it is set to MaxRGB-black_point. If a "%"
              sign is present anywhere in the string, the black and white points
              are percentages of MaxRGB. Gamma is an exponent that ranges from
              0.1 to 10.; if it is omitted, the default of 1.0 (no gamma
              correction) is assumed. This interface works similar to
              Photoshop's "Image->Adjustments->Levels..."  "Input Levels"
              interface.

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

              By default, resource limits are estimated based on the available
              resources of the system. The resource limits are Disk, maximum
              total disk space consumed; File, maximum number of file
              descriptors allowed to be open at once; Map, maximum total number
              of file bytes which may be memory mapped; Memory, maximum total
              number of bytes of heap memory used for image storage; Pixels,
              maximum absolute image size (per image); Width, maximum image
              pixels width; Height, maximum image pixels height; and Threads,
              the maximum number of worker threads to use per OpenMP thread
              team.

              These resource limits are used to decide if (for a given image)
              the decoded image ("pixel cache") should be stored in heap memory
              (RAM), in a memory-mapped disk file, or in a disk file accessed
              via read/write I/O.  The number of total pixels in one image,
              and/or the width/height, may also be limited in order to force the
              reading, or creation of images larger than the limit (in pixels)
              to intentionally fail. The disk limit establishes an overall limit
              since using the disk is the means of last resort. When the disk
              limit has been reached, no more images may be read.

              The value argument is an absolute value, but may have standard
              binary suffix characters applied ('K', 'M', 'G', 'T', 'P', 'E') to
              apply a scaling to the value (based on a multiplier of 1024). Any
              additional characters are ignored. For example, '-limit Pixels
              10MP' limits the maximum image size to 10 megapixels and '-limit
              memory 32MB -limit map 64MB' limits memory and memory mapped files
              to 32 megabytes and 64 megabytes respectively.

              Resource limits may also be set using environment variables. The
              environment variables MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK, MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES,
              MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP, MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY, MAGICK_LIMIT_PIXELS,
              MAGICK_LIMIT_WIDTH, MAGICK_LIMIT_HEIGHT,and OMP_NUM_THREADS may be
              used to set the limits for disk space, open files, memory mapped
              size, heap memory, per-image pixels, image width, image height,
              and threads respectively.

              Use the option -list resource list the current limits.

       -linewidth
              the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list <type>
              the type of list

              Choices are: Color, Delegate, Format, Magic, Module, Resource, or
              Type. The Module option is only available if GraphicsMagick was
              built to support loadable modules.

              This option lists information about the GraphicsMagick
              configuration.

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

              This option specifies the format for the log printed when the
              -debug option is active.

              You can display the following components by embedding special
              format characters:

                   %d   domain
                   %e   event
                   %f   function
                   %l   line
                   %m   module
                   %p   process ID
                   %r   real CPU time
                   %t   wall clock time
                   %u   user CPU time
                   %%   percent sign
                   \n   newline
                   \r   carriage return


              For example:

                  gm convert -debug coders -log "%u %m:%l %e" in.gif out.png


              The default behavior is to print all of the components.

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

              A value other than zero forces the animation to repeat itself up
              to iterations times.

       -magnify
              magnify the image

              The image size is doubled using linear interpolation.

       -magnify <factor>
              magnify the image

              The displayed image is magnified by factor.

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

              [convert or mogrify]

              By default, color reduction chooses an optimal set of colors that
              best represent the original image. Alternatively, you can choose a
              particular set of colors from an image file with this option.

              Use +map to reduce all images in the image sequence that follows
              to a single optimal set of colors that best represent all the
              images.  The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of
              any option.  If the +map option appears after all of the input
              images, all images are mapped.

       -map <type>
              display image using this type.

              [animate or display]

              Choose from these Standard Colormap types:

                   best
                   default
                   gray
                   red
                   green
                   blue


              The X server must support the Standard Colormap you choose,
              otherwise an error occurs. Use list as the type and display
              searches the list of colormap types in top-to-bottom order until
              one is located. See xstdcmap(1) for one way of creating Standard
              Colormaps.

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

              The image read from the file is used as a clipping mask.  It must
              have the same dimensions as the image being masked.

              If the mask image contains an opacity channel, the opacity of each
              pixel is used to define the mask.  Otherwise, the intensity (gray
              level) of each pixel is used.  Unmasked (black) pixels are
              modified while masked pixels (not black) are protected from
              alteration.

              Use +mask to remove the clipping mask.

              It is not necessary to use -clip to activate the mask; -clip is
              implied by -mask.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

              If the image does not have a matte channel, create an opaque one.

              Use +matte to ignore the matte channel and to avoid writing a
              matte channel in the output file.

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

              The color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.

       -maximum-error <limit>
              specifies the maximum amount of total image error

              Specifies the maximum amount of total image error (based on
              comparison using a specified metric) before an error ("image
              difference exceeds limit") is reported.  The error is reported via
              a non-zero command execution return status.

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -metric <metric>
              comparison metric (MAE, MSE, PAE, PSNR, RMSE)

       -minify <factor>
              minify the image

              The image size is halved using linear interpolation.

       -mode <value>
              mode of operation

              The available montage modes are frame to place the images in a
              rectangular grid while adding a decorative frame with dropshadow,
              unframe to place undecorated images in a rectangular grid, and
              concatenate to pack the images closely together without any well-
              defined grid or decoration.

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

              Specify the percent change in brightness, color saturation, and
              hue separated by commas. Default argument values are 100 percent,
              resulting in no change. For example, to increase the color
              brightness by 20% and decrease the color saturation by 10% and
              leave the hue unchanged, use: -modulate 120,90.

              Hue is the percentage of absolute rotation from the current
              position. For example 50 results in a counter-clockwise rotation
              of 90 degrees, 150 results in a clockwise rotation of 90 degrees,
              with 0 and 200 both resulting in a rotation of 180 degrees.

       -monitor
              show progress indication

              A simple command-line progress indication is shown while the
              command is running. The process indication shows the operation
              currently being performed and the percent completed. Commands
              using X11 may replace the command line progress indication with a
              graphical one once an image has been displayed.

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -morph <frames>
              morphs an image sequence

              Both the image pixels and size are linearly interpolated to give
              the appearance of a meta-morphosis from one image to the next.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any
              option.  If the -morph option appears after all of the input
              images, all images are morphed.

       -mosaic
              create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence

              The -mosaic option provides a flexible way to composite one or
              more images onto a solid-color canvas image. It works similar to
              -flatten except that a base canvas image is automatically created
              with a suitable size given the image size, page dimensions, and
              page offsets of images to be composited.  The color of the base
              canvas image may be set via the -background option.  The default
              canvas color is 'white', but 'black' or 'transparent' may be more
              suitable depending on the composition algorithm requested.

              The -compose option may be used to specify the composition
              algorithm to use when compositing the subsequent image on the base
              canvas.

              The -page option can be used to establish the dimensions of the
              mosaic and to position the subsequent image within the mosaic.  If
              the -page argument does not specify width and height, then the
              canvas dimensions are evaluated based on the image sizes and
              offsets.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any
              option.  If the -mosaic option appears after all of the input
              images, all images are included in the mosaic.

              The following is an example of composing an image based on red,
              green, and blue layers extracted from a sequence of images and
              pasted on the canvas image at specified offsets:

                  gm convert -background black \
                            -compose CopyRed   -page +0-100 red.png \
                            -compose CopyGreen -page +0+40  green.png \
                            -compose CopyBlue  -page +0+180 blue.png \
                            -mosaic output.png


       -motion-blur <radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle}
              Simulate motion blur

              Simulate motion blur by convolving the image with a Gaussian
              operator of the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). For
              reasonable results, radius should be larger than sigma. If radius
              is zero, then a suitable radius is automatically selected based on
              sigma. The angle specifies the angle that the object is coming
              from (side which is blurred).

       -name  name an image

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

              The red, green, and blue intensities of an image are negated.
              White becomes black, yellow becomes blue, etc.  Use +negate to
              only negate the grayscale pixels of the image.

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

              The principal function of noise peak elimination filter is to
              smooth the objects within an image without losing edge information
              and without creating undesired structures. The central idea of the
              algorithm is to replace a pixel with its next neighbor in value
              within a pixel window, if this pixel has been found to be noise. A
              pixel is defined as noise if and only if this pixel is a maximum
              or minimum within the pixel window.

              Use radius to specify the width of the neighborhood.

              Use +noise followed by a noise type to add noise to an image.  The
              noise added modulates the existing image pixels. Choose from these
              noise types:

                   Uniform
                   Gaussian
                   Multiplicative
                   Impulse
                   Laplacian
                   Poisson
                   Random (uniform distribution)


       -noop  NOOP (no option)

              The -noop option can be used to terminate a group of images and
              reset all options to their default values, when no other option is
              desired.

       -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values

              This is a contrast enhancement technique based on the image
              histogram.

              When computing the contrast enhancement values, the histogram
              edges are truncated so that the majority of the image pixels are
              considered in the constrast enhancement, and outliers (e.g. random
              noise or minute details) are ignored.  The default is that 0.1
              percent of the histogram entries are ignored.  The percentage of
              the histogram to ignore may be specified by using the -set option
              with the histogram-threshold parameter similar to -set histogram-
              threshold 0.01 to specify 0.01 percent.  Use 0 percent to use the
              entire histogram, with possibly diminished contrast enhancement.

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

              The color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.  The color is replaced if it is identical to the target
              color, or close enough to the target color in a 3D space as
              defined by the Euclidean distance specified by -fuzz.

              See -fill and -fuzz for more details.

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
              apply a mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to an image
              channel

              Apply a low-level mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to a
              selected image channel or all image channels. Operations which
              result in negative results are reset to zero, and operations which
              overflow the available range are reset to the maximum possible
              value.

              Select a channel from: Red, Green, Blue, Opacity, Matte, Cyan,
              Magenta, Yellow, Black, All, or Gray. All only modifies the color
              channels and does not modify the Opacity channel. Except for the
              threshold operators, All operates on each channel independently so
              that operations are on a per-channel basis.

              Gray treats the color channels as a grayscale intensity and
              performs the requested operation on the equivalent pixel intensity
              so the result is a gray image.  Select an operator from Add, And,
              Assign, Depth, Divide, Gamma, Negate, LShift, Log, Max, Min,
              Multiply, Or, Pow RShift, Subtract, Threshold, Threshold-White,
              Threshold-White-Negate, Threshold-Black, Threshold-Black-Negate,
              Xor, Noise-Gaussian, Noise-Impulse, Noise-Laplacian, Noise-
              Multiplicative, Noise-Poisson, Noise-Random, and Noise-Uniform.

              Rvalue may be any floating point or integer value. Normally rvalue
              will be in the range of 0 to MaxRGB, where MaxRGB is the largest
              quantum value supported by the GraphicsMagick build (255, 65535,
              or 4294967295) but values outside this range are useful for some
              arithmetic operations.  Arguments to logical or bit-wise
              operations are rounded to a positive integral value prior to use.
              If a percent (%) symbol is appended to the argument, then the
              argument has a range of 0 to 100 percent.

              The following is a description of the operators:


               Add

                    Result is rvalue added to channel value.

               And

                    Result is the logical AND of rvalue with channel value.

               Assign

                    Result is rvalue.

               Depth

                    Result is channel value adjusted so that it may be
                    (approximately) stored in the specified number of bits
                    without additional loss.

               Divide

                    Result is channel value divided by rvalue.

               Gamma

                    Result is channel value gamma adjusted by rvalue.

               LShift

                    Result is channel value bitwise left shifted by rvalue bits.

               Log

                    Result is computed as log(value*rvalue+1)/log(rvalue+1).

               Max

                    Result is assigned to rvalue if rvalue is greater than
                    value.

               Min

                    Result is assigned to rvalue if rvalue is less than value.

               Multiply

                    Result is channel value multiplied by rvalue.

               Negate

                    Result is inverse of channel value (like a film negative).
                    An rvalue must be supplied but is currently not used.
                    Inverting the image twice results in the original image.

               Or

                    Result is the logical OR of rvalue with channel value.

               Pow

                    Result is computed as pow(value,rvalue). Similar to Gamma
                    except that rvalue is not inverted.

               RShift

                    Result is channel value bitwise right shifted by rvalue
                    bits.

               Subtract

                    Result is channel value minus rvalue.

               Threshold

                    Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than
                    rvalue, or minimum (black) if it is less than or equal to
                    rvalue. If all channels are specified, then thresholding is
                    done based on computed pixel intensity.

               Threshold-white

                    Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than
                    rvalue and is unchanged if it is less than or equal to
                    rvalue. This can be used to remove apparent noise from the
                    bright parts of an image. If all channels are specified,
                    then thresholding is done based on computed pixel intensity.

               Threshold-White-Negate

                    Result is set to black if channel value is greater than
                    rvalue and is unchanged if it is less than or equal to
                    rvalue. If all channels are specified, then thresholding is
                    done based on computed pixel intensity.

               Threshold-black

                    Result is minimum (black) if channel value is less than than
                    rvalue and is unchanged if it is greater than or equal to
                    rvalue. This can be used to remove apparent noise from the
                    dark parts of an image. If all channels are specified, then
                    thresholding is done based on computed pixel intensity.

               Threshold-Black-Negate

                    Result is set to white if channel value is less than than
                    rvalue and is unchanged if it is greater than or equal to
                    rvalue. If all channels are specified, then thresholding is
                    done based on computed pixel intensity.

               Xor

                    Result is the logical XOR of rvalue with channel value. An
                    interesting property of XOR is that performing the same
                    operation twice results in the original value.

               Noise-Gaussian

                    Result is the current channel value modulated with gaussian
                    noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

               Noise-Impulse

                    Result is the current channel value modulated with impulse
                    noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

               Noise-Laplacian

                    Result is the current channel value modulated with laplacian
                    noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

               Noise-Multiplicative

                    Result is the current channel value modulated with
                    multiplicative gaussian noise according to the intensity
                    specified by rvalue.

               Noise-Poisson

                    Result is the current channel value modulated with poisson
                    noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.

               Noise-Random

                    Result is the current channel value modulated with random
                    (uniform distribution) noise according to the intensity
                    specified by rvalue.  The initial noise intensity
                    (rvalue=1.0) is the range of one pixel quantum span.

               Noise-Uniform

                    Result is the channel value with uniform noise applied
                    according to the intensity specified by rvalue.




               As an example, the Assign operator assigns a fixed value to a
               channel. For example, this command sets the red channel to the
               mid-range value:

                   gm convert in.bmp -operator red assign "50%" out.bmp


               The following applies 50% thresholding to the image and returns a
               gray image:

                   gm convert in.bmp -operator gray threshold "50%" out.bmp


       -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN>
              ordered dither the image

              The channel or channels specified in the channeltype argument are
              reduced to binary, using an ordered dither method. The choices for
              channeltype are All, Intensity, Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta,
              Yellow, Black, and Opacity

              When channeltype is "All", the color samples are dithered into a
              gray level and then that gray level is stored in the three color
              channels.  Separately, the opacity channel is dithered into a
              bilevel opacity value which is stored in the opacity channel.

              When channeltype is "Intensity", only the color samples are
              dithered. When channeltype is "opacity" or "matte", only the
              opacity channel is dithered. When a color channel is specified,
              only that channel is dithered.

              The choices for N are 2 through 7. The image is divided into NxN
              pixel tiles.  In each tile, some or all pixels are turned to white
              depending on their intensity.  For each N, (N**2)+1 levels of gray
              can be represented.  For N == 2, 3, or 4, the pixels are turned to
              white in an order that maximizes dispersion (i.e., reduces
              granularity), while for N == 5, 6, and 7, they are turned to white
              in an order that creates a roughly circular black blob in the
              middle of each tile.  An attractive "half-tone" looking image can
              be obtained by first rotating the image 45 degrees, performing a
              5x5 ordered-dither operation, then rotating it back to the
              original orientation and cropping to the original image
              dimensions.  If the original image is gamma-encoded, it is
              adviseable to convert it to linear intensity first, e.g., with the
              "-gamma 0.45455" option.

