gpl






gpl − GNU General Public License



     GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE


     Version 2, June 1991

             Copyright (c) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
        59 Temple Place ‐ Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111‐1307, USA

        Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
        of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


     Preamble

       The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software‐‐‐to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation’s software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
your programs, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.

  We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.














                             ‐2‐


  Also, for each author’s protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors’ reputations.

  Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone’s free use or not licensed at all.

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.


     TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND
MODIFICATION


0.  This License applies to any program or other work which
    contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying
    it may be distributed under the terms of this General
    Public License.  The ‘‘Program’’, below, refers to any
    such program or work, and a ‘‘work based on the
    Program’’ means either the Program or any derivative
    work under copyright law: that is to say, a work
    containing the Program or a portion of it, either
    verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into
    another language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included
    without limitation in the term ‘‘modification’’.)  Each
    licensee is addressed as ‘‘you’’.

    Activities other than copying, distribution and
    modification are not covered by this License; they are
    outside its scope.  The act of running the Program is
    not restricted, and the output from the Program is
    covered only if its contents constitute a work based on
    the Program (independent of having been made by running
    the Program).  Whether that is true depends on what the
    Program does.

1.  You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the
    Program’s source code as you receive it, in any medium,
    provided that you conspicuously and appropriately
    publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
    disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that
    refer to this License and to the absence of any
    warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a
    copy of this License along with the Program.

    You may charge a fee for the physical act of
    transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer









                             ‐3‐


    warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

2.  You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any
    portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program,
    and copy and distribute such modifications or work under
    the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also
    meet all of these conditions:

    a.  You must cause the modified files to carry prominent
        notices stating that you changed the files and the
        date of any change.

    b.  You must cause any work that you distribute or
        publish, that in whole or in part contains or is
        derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be
        licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
        parties under the terms of this License.

    c.  If the modified program normally reads commands
        interactively when run, you must cause it, when
        started running for such interactive use in the most
        ordinary way, to print or display an announcement
        including an appropriate copyright notice and a
        notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying
        that you provide a warranty) and that users may
        redistribute the program under these conditions, and
        telling the user how to view a copy of this License.
        (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
        does not normally print such an announcement, your
        work based on the Program is not required to print
        an announcement.)

        These requirements apply to the modified work as a
        whole.  If identifiable sections of that work are
        not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably
        considered independent and separate works in
        themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not
        apply to those sections when you distribute them as
        separate works.  But when you distribute the same
        sections as part of a whole which is a work based on
        the Program, the distribution of the whole must be
        on the terms of this License, whose permissions for
        other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus
        to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

        Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim
        rights or contest your rights to work written
        entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise
        the right to control the distribution of derivative
        or collective works based on the Program.

        In addition, mere aggregation of another work not
        based on the Program with the Program (or with a
        work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage









                             ‐4‐


        or distribution medium does not bring the other work
        under the scope of this License.

3.  You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based
    on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable
    form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided
    that you also do one of the following:

    a.  Accompany it with the complete corresponding
        machine‐readable source code, which must be
        distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2
        above on a medium customarily used for software
        interchange; or,

    b.  Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at
        least three years, to give any third party, for a
        charge no more than your cost of physically
        performing source distribution, a complete machine‐
        readable copy of the corresponding source code, to
        be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2
        above on a medium customarily used for software
        interchange; or,

    c.  Accompany it with the information you received as to
        the offer to distribute corresponding source code.
        (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial
        distribution and only if you received the program in
        object code or executable form with such an offer,
        in accord with Subsection b above.)

        The source code for a work means the preferred form
        of the work for making modifications to it.  For an
        executable work, complete source code means all the
        source code for all modules it contains, plus any
        associated interface definition files, plus the
        scripts used to control compilation and installation
        of the executable.  However, as a special exception,
        the source code distributed need not include
        anything that is normally distributed (in either
        source or binary form) with the major components
        (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating
        system on which the executable runs, unless that
        component itself accompanies the executable.

        If distribution of executable or object code is made
        by offering access to copy from a designated place,
        then offering equivalent access to copy the source
        code from the same place counts as distribution of
        the source code, even though third parties are not
        compelled to copy the source along with the object
        code.

4.  You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the
    Program except as expressly provided under this License.









                             ‐5‐


    Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or
    distribute the Program is void, and will automatically
    terminate your rights under this License.  However,
    parties who have received copies, or rights, from you
    under this License will not have their licenses
    terminated so long as such parties remain in full
    compliance.