       -output-directory <directory>
              output files to directory

              Use -output-directory to specify a directory under which to write
              the output files. Normally mogrify overwrites the input files, but
              with this option the output files may be written to a different
              directory tree so that the input files are preserved. The
              algorithm used preserves all of the input path specification in
              the output path so that the user-specified input path (including
              any sub-directory part) is appended to the output path. If the
              input file lacks an extension, then a suitable extension is
              automatically added to the output file.  The user is responsible
              for creating the output directory specified as an argument, but
              subdirectories will be created as needed if the -create-
              directories option is supplied.  This option may be used to apply
              transformations on files from one directory and write the
              transformed files to a different directory.  In conjunction with
              -create-directories, this option is designed to support
              transforming whole directory trees of files provided that the
              relative path of the input file is included as part the list of
              filenames.

       -orient <orientation>
              Set the image orientation attribute

              Sets the image orientation attribute.  The image orientation
              attribute is compatible with the TIFF orientation tag (and the
              EXIF orientation tag).  Accepted values are undefined, TopLeft,
              TopRight, BottomRight, BottomLeft, LeftTop, RightTop, RightBottom,
              LeftBottom, and hyphenated versions thereof (e.g. left-bottom).
              Please note that GraphicsMagick does not include an EXIF editor so
              if an EXIF profile is written to the output image, the value in
              the EXIF profile might not match the image.  It is possible for an
              image file to indicate its orientation in several different ways
              simultaneously.

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

              Use this option to specify the dimensions of the PostScript page
              in dots per inch or a TEXT page in pixels. The choices for a
              PostScript page are:

                   11x17         792  1224
                   Ledger       1224   792
                   Legal         612  1008
                   Letter        612   792
                   LetterSmall   612   792
                   ArchE        2592  3456
                   ArchD        1728  2592
                   ArchC        1296  1728
                   ArchB         864  1296
                   ArchA         648   864
                   A0           2380  3368
                   A1           1684  2380
                   A2           1190  1684
                   A3            842  1190
                   A4            595   842
                   A4Small       595   842
                   A5            421   595
                   A6            297   421
                   A7            210   297
                   A8            148   210
                   A9            105   148
                   A10            74   105
                   B0           2836  4008
                   B1           2004  2836
                   B2           1418  2004
                   B3           1002  1418
                   B4            709  1002
                   B5            501   709
                   C0           2600  3677
                   C1           1837  2600
                   C2           1298  1837
                   C3            918  1298
                   C4            649   918
                   C5            459   649
                   C6            323   459
                   Flsa          612   936
                   Flse          612   936
                   HalfLetter    396   612


              For convenience you can specify the page size by media (e.g. A4,
              Ledger, etc.). Otherwise, -page behaves much like -geometry (e.g.
              -page letter+43+43>).

              This option is also used to place subimages when writing to a
              multi-image format that supports offsets, such as GIF89 and MNG.
              When used for this purpose the offsets are always  measured from
              the top left corner of the canvas and are not affected by the
              -gravity option.  To position a GIF or MNG image, use
              -page{+-}<x>{+-}<y> (e.g. -page +100+200).  When writing to a MNG
              file, a -page option appearing ahead of the first image in the
              sequence with nonzero width and height defines the width and
              height values that are written in the MHDR chunk.  Otherwise, the
              MNG width and height are computed from the bounding box that
              contains all images in the sequence.  When writing a GIF89 file,
              only the bounding box method is used to determine its dimensions.

              For a PostScript page, the image is sized as in -geometry and
              positioned relative to the lower left hand corner of the page by
              {+-}<xoffset>{+-}<y offset>. Use -page 612x792>, for example, to
              center the image within the page. If the image size exceeds the
              PostScript page, it is reduced to fit the page.  The default
              gravity for the -page option is NorthWest, i.e., positive x and y
              offset are measured rightward and downward from the top left
              corner of the page, unless the -gravity option is present with a
              value other than NorthWest.

              The default page dimensions for a TEXT image is 612x792.

              This option is used in concert with -density.

              Use +page to remove the page settings for an image.

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

              Each pixel is replaced by the most frequent color in a circular
              neighborhood whose width is specified with radius.

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between animation loops [animate]

              Pause for the specified number of seconds before repeating the
              animation.

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between snapshots [import]

              Pause for the specified number of seconds before taking the next
              snapshot.

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

              Use this option to disable reading the image pixels so that image
              characteristics such as the image dimensions may be obtained very
              quickly. For identify, use +ping to force reading the image pixels
              so that the pixel read rate may be included in the displayed
              information.

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -preview <type>
              image preview type

              Use this option to affect the preview operation of an image (e.g.
              convert file.png -preview Gamma Preview:gamma.png). Choose from
              these previews:

                   Rotate
                   Shear
                   Roll
                   Hue
                   Saturation
                   Brightness
                   Gamma
                   Spiff
                   Dull
                   Grayscale
                   Quantize
                   Despeckle
                   ReduceNoise
                   AddNoise
                   Sharpen
                   Blur
                   Threshold
                   EdgeDetect
                   Spread
                   Shade
                   Raise
                   Segment
                   Solarize
                   Swirl
                   Implode
                   Wave
                   OilPaint
                   CharcoalDrawing
                   JPEG


              The default preview is JPEG.

       -process <command>
              process a sequence of images using a process module

              The command argument has the form module=arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN
              where module is the name of the module to invoke (e.g. "analyze")
              and arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN are an arbitrary number of arguments
              to pass to the process module.  The sequence of images is
              terminated by the appearance of any option.

              If the -process option appears after all of the input images, all
              images are processed.

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

              -profile filename adds an ICM (ICC color management), IPTC
              (newswire information), or a generic (including Exif) profile to
              the image

              Use +profile icm, +profile iptc, or +profile profile_name to
              remove the respective profile.  Multiple profiles may be listed,
              separated by commas. Profiles may be excluded from subsequent
              listed matches by preceding their name with an exclamation point.
              For example, +profile '!icm,*' strips all profiles except for the
              ICM profile.  Use identify -verbose to find out what profiles are
              in the image file.  Use +profile "*" to remove all profiles.
              Writing the image to a format that does not support profiles will
              of course also cause all profiles to be removed.  The JPEG and PNG
              formats will store any profiles that have been read and not
              removed.  In JPEG they are stored in APP1 markers, and in PNG they
              are stored as hex-coded binary in compressed zTXt chunks, except
              for the iCC chunk which is stored in the iCCP chunk.

              To extract a profile, the -profile option is not used.  Instead,
              simply write the file to an image format such as APP1, 8BIM, ICM,
              or IPTC.

              For example, to extract the Exif data (which is stored in JPEG
              files in the APP1 profile), use


                  gm convert cockatoo.jpg exifdata.app1

              Note that GraphicsMagick does not attempt to update any profile to
              reflect changes made to the image, e.g., rotation from portrait to
              landscape orientation, so it is possible that the preserved
              profile may contain invalid data.

       -preserve-timestamp
              preserve the original timestamps of the file

              Use this option to preserve the original modification and access
              timestamps of the file, even if it has been modified.

       +progress
              disable progress monitor and busy cursor

              By default, when an image is displayed, a progress monitor bar is
              shown in the top left corner of an existing image display window,
              and the current cursor is replaced with an hourglass cursor. Use
              +progress to disable the progress monitor and busy cursor during
              display operations.  While the progress monitor is disabled for
              all operations, the busy cursor continues to be enabled for non-
              display operations such as image processing. This option is useful
              for non-interactive display operations, or when a "clean" look is
              desired.

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level
               For the JPEG and MPEG image formats, quality is 0 (lowest image
              quality and highest compression) to 100 (best quality but least
              effective compression). The default quality is 75.  Use the
              -sampling-factor option to specify the factors for chroma
              downsampling.  To use the same quality value as that found by the
              JPEG decoder, use the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag.

              For the MIFF image format, and the TIFF format while using ZIP
              compression, quality/10 is the zlib compression level, which is 0
              (worst but fastest compression) to 9 (best but slowest). It has no
              effect on the image appearance, since the compression is always
              lossless.

              For the JPEG-2000 image format, quality is mapped using a non-
              linear equation to the compression ratio required by the Jasper
              library. This non-linear equation is intended to loosely
              approximate the quality provided by the JPEG v1 format. The
              default quality value 75 results in a request for 16:1
              compression. The quality value 100 results in a request for non-
              lossy compression.

              For the MNG and PNG image formats, the quality value sets the zlib
              compression level (quality / 10) and filter-type (quality % 10).
              Compression levels range from 0 (fastest compression) to 100 (best
              but slowest). For compression level 0, the Huffman-only strategy
              is used, which is fastest but not necessarily the worst
              compression.

              If filter-type is 4 or less, the specified filter-type is used for
              all scanlines:

                   0: none
                   1: sub
                   2: up
                   3: average
                   4: Paeth


              If filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is
              greater than 50 and the image does not have a color map, otherwise
              no filtering is used.

              If filter-type is 6, adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-
              absolute-values is used.

              Only if the output is MNG, if filter-type is 7, the LOCO color
              transformation and adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-
              absolute-values are used.

              The default is quality is 75, which means nearly the best
              compression with adaptive filtering.  The quality setting has no
              effect on the appearance of PNG and MNG images, since the
              compression is always lossless.

              For further information, see the PNG specification.

              When writing a JNG image with transparency, two quality values are
              required, one for the main image and one for the grayscale image
              that conveys the opacity channel.  These are written as a single
              integer equal to the main image quality plus 1000 times the
              opacity quality.  For example, if you want to use quality 75 for
              the main image and quality 90 to compress the opacity data, use
              -quality 90075.

              For the PNM family of formats (PNM, PGM, and PPM) specify a
              quality factor of zero in order to obtain the ASCII variant of the
              format. Note that -compress none used to be used to trigger ASCII
              output but provided the opposite result of what was expected as
              compared with other formats.

              For the TIFF format, the JPEG, WebP, Zip, and Zstd compression
              algorithms are influenced by the quality value.  JPEG and WebP
              provide lossy compression so higher quality produces a larger file
              with less degradation.  The Zip and Zstd compression algorithms
              (and WebP in lossless mode) are lossless and for these algorithms
              a higher ´quality' means to work harder to produce a smaller file,
              but with no difference in image quality.

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

              This will create a 3-D effect. See -geometry for details details
              about the geometry specification. Offsets are not used.

              Use -raise to create a raised effect, otherwise use +raise.

       -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>
              random threshold the image

              The channel or channels specified in the <channeltype> argument
              are reduced to binary, using an random-threshold method. The
              choices for channeltype are All, Intensity, Red, Green, Blue,
              Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, and Opacity

              When channeltype is "All", the color samples are thresholded into
              a graylevel and then that gray level is stored in the three color
              channels. Separately, the opacity channel is thresholded into a
              bilevel opacity value which is stored in the opacity channel. For
              each pixel, a new random number is used to establish the threshold
              to be used. The threshold never exceeds the specified maximum
              (HIGH) and is never less than the specified minimum (LOW).

              When channeltype is "intensity", only the color samples are
              thresholded. When channeltype is "opacity" or "matte", only the
              opacity channel is thresholded. The other named channels only
              threshold the associated channel.

       -recolor <matrix>
              apply a color translation matrix to image channels

              A user supplied color translation matrix (expressed as a text
              string) is used to translate/blend the image channels based on
              weightings in a supplied matrix which may be of order 3 (color
              channels only), 4 (color channels plus opacity), or 5 (color
              channels plus opacity and offset).  Values in the columns of the
              matrix (red, green, blue, opacity) are used as multipliers with
              the existing channel values and added together according to the
              rows of the matrix.  Matrix values are floating point and may be
              negative.  The offset column (column 5) is purely additive and is
              scaled such that 0.0 to 1.0 represents the maximum quantum range
              (but values are not limited to this range). The math for the color
              translation matrix is similar to that used by Adobe Flash except
              that the offset is scaled to 1.0 (divide Flash offset by 255 for
              use with GraphicsMagick) so that the results are independent of
              quantum depth.

              An identity matrix exists for each matrix order which results in
              no change to the image.  The translation matrix should be based on
              an alteration of the identity matrix.

              Identity matrix of order 3

                1 0 0
                0 1 0
                0 0 1


              which may be formatted into a convenient matrix argument similar
              to (comma is treated as white space):

                -recolor "1 0 0, 0 1 0, 0 0 1"


              Identity matrix of order 4

                1 0 0 0
                0 1 0 0
                0 0 1 0
                0 0 0 1


              Identity matrix of order 5.  The last row is required to exist for
              the purpose of parsing, but is otherwise not used.

                1 0 0 0 0
                0 1 0 0 0
                0 0 1 0 0
                0 0 0 1 0
                0 0 0 0 1


              As an example, an image wrongly in BGR channel order may be
              converted to RGB using this matrix (blue->red, red->blue):

                0 0 1
                0 1 0
                1 0 0


              and an RGB image using standard Rec.709 primaries may be converted
              to grayscale using this matrix of standard weighting factors:

                0.2126 0.7152 0.0722
                0.2126 0.7152 0.0722
                0.2126 0.7152 0.0722


              and contrast may be reduced by scaling down by 80% and adding a
              10% offset:

                0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
                0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.1
                0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.1
                0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.1
                0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0


       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

              The x and y offsets are treated in the same manner as in -crop.

       -remote
              perform a X11 remote operation

              The -remote command sends a command to a "gm display" or "gm
              animate" which is already running. The only command recognized at
              this time is the name of an image file to load. This capability is
              very useful to load new images without needing to restart
              GraphicsMagick (e.g. for a slide-show or to use GraphicsMagick as
              the display engine for a different GUI). Also see the +progress
              option for a way to disable progress indication for a clean look
              while loading new images.

       -render
              render vector operations

              Use +render to turn off rendering vector operations. This is
              useful when saving the result to vector formats such as MVG or
              SVG.

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

              Adjust the current image page canvas and position based on a
              relative page specification.  This option may be used to change
              the location of a subframe (e.g. part of an animation) prior to
              composition.  If the geometry specification is absolute (includes
              a '!'), then the offset adjustment is absolute and there is no
              adjustment to page width and height, otherwise the page width and
              height values are also adjusted based on the current image
              dimensions.  Use +repage to set the image page offsets to default.

       -resample <horizontal>x<vertical>
              Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution

              Resize the image so that its rendered size remains the same as the
              original at the specified target resolution. Either the current
              image resolution units or the previously set with -units are used
              to interpret the argument. For example, if a 300 DPI image renders
              at 3 inches by 2 inches on a 300 DPI device, when the image has
              been resampled to 72 DPI, it will render at 3 inches by 2 inches
              on a 72 DPI device.  Note that only a small number of image
              formats (e.g. JPEG, PNG, and TIFF) are capable of storing the
              image resolution. For formats which do not support an image
              resolution, the original resolution of the image must be specified
              via -density on the command line prior to specifying the resample
              resolution.

              Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image resolution from a
              proprietary embedded profile. If this profile exists in the image,
              then Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its former
              resolution, ignoring the image resolution specified in the
              standard file header.

              Some image formats (e.g. PNG) require use of metric or english
              units so even if the original image used a particular unit system,
              if it is saved to a different format prior to resampling, then it
              may be necessary to specify the desired resolution units using
              -units since the original units may have been lost. In other
              words, do not assume that the resolution units are restored if the
              image has been saved to a file.

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

              This is an alias for the -geometry option and it behaves in the
              same manner. If the -filter option precedes the -resize option,
              the specified filter is used.

              There are some exceptions:

              When used as a composite option, -resize conveys the preferred
              size of the output image, while -geometry conveys the size and
              placement of the composite image within the main image.

              When used as a montage option, -resize conveys the preferred size
              of the montage, while -geometry conveys information about the
              tiles.

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

              See -geometry for details the geometry specification.  The x and y
              offsets are not affected by the -gravity option.

              A negative x offset rolls the image left-to-right. A negative y
              offset rolls the image top-to-bottom.

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

              Positive angles rotate the image in a clockwise direction while
              negative angles rotate counter-clockwise.

              Use > to rotate the image only if its width exceeds the height.  <
              rotates the image only if its width is less than the height. For
              example, if you specify -rotate "-90>" and the image size is
              480x640, the image is not rotated.  However, if the image is
              640x480, it is rotated by -90 degrees.  If you use > or <, enclose
              it in quotation marks to prevent it from being misinterpreted as a
              file redirection.

              Empty triangles left over from rotating the image are filled with
              the color defined as background (class backgroundColor).  The
              color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.
              -sample ignores the -filter selection if the -filter option is
              present.  Offsets, if present in the geometry string, are ignored,
              and the -gravity option has no effect.

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

              This option specifies the sampling factors to be used by the DPX,
              JPEG, MPEG, or YUV encoders for chroma downsampling. The sampling
              factor must be specified while reading the raw YUV format since it
              is not preserved in the file header.  Industry-standard video
              subsampling notation such as "4:2:2" may also be used to specify
              the sampling factors. "4:2:2" is equivalent to a specification of
              "2x1"

              The JPEG decoder obtains the original sampling factors (and
              quality settings) when a JPEG file is read. To re-use the original
              sampling factors (and quality setting) when JPEG is output, use
              the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag.

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.
              -scale uses a simpler, faster algorithm, and it ignores the
              -filter selection if the -filter option is present.  Offsets, if
              present in the geometry string, are ignored, and the -gravity
              option has no effect.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

              This option sets the scene number of an image or the first image
              in an image sequence.

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

              Each image in the range is read with the filename followed by a
              period (.) and the decimal scene number.  You can change this
              behavior by embedding a %d, %0Nd, %o, %0No, %x, or %0Nx printf
              format specification in the file name. For example,

                  gm montage -scenes 5-7 image.miff montage.miff


              makes a montage of files image.miff.5, image.miff.6, and
              image.miff.7, and

                  gm animate -scenes 0-12 image%02d.miff


              animates files image00.miff, image01.miff, through image12.miff.

       -screen
              specify the screen to capture

              This option indicates that the GetImage request used to obtain the
              image should be done on the root window, rather than directly on
              the specified window.  In this way, you can obtain pieces of other
              windows that overlap the specified window, and more importantly,
              you can capture menus or other popups that are independent windows
              but appear over the specified window.

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribute

              Set a named image attribute.  The attribute is set on the current
              (previously specified on command line) image.

       +set <attribute>
              unset an image attribute

              Unset a named image attribute.  The attribute is removed from the
              current (previously specified on command line) image.

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

              Segment an image by analyzing the histograms of the color
              components and identifying units that are homogeneous with the
              fuzzy c-means technique.

              Segmentation is a very useful fast and and approximate color
              quantization algorithm for scanned printed pages or scanned
              cartoons. It may also be used as a special effect. Specify cluster
              threshold as the minimum percentage of total pixels in a cluster
              before it is considered valid.  For huge images containing small
              detail, this may need to be a tiny fraction of a percent (e.g.
              0.015) so that important detail is not lost.  Smoothing threshold
              eliminates noise in the second derivative of the histogram. As the
              value is increased, you can expect a smoother second derivative.
              The default is 1.5. Add the -verbose option to see a dump of
              cluster statistics given the parameters used. The statistics may
              be used as a guide to help fine tune the options.

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

              Specify azimuth and elevation as the position of the light source.
              Use +shade to return the shading results as a grayscale image.

       -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>}
              shadow the montage

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

              This option specifies whether the utility should attempt to use
              shared memory for pixmaps.  GraphicsMagick must be compiled with
              shared memory support, and the display must support the MIT-SHM
              extension.  Otherwise, this option is ignored.  The default is
              True.

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

              Use a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation
              (sigma).

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

              Specify the width of the region to be removed from both sides of
              the image and the height of the regions to be removed from top and
              bottom.

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

              Use the specified positive or negative shear angle.

              Shearing slides one edge of an image along the X or Y axis,
              creating a parallelogram. An X direction shear slides an edge
              along the X axis, while a Y direction shear slides an edge along
              the Y axis. The amount of the shear is controlled by a shear
              angle. For X direction shears, x degrees is measured relative to
              the Y axis, and similarly, for Y direction shears y degrees is
              measured relative to the X axis.

              Empty triangles left over from shearing the image are filled with
              the color defined as background (class backgroundColor).  The
              color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.

       -silent
              operate silently

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

              Use this option to specify the width and height of raw images
              whose dimensions are unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK. In
              addition to width and height, use -size with an offset to skip any
              header information in the image or tell the number of colors in a
              MAP image file, (e.g. -size 640x512+256).

              For Photo CD images, choose from these sizes:

                   192x128
                   384x256
                   768x512
                   1536x1024
                   3072x2048


              Finally, use this option to choose a particular resolution layer
              of a JBIG or JPEG image (e.g. -size 1024x768).

       -snaps <value>
              number of screen snapshots

              Use this option to grab more than one image from the X server
              screen, to create an animation sequence.

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

              Specify factor as the percent threshold of the intensity (0 -
              99.9%).

              This option produces a solarization effect seen when exposing a
              photographic film to light during the development process.

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

              Amount defines the size of the neighborhood around each pixel to
              choose a candidate pixel to swap.

       -stegano <offset>
              hide watermark within an image

              Use an offset to start the image hiding some number of pixels from
              the beginning of the image.  Note this offset and the image size.
              You will need this information to recover the steganographic image
              (e.g. display -size 320x256+35 stegano:image.png).

       -stereo
              composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph

              The left side of the stereo pair is saved as the red channel of
              the output image.  The right side is saved as the green channel.
              Red-green stereo glasses are required to properly view the stereo
              image.

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

              All embedded profiles and text attributes are stripped from the
              image.  This is useful for images used for the web, or when output
              files need to be as small as possible

              Be careful not to use this option to remove author, copyright, and
              license information that you are required to retain when
              redistributing an image.

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

              The color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.

              See -draw for further details.

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

              See -draw for further details.

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

              Degrees defines the tightness of the swirl.

       -text-font <name>
              font for writing fixed-width text

              Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed
              (typewriter style) formatted text.  The default is 14 point
              Courier.

              You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript,
              TrueType, or X11 font.  For example, Courier.ttf is a TrueType
              font and x:fixed is X11.

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{%}
              threshold the image

              Modify the image such that any pixel sample with an intensity
              value greater than the threshold is assigned the maximum intensity
              (white), or otherwise is assigned the minimum intensity (black).
              If a percent prefix is applied, then the threshold is a percentage
              of the available range.

              To efficiently create a black and white image from a color image,
              use

                  gm convert -threshold 50% in.png out.png


              The optimum threshold value depends on the nature of the image.
              In order to threshold individual channels, use the -operator
              subcommand with it's Threshold, Threshold-White, or Threshold-
              Black options.

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

              The -thumbnail command resizes the image as quickly as possible,
              with more concern for speed than resulting image quality.
              Regardless, resulting image quality should be acceptable for many
              uses.  It is primarily intended to be used to generate smaller
              versions of the image, but may also be used to enlarge the image.
              The -thumbnail geometry argument observes the same syntax and
              rules as it does for -resize.

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -tile <geometry>
              layout of images [montage]

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

              Use this option to assign a specific title to the image. This is
              assigned to the image window and is typically displayed in the
              window title bar.  Optionally you can include the image filename,
              type, width, height, Exif data, or other image attribute by
              embedding special format characters described under the -format
              option.

              For example,

                   -title "%m:%f %wx%h"


              produces an image title of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

       -transform
              transform the image

              This option applies the transformation matrix from a previous
              -affine option.

                  gm convert -affine 2,2,-2,2,0,0 -transform bird.ppm bird.jpg


       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

              The color is specified using the format described under the -fill
              option.

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

              Normally, this integer value is zero or one. A value of zero or
              one causes the use of an optimal tree depth for the color
              reduction algorithm

              An optimal depth generally allows the best representation of the
              source image with the fastest computational speed and the least
              amount of memory.  However, the default depth is inappropriate for
              some images. To assure the best representation, try values between
              2 and 8 for this parameter.  Refer to quantize for more details.

              The -colors or -monochrome option, or writing to an image format
              which requires color reduction, is required for this option to
              take effect.

       -trim  trim an image

              This option removes any edges that are exactly the same color as
              the corner pixels.  Use -fuzz to make -trim remove edges that are
              nearly the same color as the corner pixels.

       -type <type>
              the image type

              Choose from: Bilevel, Grayscale, Palette, PaletteMatte, TrueColor,
              TrueColorMatte, ColorSeparation, ColorSeparationMatte, or
              Optimize.

              Normally, when a format supports different subformats such as
              bilevel, grayscale, palette, truecolor, and truecolor+alpha, the
              encoder will try to choose a suitable subformat based on the
              nature of the image. The -type option may be used to tailor the
              output subformat. By default the output subformat is based on
              readily available image information and is usually similar to the
              input format.

              Specify -type Optimize in order to enable inspecting all pixels
              (if necessary) in order to find the most efficient subformat.
              Inspecting all of the pixels may be slow for very large images,
              particularly if they are stored in a disk cache. If an RGB image
              contains only gray pixels, then every pixel in the image must be
              inspected in order to decide that the image is actually grayscale!

              Sometimes a specific subformat is desired. For example, to force a
              JPEG image to be written in TrueColor RGB format even though only
              gray pixels are present, use

                  gm convert bird.pgm -type TrueColor bird.jpg


              Similarly, using -type TrueColorMatte will force the encoder to
              write an alpha channel even though the image is opaque, if the
              output format supports transparency.

              Some pseudo-formats (e.g. the XC format) will respect the
              requested type if it occurs previously on the command line.  For
              example, to obtain a DirectClass solid color canvas image rather
              than PsuedoClass, use

                  gm convert -size 640x480 -type TrueColor xc:red red.miff


              Likewise, specify -type Bilevel, Grayscale, TrueColor, or
              TrueColorMatte prior to reading a Postscript (or PDF file) in
              order to influence the type of image that Ghostcript returns.
              Reading performance will be dramatically improved for black/white
              Postscript if Bilevel is specified, and will be considerably
              faster if Grayscale is specified.

       -update <seconds>
               detect when image file is modified and redisplay.

              Suppose that while you are displaying an image the file that is
              currently displayed is over-written.  display will automatically
              detect that the input file has been changed and update the
              displayed image accordingly.

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

              Choose from: Undefined, PixelsPerInch, or PixelsPerCentimeter.
              This option is normally used in conjunction with the -density
              option.

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

              The -unsharp option sharpens an image. The image is convolved with
              a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation
              (sigma). For reasonable results, radius should be larger than
              sigma. Use a radius of 0 to have the method select a suitable
              radius.

              The parameters are:


               radius


                    The radius of the Gaussian, in pixels, not counting the
                    center pixel (default 0).

               sigma


                    The standard deviation of the Gaussian, in pixels (default
                    1.0).

               amount


                    The percentage of the difference between the original and
                    the blur image that is added back into the original (default
                    1.0).

               threshold


                    The threshold, as a fraction of MaxRGB, needed to apply the
                    difference amount (default 0.05).




       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

              This information is printed: image scene number; image name; image
              size; the image class (DirectClass or PseudoClass); the total
              number of unique colors; and the number of seconds to read and
              transform the image. If the image is DirectClass, the total number
              of unique colors is not displayed unless -verbose is specified
              twice since it may take quite a long time to compute, particularly
              for deep images.  If the image is PseudoClass then its pixels are
              defined by indexes into a colormap. If the image is DirectClass
              then each pixel includes a complete and independent color
              specification.

              If -colors is also specified, the total unique colors in the image
              and color reduction error values are printed. Refer to quantize
              for a description of these values.

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

              This option defines "virtual pixels" for use in operations that
              can access pixels outside the boundaries of an image.

              Choose from these methods:


               Constant


                    Use the image background color.

               Edge


                    Extend the edge pixel toward infinity (default).

               Mirror


                    Mirror the image.

               Tile


                    Tile the image.




               This option affects operations that use virtual pixels such as
               -blur, -sharpen, -wave, etc.

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

              Choose from these visual classes:

                   StaticGray
                   GrayScale
                   StaticColor
                   PseudoColor
                   TrueColor
                   DirectColor
                   default
                   visual id


              The X server must support the visual you choose, otherwise an
              error occurs.  If a visual is not specified, the visual class that
              can display the most simultaneous colors on the default screen is
              chosen.

       -watermark <brightness>x<saturation>
              percent brightness and saturation of a watermark

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

              Specify amplitude and wavelength of the wave.

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -white-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels above the threshold become white

              Use -white-threshold to set pixels with values above the specified
              threshold to maximum value (white). If only one value is supplied,
              or the red, green, and blue values are identical, then intensity
              thresholding is used. If the color threshold values are not
              identical then channel-based thresholding is used, and color
              distortion will occur. Specify a negative value (e.g. -1) if you
              want a channel to be ignored but you do want to threshold a
              channel later in the list. If a percent (%) symbol is appended,
              then the values are treated as a percentage of maximum range.

       -window <id>
              make image the background of a window

              id can be a window id or name.  Specify root to select X's root
              window as the target window.

              By default the image is tiled onto the background of the target
              window.   If backdrop or -geometry are specified, the image is
              surrounded by the background color.  Refer to X RESOURCES for
              details.

              The image will not display on the root window if the image has
              more unique colors than the target window colormap allows.  Use
              -colors to reduce the number of colors.

       -window-group
              specify the window group

       -write <filename>
              write an intermediate image [convert, composite]

              The current image is written to the specified filename and then
              processing continues using that image. The following is an example
              of how several sizes of an image may be generated in one command
              (repeat as often as needed):

                  gm convert input.jpg -resize 50% -write input50.jpg \
                            -resize 25% input25.jpg


       -write <filename>
              write the image to a file [display]

              If filename already exists, you will be prompted as to whether it
              should be overwritten.

              By default, the image is written in the format that it was read in
              as.  To specify a particular image format, prefix filename with
              the image type and a colon (e.g., ps:image) or specify the image
              type as the filename suffix (e.g., image.ps). Specify file as -
              for standard output. If file has the extension .Z or .gz, the file
              size is compressed using compress or gzip respectively. Precede
              the image file name with | to pipe to a system command.

              Use -compress to specify the type of image compression.

              The equivalent X resource for this option is writeFilename (class
              WriteFilename).  See "X Resources", below, for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       COLUMNS
              Output screen width. Used when formatting text for the screen.
              Many Unix systems keep this shell variable up to date, but it may
              need to be explicitly exported in order for GraphicsMagick to see
              it.

       DISPLAY
              X11 display ID (host, display number, and screen in the form
              hostname:display.screen).

       HOME   Location of user's home directory. For security reasons, now only
              observed by "uninstalled" builds of GraphicsMagick which do not
              have their location hard-coded or set by an installer.  When
              supported, GraphicsMagick searches for configuration files in
              $HOME/.magick if the directory exists. See
              MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH, MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH, and
              MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH if more flexibility is needed.

       MAGICK_ACCESS_MONITOR
              When set to TRUE, command line monitor mode (enabled by -monitor)
              will also show files accessed (including temporary files) and any
              external commands which are executed. This is useful for
              debugging, but also illustrates arguments made available to an
              access handler registered by the MagickSetConfirmAccessHandler() C
              library function.

       MAGICK_CODER_STABILITY
              The minimum coder stability level before it will be used. The
              available levels are PRIMARY, STABLE, UNSTABLE, and BROKEN.  The
              default minimum level is UNSTABLE, which means that all available
              working coders will be used. The purpose of this option is to
              reduce the security exposure (or apparent complexity) due to the
              huge number of formats supported. Coders at the PRIMARY level are
              commonly used formats with very well maintained implementations.
              Coders at the STABLE level are reasonably well maintained but
              represent less used formats. Coders at the UNSTABLE level either
              have weak implementations, the file format itself is weak, or the
              probability the coder will be needed is vanishingly small. Coders
              at the BROKEN level are known to often not work properly or might
              not be useful in their current state at all.

       MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH
              Search path to use when searching for image format coder modules.
              This path allows the user to arbitrarily extend the image formats
              supported by GraphicsMagick by adding loadable modules to an
              arbitrary location rather than copying them into the
              GraphicsMagick installation directory. The formatting of the
              search path is similar to operating system search paths (i.e.
              colon delimited for Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft
              Windows). This user specified search path is used before trying
              the default search path.

       MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH
              Search path to use when searching for configuration (.mgk) files.
              The formatting of the search path is similar to operating system
              search paths (i.e. colon delimited for Unix, and semi-colon
              delimited for Microsoft Windows). This user specified search path
              is used before trying the default search path.

       MAGICK_DEBUG
              Debug options (see -debug for details).  Setting the configure
              debug option via an environment variable (e.g.
              MAGICK_DEBUG=configure) is necessary to see the complete
              initialization process, which includes searching for configuration
              files.

       MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH
              Search path to use when searching for filter process modules
              (invoked via -process). This path allows the user to arbitrarily
              extend GraphicsMagick's image processing functionality by adding
              loadable modules to an arbitrary location rather than copying them
              into the GraphicsMagick installation directory. The formatting of
              the search path is similar to operating system search paths (i.e.
              colon delimited for Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft
              Windows). This user specified search path is used before trying
              the default search path.

       MAGICK_GHOSTSCRIPT_PATH
              For Microsoft Windows, specify the path to the Ghostscript
              installation rather than searching for it via the Windows
              registry.  This helps in case Ghostscript is not installed via the
              Ghostscript Windows installer or the user wants more control over
              the Ghostscript used.

       MAGICK_HOME
              Path to top of GraphicsMagick installation directory. Only
              observed by "uninstalled" builds of GraphicsMagick which do not
              have their location hard-coded or set by an installer.

       MAGICK_MMAP_READ
              If MAGICK_MMAP_READ is set to TRUE, GraphicsMagick will attempt to
              memory-map the input file for reading. This usually substantially
              improves repeated read performance since the file is already in
              memory after the first time it has been read. However, testing
              shows that performance may be reduced for files accessed for the
              first time since data is accessed via page-faults (upon first
              access) and many operating systems fail to do sequential read-
              ahead of memory mapped files, and particularly if those files are
              accessed over a network.  If many large input files are read, then
              enabling this option may harm performance by overloading the
              operating system's VM system as it then needs to free unmapped
              pages and map new ones.

       MAGICK_IO_FSYNC
              If MAGICK_IO_FSYNC is set to TRUE, then GraphicsMagick will
              request that the output file is fully flushed and synchronized to
              disk when it is closed. This incurs a performance penalty, but has
              the benefit that if the power fails or the system crashes, the
              file should be valid on disk. If image files are referenced from a
              database, then this option helps assure that the files referenced
              by the database are valid.

       MAGICK_IOBUF_SIZE
              The amount of I/O buffering (in bytes) to use when reading and
              writing encoded files. The default is 16384, which is observed to
              work well for many cases. The best value for a local filesystem is
              usually the the native filesystem block size (e.g. 4096, 8192, or
              even 131,072 for ZFS) in order to minimize the number of physical
              disk I/O operations.  I/O performance to files accessed over a
              network may benefit significantly by tuning this option. Larger
              values are not necessarily better (they may be slower!), and there
              is rarely any benefit from using values larger than 32768. Use
              convert's -verbose option in order to evaluate read and write
              rates in pixels per second while keeping in mind that the
              operating system will try to cache files in RAM.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK
              Maximum amount of disk space allowed for use by the pixel cache.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES
              Maximum number of open files.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP
              Maximum size of a memory mapped file allocation.  A memory mapped
              file consumes memory when the file is accessed, although the
              system may reclaim such memory when needed.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY
              Maximum amount of memory to allocate from the heap.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_PIXELS
              Maximum number of total pixels (image rows times image colums) to
              allow for any image which is requested to be created or read.
              This is useful to place a limit on how large an image may be.  If
              the input image file has image dimensions larger than the pixel
              limit, then the image memory allocation is denied and an error is
              returned immediately.  This is a per-image limit and does not
              limit the total number of pixels due to multiple image
              frames/pages (e.g. multi-page document or an animation).

       MAGICK_LIMIT_WIDTH
              Maximum pixel width of an image read, or created.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_HEIGHT
              Maximum pixel height of an image read, or created.

       MAGICK_TMPDIR
              Path to directory where GraphicsMagick should write temporary
              files. The default is to use the system default, or the location
              set by TMPDIR.

       TMPDIR For POSIX-compatible systems (Unix-compatible), the path to the
              directory where all applications should write temporary files.
              Overridden by MAGICK_TMPDIR if it is set.

       TMP or TEMP
              For Microsoft Windows, the path to the directory where
              applications should write temporary files. Overridden by
              MAGICK_TMPDIR if it is set.

       OMP_NUM_THREADS
              As per the OpenMP standard, this specifies the number of threads
              to use in parallel regions. Some compilers default the number of
              threads to use to the number of processor cores available while
              others default to just one thread. See the OpenMP specification
              for other standard adjustments and your compiler's manual for
              vendor-specific settings.

CONFIGURATION FILES
       GraphicsMagick uses a number of XML format configuration files:

       colors.mgk
              colors configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <colormap>
                  <color name="AliceBlue" red="240" green="248" blue="255"
                         compliance="SVG, X11, XPM" />
                </colormap>


       delegates.mgk
              delegates configuration file

       log.mgk
              logging configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <magicklog>
                  <log events="None" />
                  <log output="stdout" />
                  <log filename="Magick-%d.log" />
                  <log generations="3" />
                  <log limit="2000" />
                  <log format="%t %r %u %p %m/%f/%l/%d:\n  %e"  />
                </magicklog>


       modules.mgk
              loadable modules configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <modulemap>
                  <module magick="8BIM" name="META" />
                </modulemap>


       type.mgk
              master type (fonts) configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <typemap>
                  <include file="type-windows.mgk" />
                  <type
                    name="AvantGarde-Book"
                    fullname="AvantGarde Book"
                    family="AvantGarde"
                    foundry="URW"
                    weight="400"
                    style="normal"
                    stretch="normal"
                    format="type1"
                    metrics="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.afm"
                    glyphs="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.pfb"
                  />
                </typemap>


GM ANIMATE
       Animate displays a sequence of images on any workstation display running
       an X server. animate first determines the hardware capabilities of the
       workstation. If the number of unique colors in an image is less than or
       equal to the number the workstation can support, the image is displayed
       in an X window. Otherwise the number of colors in the image is first
       reduced to match the color resolution of the workstation before it is
       displayed.

       This means that a continuous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel image can display on
       a 8 bit pseudo-color device or monochrome device. In most instances the
       reduced color image closely resembles the original. Alternatively, a
       monochrome or pseudo-color image sequence can display on a continuous-
       tone 24 bits-per-pixel device.

       To help prevent color flashing on X server visuals that have colormaps,
       animate creates a single colormap from the image sequence. This can be
       rather time consuming. You can speed this operation up by reducing the
       colors in the image before you "animate" them. Use mogrify to color
       reduce the images to a single colormap. See mogrify(1) for details.
       Alternatively, you can use a Standard Colormap; or a static, direct, or
       true color visual.  You can define a Standard Colormap with xstdcmap. See
       xstdcmap(1) for details. This method is recommended for colormapped X
       server because it eliminates the need to compute a global colormap.

EXAMPLES
       To animate a set of images of a cockatoo, use:

           gm animate cockatoo.*


       To animate a cockatoo image sequence while using the Standard Colormap
       best, use:

           xstdcmap -best
           gm animate -map best cockatoo.*


       To animate an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a
       backdrop, use:


           gm animate +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.*


OPTIONS
       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -backdrop
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
              specify the icon geometry

       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -map <type>
              display image using this type.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -name  name an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between animation loops [animate]

       -remote
              perform a X11 remote operation

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -text-font <name>
              font for writing fixed-width text

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

       -window <id>
              make image the background of a window

              For a more detailed description of each option, see Options,
              above.


              Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for
              the group of images following it, until the group is terminated by
              the appearance of any option or -noop.  For example, to animate
              three images, the first with 32 colors, the second with an
              unlimited number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors,
              use:


                  gm animate -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
                           -colors 16 cockatoo.3


              Animate options can appear on the command line or in your X
              resources file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede
              values specified in your X resources file.  Image filenames may
              appear in any order on the command line if the image format is
              MIFF (refer to miff(5) and the scene keyword is specified in the
              image. Otherwise the images will display in the order they appear
              on the command line.

MOUSE BUTTONS
       Press any button to map or unmap the Command widget. See the next section
       for more information about the Command widget.

COMMAND WIDGET
       The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are

           Animate

               Open
               Play
               Step
               Repeat
               Auto Reverse

           Speed

               Faster
               Slower

           Direction

               Forward
               Reverse

           Image Info
           Help
           Quit


       Menu items with a indented triangle have a sub-menu. They are represented
       above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu item, move the pointer
       to the appropriate menu and press a button and drag. When you find the
       desired sub-menu item, release the button and the command is executed.
       Move the pointer away from the sub-menu if you decide not to execute a
       particular command.

KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS
               Ctl+O

                    Press to load an image from a file.
               space

                    Press to display the next image in the sequence.
               <

                    Press to speed-up the display of the images.  Refer to
                    -delay for more information.
               >

                    Press to slow the display of the images.  Refer to -delay
                    for more information.
               ?

                    Press to display information about the image.  Press any key
                    or button to erase the information.
                    This information is printed: image name;  image size; and
                    the total number of unique colors in the image.
               F1

                    Press to display helpful information about animate(1).
               Ctl-q

                    Press to discard all images and exit program.


X RESOURCES
       Animate options can appear on the command line or in your X resource
       file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X
       resource file. See X(1) for more information on X resources.

       All animate options have a corresponding X resource. In addition, the
       animate program uses the following X resources:

               background (class Background)


                    Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window
                    background. The default is #ccc.
               borderColor (class BorderColor)


                    Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window
                    border. The default is #ccc.
               borderWidth (class BorderWidth)


                    Specifies the width in pixels of the Image window border.
                    The default is 2.
               font (class Font or FontList)


                    Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in normal
                    formatted text.  The default is 14 point Helvetica.
               foreground (class Foreground)


                    Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the
                    Image window.  The default is black.
               geometry (class geometry)


                    Specifies the preferred size and position of the image
                    window. It is not necessarily obeyed by all window managers.
                    Offsets, if present, are handled in X(1) style.  A negative
                    x offset is measured from the right edge of the screen to
                    the right edge of the icon, and a negative y offset is
                    measured from the bottom edge of the screen to the bottom
                    edge of the icon.
               iconGeometry (class IconGeometry)


                    Specifies the preferred size and position of the application
                    when iconified.  It is not necessarily obeyed by all window
                    managers.  Offsets, if present, are handled in the same
                    manner as in class Geometry.
               iconic (class Iconic)


                    This resource indicates that you would prefer that the
                    application's windows initially not be visible as if the
                    windows had be immediately iconified by you. Window managers
                    may choose not to honor the application's request.
               matteColor (class MatteColor)


                    Specify the color of windows. It is used for the backgrounds
                    of windows, menus, and notices. A 3D effect is achieved by
                    using highlight and shadow colors derived from this color.
                    Default value: #ddd.
               name (class Name)


                    This resource specifies the name under which resources for
                    the application should be found. This resource is useful in
                    shell aliases to distinguish between invocations of an
                    application, without resorting to creating links to alter
                    the executable file name. The default is the application
                    name.
               sharedMemory (class SharedMemory)


                    This resource specifies whether animate should attempt use
                    shared memory for pixmaps. ImageMagick must be compiled with
                    shared memory support, and the display must support the MIT-
                    SHM extension. Otherwise, this resource is ignored. The
                    default is True.
               text_font (class textFont)


                    Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed
                    (typewriter style) formatted text. The default is 14 point
                    Courier.
               title (class Title)


                    This resource specifies the title to be used for the Image
                    window. This information is sometimes used by a window
                    manager to provide some sort of header identifying the
                    window. The default is the image file name.


GM BATCH
DESCRIPTION
       batch executes an arbitary number of the utility commands (e.g. convert)
       in the form of a simple linear batch script in order to improve execution
       efficiency, and/or to allow use as a subordinate co-process under the
       control of an arbitrary script or program.

EXAMPLES
        To drive 'gm batch' using a shell script (or a program written in any
       language), have the script/program send commands to 'gm batch' via its
       standard input.  Specify that standard input should be used by using '-'
       as the file name.  The following example converts all files matching
       '*.jpg' to TIFF format while rotating each file by 90 degrees and
       stripping all embedded profiles.  The shell script syntax is standard
       Unix shell:

         for file in *.jpg
         do
           outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff
           echo convert -verbose "'$file'" -rotate 90 \
           +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'"
         done | gm batch -echo on -feedback on -


       We can accomplish the same as the previous example by putting all the
       commands in a text file and then specifying the name of the text file as
       the script to execute:

         for file in *.jpg
         do
           outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff
           echo convert -verbose "'$file'" -rotate 90 \
           +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'"
         done > script.txt
         gm batch -echo on -feedback on script.txt


OPTIONS
       Options are processed from left to right and must appear before any
       filename argument.

       -echo on|off
              command echo on or off

              Specify on to enable echoing commands to standard output as they
              are read or off to disable.  The default is off.

       -escape unix|windows
              Parse using unix or windows syntax

              Commands must be parsed from the input stream and escaping needs
              to be used to protect spaces or quoting characters in the input.
              Specify unix to use unix-style command line parsing or windows for
              Microsoft Windows command shell style parsing. The default depends
              on if the software is compiled for Microsoft Windows or for a
              Unix-type system (including Cygwin on Microsoft Windows).  It is
              recommended to use unix syntax because it is more powerful and
              more portable.

       -fail text
              text to print if a command fails

              When feedback is enabled, this specifies the text to print when
              the command fails.  The default text is FAIL.

       -feedback on|off
              enable error feedback

              Print text (see -pass and -fail options) feedback after each
              command to indicate the result, the default is off.

       -help

              Prints batch command help.

       -pass text
              text to print if a command passes

              When feedback is enabled, this specifies the text to print when
              the command passes.  The default text is PASS.

       -prompt text
              Prompt text to use for command line

              If no filename argument was specified, a simple command prompt
              appears where you may enter GraphicsMagick commands.  The default
              prompt is GM>.  Use this option to change the prompt to something
              else.

       -stop-on-error on|off
              Specify if command processing stops on error

              Normally command processing continues if a command encounters an
              error.  Specify -stop-on-error on to cause processing to quit
              immediately on error.

GM BENCHMARK
DESCRIPTION
       benchmark executes an arbitrary gm utility command (e.g. convert) for one
       or more loops, and/or a specified execution time, and reports many
       execution metrics.  For builds using OpenMP, a mode is provided to
       execute the benchmark with an increasing number of threads and provide a
       report of speedup and multi-thread execution efficiency.  If benchmark is
       used to execute a command without any additional benchmark options, then
       the command is run once.

EXAMPLES
       To obtain benchmark information for a single execution of a command:

           gm benchmark convert input.ppm -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm

       To obtain benchmark information from 100 iterations of the command:

           gm benchmark -iterations 100 convert input.ppm \
             -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm

       To obtain benchmark information by iterating the command until a
       specified amount of time (in seconds) has been consumed:

           gm benchmark -duration 30 convert input.ppm \
             -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm

       To obtain a full performance report with an increasing number of threads
       (1-32 threads, stepping the number of threads by four each time):

           gm benchmark -duration 3 -stepthreads 4 convert \
             input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm

       Here is the interpretation of the output:

           threads - number of threads used.
           iter - number of command iterations executed.
           user - total user time consumed.
           total - total elapsed time consumed.
           iter/s - number of command iterations per second.
           iter/cpu - amount of CPU time consumed per iteration.
           speedup - speedup compared with one thread.
           karp-flatt - Karp-Flatt measure of speedup efficiency.

       Please note that the reported "speedup" is based on the execution time of
       just one thread.  A preliminary warm-up pass is used before timing the
       first loop in order to ensure that the CPU is brought out of power-saving
       modes and that system caches are warmed up.  Most modern CPUs provide a
       "turbo" mode where the CPU clock speed is increased (e.g. by a factor of
       two) when only one or two cores are active.  If the CPU grows excessively
       hot (due to insufficient cooling), then it may dial back its clock rates
       as a form of thermal management.  These factors result in an under-
       reporting of speedup compared to if "turbo" mode was disabled and the CPU
       does not need to worry about thermal management.  The powertop utility
       available under Linux and Solaris provides a way to observe CPU core
       clock rates while a benchmark is running.

OPTIONS
        Options are processed from left to right and must appear before any
       argument.

       -duration duration
              duration to run benchmark Specify the number of seconds to run the
              benchmark. The command is executed repeatedly until the specified
              amount of time has elapsed.

       -help

              Prints benchmark command help.

       -iterations loops
              number of command iterations Specify the number of iterations to
              run the benchmark. The command is executed repeatedly until the
              specified number of iterations has been reached.

       -rawcsv
              Print results in CSV format Print results in a comma-separated
              value (CSV) format which is easy to parse for plotting or
              importing into a spreadsheet or database.  The values reported are
              threads, iterations, user_time, and elapsed_time.

       -stepthreads step
              execute a per-thread benchmark ramp
               Execute a per-thread benchmark ramp, incrementing the number of
              threads at each step by the specified value.  The maximum number
              of threads is taken from the standard OMP_NUM_THREADS environment
              variable.

GM COMPARE
       compare compares two similar images using a specified statistical method
       (see -metric) and/or by writing a difference image (-file), with the
       altered pixels annotated using a specified method (see -highlight-style)
       and color (see -highlight-color). Reference-image is the original image
       and compare-image is the (possibly) altered version, which should have
       the same dimensions as reference-image.

EXAMPLES
       To compare two images using Mean Square Error (MSE) statistical analysis
       use:

           gm compare -metric mse original.miff compare.miff


       To create an annotated difference image use:

           gm compare -highlight-style assign -highlight-color purple \
             -file diff.miff original.miff compare.miff


OPTIONS
       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect only for the image that follows.  All
       options are reset to their default values after each image is read.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -file <filename>
              write annotated difference image to file

       -help  print usage instructions

       -highlight-color <color>
              pixel annotation color

       -highlight-style <style>
              pixel annotation style

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -maximum-error <limit>
              specifies the maximum amount of total image error

       -metric <metric>
              comparison metric (MAE, MSE, PAE, PSNR, RMSE)

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

              For a more detailed description of each option, see Options,
              above.


GM COMPOSITE
       composite composites (combines) images to create new images.  base-image
       is the base image and change-image contains the changes.  ouput-image is
       the result, and normally has the same dimensions as base-image.


       The optional mask-image can be used to provide opacity information for
       change-image when it has none or if you want a different mask.  A mask
       image is typically grayscale and the same size as base-image. If mask-
       image is not grayscale, it is converted to grayscale and the resulting
       intensities are used as opacity information.

EXAMPLES
       To composite an image of a cockatoo with a perch, use:

           gm composite cockatoo.miff perch.ras composite.miff


       To compute the difference between images in a series, use:

           gm composite -compose difference series.2 series.1
                     difference.miff


       To composite an image of a cockatoo with a perch starting at location
       (100,150), use:

           gm composite -geometry +100+150 cockatoo.miff
                     perch.ras composite.miff


       To tile a logo across your image of a cockatoo, use

           gm convert +shade 30x60 cockatoo.miff mask.miff
           gm composite -compose bumpmap -tile logo.png
                     cockatoo.miff mask.miff composite.miff


       To composite a red, green, and blue color plane into a single composite
       image, try

           gm composite -compose CopyGreen green.png red.png
                     red-green.png
           gm composite -compose CopyBlue blue.png red-green.png
                     gm composite.png


OPTIONS
       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect only for the image that follows.  All
       options are reset to their default values after each image is read.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>
              shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dissolve <percent>
              dissolve an image into another by the given percent

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -recolor <matrix>
              apply a color translation matrix to image channels

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -render
              render vector operations

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribute

       +set <attribute>
              unset an image attribute

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -stegano <offset>
              hide watermark within an image

       -stereo
              composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -watermark <brightness>x<saturation>
              percent brightness and saturation of a watermark

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -write <filename>
              write an intermediate image [convert, composite]

              For a more detailed description of each option, see Options,
              above.


GM CONJURE
       The Magick scripting language (MSL) will primarily benefit those that
       want to accomplish custom image processing tasks but do not wish to
       program, or those that do not have access to a Perl interpreter or a
       compiler.  The interpreter is called conjure and here is an example
       script:

           <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
           <image size="400x400" >
             <read filename="image.gif" />
             <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
             <resize geometry="%[dimensions]" />
             <get width="width" height="height" />
             <print output=
               "Image sized from %[base-width]x%[base-height]
                to %[width]x%[height].\n" />
             <write filename="image.png" />
           </image>


       invoked with

           gm conjure -dimensions 400x400 incantation.msl


       All operations will closely follow the key/value pairs defined in
       PerlMagick, unless otherwise noted.

OPTIONS
       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with a different effect, or if it is changed
       by a statement in the scripting language.

       You can define your own keyword/value pairs on the command line.  The
       script can then use this information when setting values by including
       %[keyword] in the string.  For example, if you included "-dimensions
       400x400" on the command line, as illustrated above, then any string
       containing "%[dimensions]" would have 400x400 substituted.  The
       "%[string]" can be used either an entire string, such as
       geometry="%[dimensions]" or as a part of a string such as
       filename="%[basename].png".

       The keyword can be any string except for the following reserved strings
       (in any upper, lower, or mixed case variant): debug, help, and verbose,
       whose usage is described below.

       The value can be any string.  If either the keyword or the value contains
       white space or any symbols that have special meanings to your shell such
       as "#", "|", or "%", enclose the string in quotation marks or use "\" to
       escape the white space and special symbols.

       Keywords and values are case dependent.  "Key", "key", and "KEY" would be
       three different keywords.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -help  print usage instructions

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

MAGICK SCRIPTING LANGUAGE
       The Magick Scripting Language (MSL) presently defines the following
       elements and their attributes:

               <image>

                    background, color, id, size

                    Define a new image object.  </image> destroys it. Because of
                    this, if you wish to reference multiple "subimages" (aka
                    pages or layers), you can embed one image element inside of
                    another. For example:



                        <image>
                        <read filename="input.png" />
                        <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
                        <image height="base-height" width="base-width">
                        <image />
                        <write filename="output.mng" />
                        </image>




                        <image size="400x400" />


               <group>


                    Define a new group of image objects.  By default, images are
                    only valid for the life of their <image>element.



                        <image>   -- creates the image
                        .....     -- do stuff with it
                        </image>  -- dispose of the image



                    However, in a group, all images in that group will stay
                    around for the life of the group:



                        <group>                           -- start a group
                            <image>                       -- create an image
                            ....                          -- do stuff
                            </image>                      -- NOOP
                            <image>                       -- create another
                    image
                            ....                          -- do more stuff
                            </image>                      -- NOOP
                            <write filename="image.mng" />  -- output
                        </group>                          -- dispose of both
                    images


               <read>

                        filename

                    Read a new image from a disk file.



                        <read filename="image.gif" />



                    To read two images use



                        <read filename="image.gif" />
                        <read filename="image.png />


               <write>

                        filename
                    Write the image(s) to disk, either as a single multiple-
                    image file or multiple ones if necessary.



                         <write filename=image.tiff" />

               <get>

                    Get any attribute recognized by PerlMagick's GetAttribute()
                    and stores it as an image attribute for later use. Currently
                    only width and height are supported.


                        <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
                        <print output="Image size is %[base-width]x%[base-
                    height].\n" />


               <set>

                    background, bordercolor, clip-mask, colorspace, density,
                    magick, mattecolor, opacity.  Set an attribute recognized by
                    PerlMagick's GetAttribute().
               <profile>

                        [profilename]

                    Read one or more IPTC, ICC or generic profiles from file and
                    assign to image



                        <profile iptc="profile.iptc" generic="generic.dat" />



                    To remove a specified profile use "!" as the filename eg



                        <profile icm="!" iptc="profile.iptc" />


               <border>

                        fill, geometry, height, width
               <blur>

                        radius, sigma
               <charcoal>

                        radius, sigma
               <chop>

                        geometry, height, width, x, y
               <crop>

                        geometry, height, width, x, y
               <composite>

                        compose, geometry, gravity, image, x, y


                        <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
                        <group>
                            <image id="image_01">
                                <read filename="cloud3.gif"/>
                                <resize geometry="250x90"/>
                            </image>
                            <image id="image_02">
                                <read filename="cloud4.gif"/>
                                <resize geometry="190x100"/>
                            </image>
                            <image>
                                <read filename="background.jpg"/>
                                <composite image="image_01"
                    geometry="+740+470"/>
                                <composite image="image_02"
                    geometry="+390+415"/>
                            </image>
                            <write filename="result.png"/>
                        </group>


               <despeckle>

               <emboss>

                        radius, sigma
               <enhance>

               <equalize>

               <edge>

                        radius
               <flip>

               <flop>

               <frame>

                        fill, geometry, height, width, x, y, inner, outer
               <flatten>

               <get>

                        height, width
               <gamma>

                        red, green, blue
               <image>

                        background, color, id, size
               <implode>

                        amount
               <magnify>

               <minify>

               <medianfilter>

                        radius
               <normalize>

               <oilpaint>

                        radius
               <print>

                        output
               <profile>

                        [profilename]
               <read>

               <resize>

                        blur, filter, geometry, height, width
               <roll>

                        geometry, x, y
               <rotate>

                        degrees
               <reducenoise>

                        radius
               <sample>

                        geometry, height, width
               <scale>

                        geometry, height, width
               <sharpen>

                        radius, sigma
               <shave>

                        geometry, height, width
               <shear>

                        x, y
               <solarize>

                        threshold
               <spread>

                        radius
               <stegano>

                        image
               <stereo>

                        image
               <swirl>

                        degrees
               <texture>

                        image
               <threshold>

                        threshold
               <transparent>

                        color
               <trim>



GM CONVERT
       Convert converts an input file using one image format to an output file
       with a differing image format. In addition, various types of image
       processing can be performed on the converted image during the conversion
       process. Convert recognizes the image formats listed in
       GraphicsMagick(1).


EXAMPLES
       To make a thumbnail of a JPEG image, use:

           gm convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120
                   +profile "*" thumbnail.jpg


       In this example, '-size 120x120' gives a hint to the JPEG decoder that
       the image is going to be downscaled to 120x120, allowing it to run faster
       by avoiding returning full-resolution images to GraphicsMagick for the
       subsequent resizing operation.  The ´-resize 120x120' specifies the
       desired dimensions of the output image.  It will be scaled so its largest
       dimension is 120 pixels.  The ´+profile "*"' removes any ICM, EXIF, IPTC,
       or other profiles that might be present in the input and aren't needed in
       the thumbnail.

       To convert a MIFF image of a cockatoo to a SUN raster image, use:

           gm convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras


       To convert a multi-page PostScript document to individual FAX pages, use:

           gm convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page


       To convert a TIFF image to a PostScript A4 page with the image in the
       lower left-hand corner, use:

           gm convert -page A4+0+0 image.tiff document.ps


       To convert a raw Gray image with a 128 byte header to a portable graymap,
       use:

           gm convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw
                   image.pgm


       In this example, "raw" is the input file.  Its format is "gray" and it
       has the dimensions and number of header bytes specified by the -size
       option and the sample depth specified by the -depth option.  The output
       file is "image.pgm".  The suffix ".pgm" specifies its format.

       To convert a Photo CD image to a TIFF image, use:

           gm convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff
           gm convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff


       To create a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:

           gm convert 'vid:*.jpg' directory.miff


       To annotate an image with blue text using font 12x24 at position
       (100,100), use:

           gm convert -font helvetica -fill blue
                   -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo"
                   bird.jpg bird.miff


       To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with bumps use:

           gm convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg tiled.png


       To surround an icon with an ornamental border to use with Mosaic(1), use:

           gm convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame 6x6 bird.jpg
                   icon.png


       To create a MNG animation from a DNA molecule sequence, use:

           gm convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.mng


OPTIONS
       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
       until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop.
       Some options only affect the decoding of images and others only the
       encoding.  The latter can appear after the final group of input images.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

       -append
              append a set of images

        -asc-cdl <spec>
              apply ASC CDL color transform

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -auto-orient
              orient (rotate) image so it is upright

       -average
              average a set of images

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -black-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels below the threshold become black

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -box <color>
              set the color of the annotation bounding box

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

       -coalesce
              merge a sequence of images

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution kernel

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -deconstruct
              break down an image sequence into constituent parts

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -extent <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              composite image on background color canvas image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flatten
              flatten a sequence of images

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -format <string>
              output formatted image characteristics

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -hald-clut <clut>
              apply a Hald CLUT to the image

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
              use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}
              adjust the level of image contrast

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

       -list <type>
              the type of list

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

       -magnify
              magnify the image

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -minify <factor>
              minify the image

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -morph <frames>
              morphs an image sequence

       -mosaic
              create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence

       -motion-blur <radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle}
              Simulate motion blur

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
              apply a mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to an image
              channel

       -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN>
              ordered dither the image

       -orient <orientation>
              Set the image orientation attribute

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -preview <type>
              image preview type

       -process <command>
              process a sequence of images using a process module

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>
              random threshold the image

       -recolor <matrix>
              apply a color translation matrix to image channels

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

       -render
              render vector operations

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

       -resample <horizontal>x<vertical>
              Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribute

       +set <attribute>
              unset an image attribute

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{%}
              threshold the image

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -transform
              transform the image

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -white-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels above the threshold become white

       -write <filename>
              write an intermediate image [convert, composite]

              For a more detailed description of each option, see Options,
              above.

GM DISPLAY
       Display is a machine architecture independent image processing and
       display program. It can display an image on any workstation screen
       running an X server. Display can read and write many of the more popular
       image formats (e.g. JPEG, TIFF, PNM, Photo CD, etc.).

       With display, you can perform these functions on an image:

                o  load an image from a file
                o  display the next image
                o  display the former image
                o  display a sequence of images as a slide show
                o  write the image to a file
                o  print the image to a PostScript printer
                o  delete the image file
                o  create a Visual Image Directory
                o  select the image to display by its thumbnail rather than name
                o  undo last image transformation
                o  copy a region of the image
                o  paste a region to the image
                o  restore the image to its original size
                o  refresh the image
                o  half the image size
                o  double the image size
                o  resize the image
                o  crop the image
                o  cut the image
                o  flop image in the horizontal direction
                o  flip image in the vertical direction
                o  rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise
                o  rotate the image 90 degrees counter-clockwise
                o  rotate the image
                o  shear the image
                o  roll the image
                o  trim the image edges
                o  invert the colors of the image
                o  vary the color brightness
                o  vary the color saturation
                o  vary the image hue
                o  gamma correct the image
                o  sharpen the image contrast
                o  dull the image contrast
                o  perform histogram equalization on the image
                o  perform histogram normalization on the image
                o  negate the image colors
                o  convert the image to grayscale
                o  set the maximum number of unique colors in the image
                o  reduce the speckles within an image
                o  eliminate peak noise from an image
                o  detect edges within the image
                o  emboss an image
                o  segment the image by color
                o  simulate an oil painting
                o  simulate a charcoal drawing
                o  annotate the image with text
                o  draw on the image
                o  edit an image pixel color
                o  edit the image matte information
                o  composite an image with another
                o  add a border to the image
                o  surround image with an ornamental border
                o  apply image processing techniques to a region of interest
                o  display information about the image
                o  zoom a portion of the image
                o  show a histogram of the image
                o  display image to background of a window
                o  set user preferences
                o  display information about this program
                o  discard all images and exit program
                o  change the level of magnification
                o  display images specified by a World Wide Web (WWW) uniform
               resource locator (URL)


EXAMPLES
       To scale an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in width and 480
       pixels in height and position the window at location (200,200), use:

           gm display -geometry 640x480+200+200! cockatoo.miff


       To display an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a
       backdrop, use:

           gm display +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.miff


       To tile a slate texture onto the root window, use:

           gm display -size 1280x1024 -window root slate.png


       To display a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:

           gm display 'vid:*.jpg'


       To display a MAP image that is 640 pixels in width and 480 pixels in
       height with 256 colors, use:

           gm display -size 640x480+256 cockatoo.map


       To display an image of a cockatoo specified with a World Wide Web (WWW)
       uniform resource locator (URL), use:

           gm display ftp://wizards.dupont.com/images/cockatoo.jpg


       To display histogram of an image, use:

           gm gm convert file.jpg HISTOGRAM:- | gm display -


OPTIONS
       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with a different effect. For example to
       display three images, the first with 32 colors, the second with an
       unlimited number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:

           gm display -colors 32 cockatoo.miff -noop duck.miff
                        -colors 16 macaw.miff


       Display options can appear on the command line or in your X resources
       file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values specified in
       your X resources file.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -backdrop
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
              specify the icon geometry

       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -immutable
              make image immutable

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -magnify <factor>
              magnify the image

       -map <type>
              display image using this type.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -name  name an image

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       +progress
              disable progress monitor and busy cursor

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -remote
              perform a X11 remote operation

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribute

       +set <attribute>
              unset an image attribute

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -text-font <name>
              font for writing fixed-width text

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -update <seconds>
               detect when image file is modified and redisplay.

       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

       -window <id>
              make image the background of a window

       -window-group
              specify the window group

       -write <filename>
              write the image to a file [display]

              For a more detailed description of each option, see Options,
              above.


MOUSE BUTTONS
       The effects of each button press is described below. Three buttons are
       required. If you have a two button mouse, button 1 and 3 are returned.
       Press ALT and button 3 to simulate button 2.

       1       Press this button to map or unmap the Command widget . See the
              next section for more information about the Command widget.

       2       Press and drag to define a region of the image to magnify.

       3       Press and drag to choose from a select set of display(1)
              commands. This button behaves differently if the image being
              displayed is a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile of
              the directory and press this button and drag to select a command
              from a pop-up menu.  Choose from these menu items:

                  Open
                  Next
                  Former
                  Delete
                  Update


              If you choose Open, the image represented by the tile is
              displayed.  To return to the visual image directory, choose Next
              from the Command widget (refer to Command Widget).  Next and
              Former moves to the next or former image respectively. Choose
              Delete to delete a particular image tile. Finally, choose Update
              to synchronize all the image tiles with their respective images.
              See montage and miff for more details.

COMMAND WIDGET
       The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are

           File

           Open...
           Next
           Former
           Select...
           Save...
           Print...
           Delete...
           Canvas...
           Visual Directory...
           Quit



           Edit

           Undo
           Redo
           Cut
           Copy
           Paste



           View

           Half Size
           Original Size
           Double Size
           Resize...
           Apply
           Refresh
           Restore



           Transform

           Crop
           Chop
           Flop
           Flip
           Rotate Right
           Rotate Left
           Rotate...
           Shear...
           Roll...
           Trim Edges



           Enhance

           Hue...
           Saturation...
           Brightness...
           Gamma...
           Spiff...
           Dull
           Equalize
           Normalize
           Negate
           GRAYscale
           Quantize...



           Effects

           Despeckle
           Emboss
           Reduce Noise
           Add Noise
           Sharpen...
           Blur...
           Threshold...
           Edge Detect...
           Spread...
           Shade...
           Raise...
           Segment...



           F/X

           Solarize...
           Swirl...
           Implode...
           Wave...
           Oil Paint...
           Charcoal Draw...



           Image Edit

           Annotate...
           Draw...
           Color...
           Matte...
           Composite...
           Add Border...
           Add Frame...
           Comment...
           Launch...
           Region of Interest...



           Miscellany

           Image Info
           Zoom Image
           Show Preview...
           Show Histogram
           Show Matte
           Background...
           Slide Show
           Preferences...



           Help

           Overview
           Browse Documentation
           About Display



       Menu items with a indented triangle have a sub-menu. They are represented
       above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu item, move the pointer
       to the appropriate menu and press button 1 and drag. When you find the
       desired sub-menu item, release the button and the command is executed.
       Move the pointer away from the sub-menu if you decide not to execute a
       particular command.

KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS
       Accelerators are one or two key presses that effect a particular command.
       The keyboard accelerators that display understands is:

           Ctl+O     Press to load an image from a file.
           space     Press to display the next image.


       If the image is a multi-paged document such as a PostScript document, you
       can skip ahead several pages by preceding this command with a number.
       For example to display the fourth page beyond the current page, press
       4space.

           backspace Press to display the former image.


       If the image is a multi-paged document such as a PostScript document, you
       can skip behind several pages by preceding this command with a number.
       For example to display the fourth page preceding the current page, press
       4n.

           Ctl-S    Press to save the image to a file.
           Ctl-P    Press to print the image to a
                    PostScript printer.
           Ctl-D    Press to delete an image file.
           Ctl-N    Press to create a blank canvas.
           Ctl-Q    Press to discard all images and exit program.
           Ctl+Z    Press to undo last image transformation.
           Ctl+R    Press to redo last image transformation.
           Ctl-X    Press to cut a region of
                    the image.
           Ctl-C    Press to copy a region of
                    the image.
           Ctl-V    Press to paste a region to
                    the image.
           <        Press to halve the image size.
           .        Press to return to the original image size.
           >        Press to double the image size.
           %        Press to resize the image to a width and height
                    you specify.
           Cmd-A    Press to make any image transformations
                    permanent.
                    By default, any image size transformations are
                    applied to the original image to create the
                    image displayed on the X server.  However, the
                    transformations are not permanent (i.e. the
                    original image does not change size only the
                    X image does). For example, if you press ">"
                    the X image will appear to double in size, but
                    the original image will in fact remain the same
                    size.  To force the original image to double in
                    size, press ">" followed by "Cmd-A".
           @        Press to refresh the image window.
           C        Press to crop the image.
           [        Press to chop the image.
           H        Press to flop image in the horizontal direction.
           V        Press to flip image in the vertical direction.
           /        Press to rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise.
           \        Press to rotate the image 90 degrees
                    counter-clockwise.
           *        Press to rotate the image
                    the number of degrees you specify.
           S        Press to shear the image the number of degrees
                    you specify.
           R        Press to roll the image.
           T        Press to trim the image edges.
           Shft-H   Press to vary the color hue.
           Shft-S   Press to vary the color saturation.
           Shft-L   Press to vary the image brightness.
           Shft-G   Press to gamma correct the image.
           Shft-C   Press to spiff up the image contrast.
           Shft-Z   Press to dull the image contrast.
           =        Press to perform histogram equalization on
                    the image.
           Shft-N   Press to perform histogram normalization on
                    the image.
           Shft-~   Press to negate the colors of the image.
           .        Press to convert the image colors to gray.
           Shft-#   Press to set the maximum number of unique
                    colors in the image.
           F2       Press to reduce the speckles in an image.
           F2       Press to emboss an image.
           F4       Press to eliminate peak noise from an image.
           F5       Press to add noise to an image.
           F6       Press to sharpen an image.
           F7       Press to blur image an image.
           F8       Press to threshold the image.
           F9       Press to detect edges within an image.
           F10      Press to displace pixels by a random amount.
           F11      Press to shade the image using a distant light
                    source.
           F12      Press to lighten or darken image edges to
                    create a 3-D effect.
           F13      Press to segment the image by color.
           Meta-S   Press to swirl image pixels about the center.
           Meta-I   Press to implode image pixels about the center.
           Meta-W   Press to alter an image along a sine wave.
           Meta-P   Press to simulate an oil painting.
           Meta-C   Press to simulate a charcoal drawing.
           Alt-X    Press to composite the image
                    with another.
           Alt-A    Press to annotate the image with text.
           Alt-D    Press to draw a line on the image.
           Alt-P    Press to edit an image pixel color.
           Alt-M    Press to edit the image matte information.
           Alt-X    Press to composite the image with another.
           Alt-A    Press to add a border to the image.
           Alt-F    Press to add a ornamental frame to the image.
           Alt-Shft-!   Press to add an image comment.
           Ctl-A    Press to apply image processing techniques to a
                    region of interest.
           Shft-?   Press to display information about the image.
           Shft-+   Press to map the zoom image window.
           Shft-P   Press to preview an image enhancement, effect,
                    or f/x.
           F1       Press to display helpful information about
                    the "display" utility.
           Find     Press to browse documentation about
                    GraphicsMagick.
           1-9      Press to change the level of magnification.


       Use the arrow keys to move the image one pixel up, down, left, or right
       within the magnify window. Be sure to first map the magnify window by
       pressing button 2.

       Press ALT and one of the arrow keys to trim off one pixel from any side
       of the image.

X RESOURCES
       Display options can appear on the command line or in your X resource
       file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X
       resource file. See X(1) for more information on X resources.

       Most display options have a corresponding X resource. In addition,
       display uses the following X resources:

       background (class Background)
               Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window
              background. The default is #ccc.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window border.
              The default is #ccc.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               Specifies the width in pixels of the image window border. The
              default is 2.

       browseCommand (class browseCommand)
               Specifies the name of the preferred browser when displaying
              GraphicsMagick documentation. The default is netscape %s.

       confirmExit (class ConfirmExit)
               Display pops up a dialog box to confirm exiting the program when
              exiting the program. Set this resource to False to exit without a
              confirmation.

       displayGamma (class DisplayGamma)
               Specifies the gamma of the X server.  You can apply separate
              gamma values to the red, green, and blue channels of the image
              with a gamma value list delineated with slashes (i.e.
              1.7/2.3/1.2).  The default is 2.2.

       displayWarnings (class DisplayWarnings)
               Display pops up a dialog box whenever a warning message occurs.
              Set this resource to False to ignore warning messages.

       font (class FontList)
               Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in normal
              formatted text.  The default is 14 point Helvetica.

       font[1-9] (class Font[1-9])
               Specifies the name of the preferred font to use when annotating
              the image window with text. The default fonts are fixed, variable,
              5x8, 6x10, 7x13bold, 8x13bold, 9x15bold, 10x20, and 12x24.

       foreground (class Foreground)
               Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the image
              window.  The default is black.

       gammaCorrect (class gammaCorrect)
               This resource, if true, will lighten or darken an image of known
              gamma to match the gamma of the display (see resource
              displayGamma). The default is True.

       geometry (class Geometry)
               Specifies the preferred size and position of the image window. It
              is not necessarily obeyed by all window managers.

              Offsets, if present, are handled in X(1) style.  A negative x
              offset is measured from the right edge of the screen to the right
              edge of the icon, and a negative y offset is measured from the
              bottom edge of the screen to the bottom edge of the icon.

       iconGeometry (class IconGeometry)
               Specifies the preferred size and position of the application when
              iconified.  It is not necessarily obeyed by all window managers.

              Offsets, if present, are handled in the same manner as in class
              Geometry.

       iconic (class Iconic)
               This resource indicates that you would prefer that the
              application's windows initially not be visible as if the windows
              had be immediately iconified by you. Window managers may choose
              not to honor the application's request.

       magnify (class Magnify)
               specifies an integral factor by which the image should be
              enlarged. The default is 3.  This value only affects the
              magnification window which is invoked with button number 3 after
              the image is displayed.

       matteColor (class MatteColor)
               Specify the color of windows. It is used for the backgrounds of
              windows, menus, and notices. A 3D effect is achieved by using
              highlight and shadow colors derived from this color. Default
              value: #697B8F.

       name (class Name)
               This resource specifies the name under which resources for the
              application should be found. This resource is useful in shell
              aliases to distinguish between invocations of an application,
              without resorting to creating links to alter the executable file
              name. The default is the application name.

       pen[1-9] (class Pen[1-9])
               Specifies the color of the preferred font to use when annotating
              the image window with text. The default colors are black, blue,
              green, cyan, gray, red, magenta, yellow, and white.

       printCommand (class PrintCommand)
               This command is executed whenever Print is issued.  In general,
              it is the command to print PostScript to your printer. Default
              value: lp -c -s %i.

       sharedMemory (class SharedMemory)
               This resource specifies whether display should attempt use shared
              memory for pixmaps. GraphicsMagick must be compiled with shared
              memory support, and the display must support the MIT-SHM
              extension. Otherwise, this resource is ignored. The default is
              True.

       textFont (class textFont)
               Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed
              (typewriter style) formatted text. The default is 14 point
              Courier.

       title (class Title)
               This resource specifies the title to be used for the image
              window. This information is sometimes used by a window manager to
              provide a header identifying the window. The default is the image
              file name.

       undoCache (class UndoCache)
               Specifies, in mega-bytes, the amount of memory in the undo edit
              cache.  Each time you modify the image it is saved in the undo
              edit cache as long as memory is available. You can subsequently
              undo one or more of these transformations. The default is 16
              Megabytes.

       usePixmap (class UsePixmap)
               Images are maintained as a XImage by default. Set this resource
              to True to utilize a server Pixmap instead. This option is useful
              if your image exceeds the dimensions of your server screen and you
              intend to pan the image. Panning is much faster with Pixmaps than
              with a XImage. Pixmaps are considered a precious resource, use
              them with discretion.

              To set the geometry of the Magnify or Pan or window, use the
              geometry resource.  For example, to set the Pan window geometry to
              256x256, use:

                  gm display.pan.geometry: 256x256


IMAGE LOADING
       To select an image to display, choose Open of the File sub-menu from the
       Command widget. A file browser is displayed.  To choose a particular
       image file, move the pointer to the filename and press any button. The
       filename is copied to the text window. Next, press Open or press the
       RETURN key. Alternatively, you can type the image file name directly into
       the text window. To descend directories, choose a directory name and
       press the button twice quickly. A scrollbar allows a large list of
       filenames to be moved through the viewing area if it exceeds the size of
       the list area.

       You can trim the list of file names by using shell globbing characters.
       For example, type *.jpg to list only files that end with .jpg.

       To select your image from the X server screen instead of from a file,
       Choose Grab of the Open widget.

VISUAL IMAGE DIRECTORY
       To create a Visual Image Directory, choose Visual Directory of the File
       sub-menu from the Command widget . A file browser is displayed. To create
       a Visual Image Directory from all the images in the current directory,
       press Directory or press the RETURN key.  Alternatively, you can select a
       set of image names by using shell globbing characters. For example, type
       *.jpg to include only files that end with .jpg. To descend directories,
       choose a directory name and press the button twice quickly. A scrollbar
       allows a large list of filenames to be moved through the viewing area if
       it exceeds the size of the list area.

       After you select a set of files, they are turned into thumbnails and
       tiled onto a single image. Now move the pointer to a particular thumbnail
       and press button 3 and drag. Finally, select Open. The image represented
       by the thumbnail is displayed at its full size. Choose Next from the File
       sub-menu of the Command widget to return to the Visual Image Directory.

IMAGE CUTTING
       Note that cut information for image window is not retained for
       colormapped X server visuals (e.g. StaticColor, StaticColor, GRAYScale,
       PseudoColor).  Correct cutting behavior may require a TrueColor or
       DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.

       To begin, press choose Cut of the Edit sub-menu from the Command widget.
       Alternatively, press F3 in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in cut mode. In cut mode, the Command widget has
       these options:

           Help
           Dismiss


       To define a cut region, press button 1 and drag. The cut region is
       defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it
       follows the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the cut region, release
       the button.  You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the Command
       widget has these options:

           Cut
           Help
           Dismiss


       You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the cut
       rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Cut to
       commit your copy region. To exit without cutting the image, press
       Dismiss.

IMAGE COPYING
       To begin, press choose Copy of the Edit sub-menu from the Command widget.
       Alternatively, press F4 in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in copy mode. In copy mode, the Command widget has
       these options:

           Help
           Dismiss


       To define a copy region, press button 1 and drag. The copy region is
       defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it
       follows the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the copy region, release
       the button.  You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the Command
       widget has these options:

           Copy
           Help
           Dismiss


       You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the copy
       rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Copy
       to commit your copy region. To exit without copying the image, press
       Dismiss.

IMAGE PASTING
       To begin, press choose Paste of the Edit sub-menu from the Command
       widget. Alternatively, press F5 in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in Paste mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.
       In Paste mode, the Command widget has these options:

           Operators

           over
           in
           out
           atop
           xor
           plus
           minus
           add
           subtract
           difference
           multiply
           bumpmap
           replace

           Help
           Dismiss


       Choose a composite operation from the Operators sub-menu of the Command
       widget. How each operator behaves is described below. image window is the
       image currently displayed on your X server and image is the image
       obtained with the File Browser widget.

       over    The result is the union of the two image shapes, with image
              obscuring image window in the region of overlap.

       in      The result is simply image cut by the shape of image window.
              None of the image data of image window is in the result.

       out     The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut
              out.

       atop    The result is the same shape as image window, with image
              obscuring image window where the image shapes overlap. Note this
              differs from over because the portion of image outside image
              window's shape does not appear in the result.

       xor     The result is the image data from both image and image window
              that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is blank.

       plus    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are
              cropped to the maximum value (no overflow). This operation is
              independent of the matte channels.

       minus   The result of image - image window, with underflow cropped to
              zero. The matte channel is ignored (set to opaque, full coverage).

       add     The result of image + image window, with overflow wrapping around
              (mod MaxRGB+1).

       subtract
               The result of image - image window, with underflow wrapping
              around (mod MaxRGB+1). The add and subtract operators can be used
              to perform reversible transformations.

       difference
               The result of abs(image - image window). This is useful for
              comparing two very similar images.

       multiply
               The result of image * image window. This is useful for the
              creation of drop-shadows.

       bumpmap
               The result of image window shaded by window.

       replace
              The resulting image is image window replaced with image.  Here the
              matte information is ignored.

              The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the
              image for some operations. This extra channel usually defines a
              mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image.
              This is the case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels
              inside the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the
              boundary. If image does not have a matte channel, it is
              initialized with 0 for any pixel matching in color to pixel
              location (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method of
              defining a matte channel.

              Note that matte information for image window is not retained for
              colormapped X server visuals (e.g. StaticColor, StaticColor,
              GrayScale, PseudoColor).  Correct compositing behavior may require
              a TrueColor or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.

              Choosing a composite operator is optional. The default operator is
              replace.  However, you must choose a location to composite your
              image and press button 1. Press and hold the button before
              releasing and an outline of the image will appear to help you
              identify your location.

              The actual colors of the pasted image is saved. However, the color
              that appears in image window may be different. For example, on a
              monochrome screen image window will appear black or white even
              though your pasted image may have many colors. If the image is
              saved to a file it is written with the correct colors. To assure
              the correct colors are saved in the final image, any PseudoClass
              image is promoted to DirectClass.  To force a PseudoClass image to
              remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

IMAGE CROPPING
       To begin, press choose Crop of the Transform submenu from the Command
       widget. Alternatively, press C in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in crop mode. In crop mode, the Command widget has
       these options:

           Help
           Dismiss


       To define a cropping region, press button 1 and drag. The cropping region
       is defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it
       follows the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the cropping region,
       release the button. You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the
       Command widget has these options:

           Crop
           Help
           Dismiss


       You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the cropping
       rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Crop
       to commit your cropping region. To exit without cropping the image, press
       Dismiss.

IMAGE CHOPPING
       An image is chopped interactively. There is no command line argument to
       chop an image. To begin, choose Chop of the Transform sub-menu from the
       Command widget. Alternatively, press [ in the Image window.

       You are now in Chop mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.  In Chop
       mode, the Command widget has these options:

           Direction

           horizontal
           vertical

           Help
           Dismiss


       If the you choose the horizontal direction (this is the default), the
       area of the image between the two horizontal endpoints of the chop line
       is removed.  Otherwise, the area of the image between the two vertical
       endpoints of the chop line is removed.

       Select a location within the image window to begin your chop, press and
       hold any button. Next, move the pointer to another location in the image.
       As you move a line will connect the initial location and the pointer.
       When you release the button, the area within the image to chop is
       determined by which direction you choose from the Command widget.

       To cancel the image chopping, move the pointer back to the starting point
       of the line and release the button.

IMAGE ROTATION
       Press the / key to rotate the image 90 degrees or \ to rotate -90
       degrees.  To interactively choose the degree of rotation, choose
       Rotate...  of the Transform submenu from the Command Widget.
       Alternatively, press * in the image window.

       A small horizontal line is drawn next to the pointer. You are now in
       rotate mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In rotate mode, the
       Command widget has these options:

           Pixel Color

           black
           blue
           cyan
           green
           gray
           red
           magenta
           yellow
           white
           Browser...

           Direction

           horizontal
           vertical

           Help
           Dismiss


       Choose a background color from the Pixel Color sub-menu. Additional
       background colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change
       the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       If you choose the color browser and press Grab, you can select the
       background color by moving the pointer to the desired color on the screen
       and press any button.

       Choose a point in the image window and press this button and hold. Next,
       move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move a line
       connects the initial location and the pointer. When you release the
       button, the degree of image rotation is determined by the slope of the
       line you just drew. The slope is relative to the direction you choose
       from the Direction sub-menu of the Command widget.

       To cancel the image rotation, move the pointer back to the starting point
       of the line and release the button.

IMAGE ANNOTATION
       An image is annotated interactively. There is no command line argument to
       annotate an image. To begin, choose Annotate of the Image Edit sub-menu
       from the Command widget. Alternatively, press a in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in annotate mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.
       In annotate mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Font Name


       fixed

       variable

       5x8

       6x10

       7x13bold

       8x13bold

       9x15bold

       10x20

       12x24

       Browser...


       Font Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...


       Box Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...


       Rotate Text


       -90

       -45

       -30

       0

       30

       45

       90

       180

       Dialog...


       Help

       Dismiss


       Choose a font name from the Font Name sub-menu. Additional font names can
       be specified with the font browser. You can change the menu names by
       setting the X resources font1 through font9.

       Choose a font color from the Font Color sub-menu. Additional font colors
       can be specified with the color browser. You can change the menu colors
       by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       If you select the color browser and press Grab, you can choose the font
       color by moving the pointer to the desired color on the screen and press
       any button.

       If you choose to rotate the text, choose Rotate Text from the menu and
       select an angle. Typically you will only want to rotate one line of text
       at a time. Depending on the angle you choose, subsequent lines may end up
       overwriting each other.

       Choosing a font and its color is optional. The default font is fixed and
       the default color is black. However, you must choose a location to begin
       entering text and press a button. An underscore character will appear at
       the location of the pointer. The cursor changes to a pencil to indicate
       you are in text mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.

       In text mode, any key presses will display the character at the location
       of the underscore and advance the underscore cursor. Enter your text and
       once completed press Apply to finish your image annotation. To correct
       errors press BACK SPACE. To delete an entire line of text, press DELETE.
       Any text that exceeds the boundaries of the image window is automatically
       continued onto the next line.

       The actual color you request for the font is saved in the image. However,
       the color that appears in your Image window may be different. For
       example, on a monochrome screen the text will appear black or white even
       if you choose the color red as the font color. However, the image saved
       to a file with -write is written with red lettering. To assure the
       correct color text in the final image, any PseudoClass image is promoted
       to DirectClass (see miff(5)). To force a PseudoClass image to remain
       PseudoClass, use -colors.

IMAGE COMPOSITING
       An image composite is created interactively. There is no command line
       argument to composite an image. To begin, choose Composite of the Image
       Edit from the Command widget. Alternatively, press x in the Image window.

       First a popup window is displayed requesting you to enter an image name.
       Press Composite, Grab or type a file name. Press Cancel if you choose not
       to create a composite image. When you choose Grab, move the pointer to
       the desired window and press any button.

       If the Composite image does not have any matte information, you are
       informed and the file browser is displayed again. Enter the name of a
       mask image. The image is typically grayscale and the same size as the
       composite image. If the image is not grayscale, it is converted to
       grayscale and the resulting intensities are used as matte information.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in composite mode. To exit immediately, press
       Dismiss.  In composite mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Operators


       over

       in

       out

       atop

       xor

       plus

       minus

       add

       subtract

       difference

       bumpmap

       replace


       Blend

       Displace

       Help

       Dismiss


       Choose a composite operation from the Operators sub-menu of the Command
       widget. How each operator behaves is described below. image window is the
       image currently displayed on your X server and image is the image
       obtained

       over    The result is the union of the two image shapes, with image
              obscuring image window in the region of overlap.

       in      The result is simply image cut by the shape of image window.
              None of the image data of image window is in the result.

       out     The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut
              out.

       atop    The result is the same shape as image window, with image
              obscuring image window where the image shapes overlap. Note this
              differs from over because the portion of image outside image
              window's shape does not appear in the result.

       xor     The result is the image data from both image and image window
              that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is blank.

       plus    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are
              cropped to 255 (no overflow). This operation is independent of the
              matte channels.

       minus   The result of image - image window, with underflow cropped to
              zero. The matte channel is ignored (set to 255, full coverage).

       add     The result of image + image window, with overflow wrapping around
              (mod 256).

       subtract
               The result of image - image window, with underflow wrapping
              around (mod 256). The add and subtract operators can be used to
              perform reversible transformations.

       difference
               The result of abs(image - image window). This is useful for
              comparing two very similar images.

       bumpmap
               The result of image window shaded by window.

       replace
               The resulting image is image window replaced with image.  Here
              the matte information is ignored.

              The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the
              image for some operations. This extra channel usually defines a
              mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image.
              This is the case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels
              inside the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the
              boundary. If image does not have a matte channel, it is
              initialized with 0 for any pixel matching in color to pixel
              location (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method of
              defining a matte channel.

              If you choose blend, the composite operator becomes over.  The
              image matte channel percent transparency is initialized to factor.
              The image window is initialized to (100-factor). Where factor is
              the value you specify in the Dialog widget.

              Displace shifts the image pixels as defined by a displacement map.
              With this option, image is used as a displacement map. Black,
              within the displacement map, is a maximum positive displacement.
              White is a maximum negative displacement and middle gray is
              neutral. The displacement is scaled to determine the pixel shift.
              By default, the displacement applies in both the horizontal and
              vertical directions. However, if you specify mask, image is the
              horizontal X displacement and mask the vertical Y displacement.

              Note that matte information for image window is not retained for
              colormapped X server visuals (e.g.  StaticColor, StaticColor,
              GrayScale, PseudoColor).  Correct compositing behavior may require
              a TrueColor or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.

              Choosing a composite operator is optional. The default operator is
              replace.  However, you must choose a location to composite your
              image and press button 1. Press and hold the button before
              releasing and an outline of the image will appear to help you
              identify your location.

              The actual colors of the composite image is saved. However, the
              color that appears in image window may be different. For example,
              on a monochrome screen Image window will appear black or white
              even though your composited image may have many colors. If the
              image is saved to a file it is written with the correct colors. To
              assure the correct colors are saved in the final image, any
              PseudoClass image is promoted to DirectClass (see miff).  To force
              a PseudoClass image to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

COLOR EDITING
       Changing the the color of a set of pixels is performed interactively.
       There is no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, choose Color
       from the Image Edit submenu of the Command widget.  Alternatively, press
       c in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in color edit mode. To exit immediately, press
       Dismiss.  In color edit mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Method


       point

       replace

       floodfill

       reset


       Pixel Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...


       Border Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...


       Fuzz


       0

       2

       4

       8

       16
           Dialog...


       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss


       Choose a color editing method from the Method sub-menu of the Command
       widget. The point method recolors any pixel selected with the pointer
       unless the button is released. The replace method recolors any pixel that
       matches the color of the pixel you select with a button press. Floodfill
       recolors any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select with a
       button press and is a neighbor.  Whereas filltoborder changes the matte
       value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border color.  Finally reset
       changes the entire image to the designated color.

       Next, choose a pixel color from the Pixel Color sub-menu. Additional
       pixel colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the
       menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       Now press button 1 to select a pixel within the Image window to change
       its color. Additional pixels may be recolored as prescribed by the method
       you choose. additional pixels by increasing the Delta value.

       If the Magnify widget is mapped, it can be helpful in positioning your
       pointer within the image (refer to button 2). Alternatively you can
       select a pixel to recolor from within the Magnify widget. Move the
       pointer to the Magnify widget and position the pixel with the cursor
       control keys. Finally, press a button to recolor the selected pixel (or
       pixels).

       The actual color you request for the pixels is saved in the image.
       However, the color that appears in your Image window may be different.
       For example, on a monochrome screen the pixel will appear black or white
       even if you choose the color red as the pixel color. However, the image
       saved to a file with -write is written with red pixels. To assure the
       correct color text in the final image, any PseudoClass image is promoted
       to DirectClass To force a PseudoClass image to remain PseudoClass, use
       -colors.

MATTE EDITING
       Matte information within an image is useful for some operations such as
       image compositing. This extra channel usually defines a mask which
       represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is the case when
       matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels inside the shape, zero outside,
       and between zero and 255 on the boundary.

       Setting the matte information in an image is done interactively. There is
       no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, and choose Matte of
       the Image Edit sub-menu from the Command widget.

       Alternatively, press m in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in matte edit mode. To exit immediately, press
       Dismiss.  In matte edit mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Method


       point

       replace

       floodfill

       reset


       Border Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...


       Fuzz


       0

       2

       4

       8

       16
           Dialog...


       Matte

       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose a matte editing method from the Method sub-menu of the Command
       widget. The point method changes the matte value of the any pixel
       selected with the pointer until the button is released. The replace
       method changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the
       pixel you select with a button press. Floodfill changes the matte value
       of any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select with a button
       press and is a neighbor. Whereas filltoborder recolors any neighbor pixel
       that is not the border color. Finally reset changes the entire image to
       the designated matte value.  Choose Matte Value and a dialog appears
       requesting a matte value.  Enter a value between 0 and 255. This value is
       assigned as the matte value of the selected pixel or pixels.  Now, press
       any button to select a pixel within the Image window to change its matte
       value. You can change the matte value of additional pixels by increasing
       the Delta value. The Delta value is first added then subtracted from the
       red, green, and blue of the target color. Any pixels within the range
       also have their matte value updated.  If the Magnify widget is mapped, it
       can be helpful in positioning your pointer within the image (refer to
       button 2). Alternatively you can select a pixel to change the matte value
       from within the Magnify widget.  Move the pointer to the Magnify widget
       and position the pixel with the cursor control keys. Finally, press a
       button to change the matte value of the selected pixel (or pixels).
       Matte information is only valid in a DirectClass image. Therefore, any
       PseudoClass image is promoted to DirectClass. Note that matte information
       for PseudoClass is not retained for colormapped X server visuals (e.g.
       StaticColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, PseudoColor) unless you immediately
       save your image to a file (refer to Write). Correct matte editing
       behavior may require a TrueColor or DirectColor visual or a Standard
       Colormap.

IMAGE DRAWING
       An image is drawn upon interactively. There is no command line argument
       to draw on an image. To begin, choose Draw of the Image Edit sub-menu
       from the Command widget.  Alternatively, press d in the image window.

       The cursor changes to a crosshair to indicate you are in draw mode. To
       exit immediately, press Dismiss. In draw mode, the Command widget has
       these options:


       Primitive


       point

       line

       rectangle

       fill rectangle

       circle

       fill circle

       ellipse

       fill ellipse

       polygon

       fill polygon


       Color


       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...


       Stipple


       Brick

       Diagonal

       Scales

       Vertical

       Wavy

       Translucent

       Opaque

       Open...


       Width


       1

       2

       4

       8

       16
           Dialog...


       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose a drawing primitive from the Primitive sub-menu.

       Next, choose a color from the Color sub-menu. Additional colors can be
       specified with the color browser. You can change the menu colors by
       setting the X resources pen1 through pen9. The transparent color updates
       the image matte channel and is useful for image compositing.

       If you choose the color browser and press Grab, you can select the
       primitive color by moving the pointer to the desired color on the screen
       and press any button. The transparent color updates the image matte
       channel and is useful for image compositing.

       Choose a stipple, if appropriate, from the Stipple sub-menu. Additional
       stipples can be specified with the file browser. Stipples obtained from
       the file browser must be on disk in the X11 bitmap format.

       Choose a line width, if appropriate, from the Width sub-menu. To choose a
       specific width select the Dialog widget.

       Choose a point in the image window and press button 1 and hold. Next,
       move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move, a line
       connects the initial location and the pointer. When you release the
       button, the image is updated with the primitive you just drew. For
       polygons, the image is updated when you press and release the button
       without moving the pointer.

       To cancel image drawing, move the pointer back to the starting point of
       the line and release the button.

REGION OF INTEREST
       To begin, press choose Region of Interest of the Pixel Transform sub-menu
       from the Command widget.  Alternatively, press R in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in region of interest mode. In region of interest
       mode, the Command widget has these options:


       Help

       Dismiss


       To define a region of interest, press button 1 and drag. The region of
       interest is defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts
       as it follows the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the region of
       interest, release the button. You are now in apply mode. In apply mode
       the Command widget has these options:


       File


       Save...

       Print...


       Edit


       Undo

       Redo


       Transform


       Flip

       Flop

       Rotate Right

       Rotate Left


       Enhance


       Hue...

       Saturation...

       Brightness...

       Gamma...

       Spiff

       Dull

       Equalize

       Normalize

       Negate

       GRAYscale

       Quantize...


       Effects


       Despeckle

       Emboss

       Reduce Noise

       Add Noise

       Sharpen...

       Blur...

       Threshold...

       Edge Detect...

       Spread...

       Shade...

       Raise...

       Segment...




       F/X


       Solarize...

       Swirl...

       Implode...

       Wave...

       Oil Paint

       Charcoal Draw...




       Miscellany


       Image Info

       Zoom Image

       Show Preview...

       Show Histogram

       Show Matte


       Help

       Dismiss


       You can make adjustments to the region of interest by moving the pointer
       to one of the rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging.
       Finally, choose an image processing technique from the Command widget.
       You can choose more than one image processing technique to apply to an
       area. Alternatively, you can move the region of interest before applying
       another image processing technique. To exit, press Dismiss.

IMAGE PANNING
       When an image exceeds the width or height of the X server screen, display
       maps a small panning icon. The rectangle within the panning icon shows
       the area that is currently displayed in the the image window. To pan
       about the image, press any button and drag the pointer within the panning
       icon.  The pan rectangle moves with the pointer and the image window is
       updated to reflect the location of the rectangle within the panning icon.
       When you have selected the area of the image you wish to view, release
       the button.

       Use the arrow keys to pan the image one pixel up, down, left, or right
       within the image window.

       The panning icon is withdrawn if the image becomes smaller than the
       dimensions of the X server screen.

USER PREFERENCES
       Preferences affect the default behavior of display(1). The preferences
       are either true or false and are stored in your home directory as
       .displayrc:

                display image centered on a backdrop"


                    This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is
                    useful for hiding other X window activity while viewing the
                    image. The color of the backdrop is specified as the
                    background color. Refer to X Resources for details.
                confirm on program exit"


                    Ask for a confirmation before exiting the display(1)
                    program.
                correct image for display gamma"


                    If the image has a known gamma, the gamma is corrected to
                    match that of the X server (see the X Resource
                    displayGamma).
                display warning messages"


                    Display any warning messages.
                apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to image"


                    The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity
                    resolution for spatial resolution by averaging the
                    intensities of several neighboring pixels.  Images which
                    suffer from severe contouring when reducing colors can be
                    improved with this preference.
                use a shared colormap for colormapped X visuals"


                    This option only applies when the default X server visual is
                    PseudoColor or GRAYScale. Refer to -visual for more details.
                    By default, a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares
                    colors with other X clients.  Some image colors could be
                    approximated, therefore your image may look very different
                    than intended. Otherwise the image colors appear exactly as
                    they are defined. However, other clients may go technicolor
                    when the image colormap is installed.
                display images as an X server pixmap"


                    Images are maintained as a XImage by default. Set this
                    resource to True to utilize a server Pixmap instead. This
                    option is useful if your image exceeds the dimensions of
                    your server screen and you intend to pan the image. Panning
                    is much faster with Pixmaps than with a XImage. Pixmaps are
                    considered a precious resource, use them with discretion.



       GM IDENTIFY

              Identify describes the format and characteristics of one or more
              image files as internally supported by the software. It will also
              report if an image is incomplete or corrupt.  The information
              displayed includes the scene number, the file name, the width and
              height of the image, whether the image is colormapped or not, the
              number of colors in the image, the number of bytes in the image,
              the format of the image (JPEG, PNM, etc.), and finally the number
              of seconds in both user time and elapsed time it took to read and
              process the image.  If -verbose or +ping are provided as an
              option, the pixel read rate is also displayed. An example line
              output from identify follows:

                  images/aquarium.miff 640x480 PseudoClass 256c
                         308135b MIFF 0.000u 0:01


              If -verbose is set, expect additional output including any image
              comment:


                  Image: images/aquarium.miff
                  class: PseudoClass
                  colors: 256
                  signature: eb5dca81dd93ae7e6ffae99a527eb5dca8...
                  matte: False
                  geometry: 640x480
                     depth: 8
                  bytes: 308135
                  format: MIFF
                  comments:
                  Imported from MTV raster image: aquarium.mtv


              For some formats, additional format-specific information about the
              file will be written if the -debug coder or -debug all option is
              used.

IDENTIFY OPTIONS
       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect for the set of images immediately
       following, until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or
       -noop.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -format <string>
              output formatted image characteristics

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

              For a more detailed description of each option, see Options,
              above.


GM IMPORT
       Import reads an image from any visible window on an X server and outputs
       it as an image file. You can capture a single window, the entire screen,
       or any rectangular portion of the screen.  Use display for redisplay,
       printing, editing, formatting, archiving, image processing, etc. of the
       captured image.

       The target window can be specified by id, name, or may be selected by
       clicking the mouse in the desired window. If you press a button and then
       drag, a rectangle will form which expands and contracts as the mouse
       moves. To save the portion of the screen defined by the rectangle, just
       release the button. The keyboard bell is rung once at the beginning of
       the screen capture and twice when it completes.

EXAMPLES
       To select an X window or an area of the screen with the mouse and save it
       in the MIFF image format to a file entitled window.miff, use:

           gm import window.miff


       To select an X window or an area of the screen with the mouse and save it
       in the Encapsulated PostScript format to include in another document,
       use:

           gm import figure.eps


       To capture the entire X server screen in the JPEG image format in a file
       entitled root.jpeg, without using the mouse, use:

           gm import -window root root.jpeg


       To capture the 512x256 area at the upper right corner of the X server
       screen in the PNG image format in a well-compressed file entitled
       corner.png, without using the mouse,  use:

           gm import -window root -crop 512x256-0+0 -quality 90
                  corner.png


OPTIONS
       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with a different effect.

       Import options can appear on the command line or in your X resources
       file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values specified in
       your X resources file.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -descend
              obtain image by descending window hierarchy

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -frame include the X window frame in the imported image

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between snapshots [import]

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -screen
              specify the screen to capture

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribute

       +set <attribute>
              unset an image attribute

       -silent
              operate silently

       -snaps <value>
              number of screen snapshots

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -trim  trim an image

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

              For a more detailed description of each option, see Options,
              above.


GM MOGRIFY
       Mogrify transforms an image or a sequence of images. These transforms
       include image scaling, image rotation, color reduction, and others. Each
       transmogrified image overwrites the corresponding original image, unless
       an option such as -format causes the output filename to be different from
       the input filename.

       The graphics formats supported by mogrify are listed in
       GraphicsMagick(1).

EXAMPLES
       To convert all the TIFF files in a particular directory to JPEG, use:

           gm mogrify -format jpeg *.tiff


       To convert a directory full of JPEG images to thumbnails, use:

           gm mogrify -size 120x120 *.jpg -resize 120x120 +profile "*"


       In this example, '-size 120x120' gives a hint to the JPEG decoder that
       the images are going to be downscaled to 120x120, allowing it to run
       faster by avoiding returning full-resolution images to GraphicsMagick for
       the subsequent resizing operation.  The ´-resize 120x120' specifies the
       desired dimensions of the output images.  It will be scaled so its
       largest dimension is 120 pixels.  The ´+profile "*"' removes any ICM,
       EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles that might be present in the input and
       aren't needed in the thumbnails.

       To scale an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in width and 480
       pixels in height, use:

           gm mogrify -resize 640x480! cockatoo.miff


OPTIONS
       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
       until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

        -asc-cdl <spec>
              apply ASC CDL color transform

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -auto-orient
              orient (rotate) image so it is upright

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -black-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels below the threshold become black

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution kernel

       -create-directories
              create output directory if required

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -extent <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              composite image on background color canvas image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -format <type>
              the image format type

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -hald-clut <clut>
              apply a Hald CLUT to the image

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}
              adjust the level of image contrast

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

       -linewidth
              the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list <type>
              the type of list

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

       -magnify
              magnify the image

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -minify <factor>
              minify the image

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -motion-blur <radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle}
              Simulate motion blur

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
              apply a mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to an image
              channel

       -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN>
              ordered dither the image

       -output-directory <directory>
              output files to directory

       -orient <orientation>
              Set the image orientation attribute

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -preserve-timestamp
              preserve the original timestamps of the file

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>
              random threshold the image

       -recolor <matrix>
              apply a color translation matrix to image channels

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

       -render
              render vector operations

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

       -resample <horizontal>x<vertical>
              Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -set <attribute> <value>
              set an image attribute

       +set <attribute>
              unset an image attribute

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{%}
              threshold the image

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -transform
              transform the image

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -white-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity]
              pixels above the threshold become white

              For a more detailed description of each option, see Options,
              above.


GM MONTAGE
       montage creates a composite image by combining several separate images.
       The images are tiled on the composite image with the name of the image
       optionally appearing just below the individual tile.

       The composite image is constructed in the following manner. First, each
       image specified on the command line, except for the last, is scaled to
       fit the maximum tile size. The maximum tile size by default is 120x120.
       It can be modified with the -geometry command line argument or X
       resource. See Options for more information on command line arguments. See
       X(1) for more information on X resources.  Note that the maximum tile
       size need not be a square.

       Next the composite image is initialized with the color specified by the
       -background command line argument or X resource. The width and height of
       the composite image is determined by the title specified, the maximum
       tile size, the number of tiles per row, the tile border width and height,
       the image border width, and the label height. The number of tiles per row
       specifies how many images are to appear in each row of the composite
       image. The default is to have 5 tiles in each row and 4 tiles in each
       column of the composite.  A specific value is specified with -tile. The
       tile border width and height, and the image border width defaults to the
       value of the X resource -borderwidth. It can be changed with the
       -borderwidth or -geometry command line argument or X resource. The label
       height is determined by the font you specify with the -font command line
       argument or X resource. If you do not specify a font, a font is chosen
       that allows the name of the image to fit the maximum width of a tiled
       area.  The label colors is determined by the -background and -fill
       command line argument or X resource. Note, that if the background and pen
       colors are the same, labels will not appear.

       Initially, the composite image title is placed at the top if one is
       specified (refer to -fill). Next, each image is set onto the composite
       image, surrounded by its border color, with its name centered just below
       it. The individual images are left-justified within the width of the
       tiled area.  The order of the images is the same as they appear on the
       command line unless the images have a scene keyword. If a scene number is
       specified in each image, then the images are tiled onto the composite in
       the order of their scene number. Finally, the last argument on the
       command line is the name assigned to the composite image. By default, the
       image is written in the MIFF format and can be viewed or printed with
       display(1).


       Note, that if the number of tiles exceeds the default number of 20 (5 per
       row, 4 per column), more than one composite image is created. To ensure a
       single image is produced, use -tile to increase the number of tiles to
       meet or exceed the number of input images.

       Finally, to create one or more empty spaces in the sequence of tiles, use
       the "NULL:" image format.

       Note, a composite MIFF image displayed to an X server with display
       behaves differently than other images. You can think of the composite as
       a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile of the composite and
       press a button to display it. See display(1) and miff(5)

EXAMPLES
       To create a montage of a cockatoo, a parrot, and a hummingbird and write
       it to a file called birds, use:

           gm montage cockatoo.miff parrot.miff hummingbird.miff
                   birds.miff


       To tile several bird images so that they are at most 256 pixels in width
       and 192 pixels in height, surrounded by a red border, and separated by 10
       pixels of background color, use:

           gm montage -geometry 256x192+10+10 -bordercolor red
                   birds.* montage.miff


       To create an unlabeled parrot image, 640 by 480 pixels, and surrounded by
       a border of black, use:

           gm montage -geometry 640x480 -bordercolor black
                   -label "" parrot.miff bird.miff


       To create an image of an eagle with a textured background, use:

           gm montage -texture bumps.jpg eagle.jpg eagle.png


       To join several GIF images together without any extraneous graphics (e.g.
       no label, no shadowing, no surrounding tile frame), use:

           gm montage +frame +shadow +label -tile 5x1
                   -geometry 50x50+0+0 *.png joined.png


OPTIONS
       Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for the
       group of images following it, until the group is terminated by the
       appearance of any option or -noop.  For example, to make a montage of
       three images, the first with 32 colors, the second with an unlimited
       number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:


           gm montage -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
                    -colors 16 cockatoo.3 cockatoos.miff


       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.


       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}
              Specify dimension, offset, and resize options.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource
              limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -mode <value>
              mode of operation

       -monitor
              show progress indication

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -render
              render vector operations

       -repage  <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]
              Adjust image page offsets

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              rotate the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              chroma subsampling factors

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>}
              shadow the montage

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image (quickly)

       -tile <geometry>
              layout of images [montage]

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

       -transform
              transform the image

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

              For a more detailed description of each option, see Options,
              above.


X RESOURCES
       Montage options can appear on the command line or in your X resource
       file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X
       resource file. See X(1) for more information on X resources.

       All montage options have a corresponding X resource. In addition, montage
       uses the following X resources:

       background (class Background)
              background color

              Specifies the preferred color to use for the composite image
              background.  The default is #ccc.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
              border color

              Specifies the preferred color to use for the composite image
              border. The default is #ccc.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
              border width

              Specifies the width in pixels of the composite image border. The
              default is 2.

       font (class Font)
              font to use

              Specifies the name of the preferred font to use when displaying
              text within the composite image. The default is 9x15, fixed, or
              5x8 determined by the composite image size.

       matteColor (class MatteColor)
              color of the frame

              Specify the color of an image frame. A 3D effect is achieved by
              using highlight and shadow colors derived from this color. The
              default value is #697B8F.

       pen (class Pen)
              text color

              Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the composite
              image.  The default is black.

       title (class Title)
              composite image title

              This resource specifies the title to be placed at the top of the
              composite image. The default is not to place a title at the top of
              the composite image.

GM TIME
DESCRIPTION
       time executes an arbitrary gm utility command (e.g. convert) and reports
       the user and elapsed time.  This provides way to measure command
       execution times similar to the Unix ´time' command but in a portable and
       consistent way.

EXAMPLES
       To obtain time information for the execution of a command:

       % gm time convert input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm convert input.ppm
       -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm    22.60s user 0.00s system 2354% cpu 0.960
       total

       Here is the interpretation of the above output:

           user - the total user time consumed.
           system - the total system time consumed.
           total - the total elapsed time consumed.


OPTIONS
       The time command reqires no options other than the gm command to execute.

GM VERSION
DESCRIPTION
       version displays the software release version, build quantum (pixel
       sample) depth, web site URL, copyright notice, enabled features support,
       configuration parameters, and final build options used to build the
       software.  The available information depends on how the software was
       configured and the host system.

EXAMPLES
       To display the version information:

         GraphicsMagick 1.3.27a 2017-12-11 Q16 http://www.GraphicsMagick.org/
         Copyright (C) 2002-2017 GraphicsMagick Group.
         Additional copyrights and licenses apply to this software.
         See http://www.GraphicsMagick.org/www/Copyright.html for details.
         Feature Support:
           Native Thread Safe       yes
           Large Files (> 32 bit)   yes
           Large Memory (> 32 bit)  yes
           BZIP                     yes
           DPS                      no
           FlashPix                 no
           FreeType                 yes
           Ghostscript (Library)    no
           JBIG                     yes
           JPEG-2000                yes
           JPEG                     yes
           Little CMS               yes
           Loadable Modules         no
           OpenMP                   yes (201307)
           PNG                      yes
           TIFF                     yes
           TRIO                     no
           UMEM                     no
           WebP                     yes
           WMF                      yes
           X11                      yes
           XML                      yes
           ZLIB                     yes
         Host type: x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
         Configured using the command:
           ./configure  ...
         Final Build Parameters:
           CC       = ...
           CFLAGS   = ...
           CPPFLAGS = ...
           CXX      = ...
           CXXFLAGS = ...
           LDFLAGS  = ...
           LIBS     = ...


OPTIONS
       The version command does not currently support any options.



GraphicsMagick                     2019/08/27                              gm(1)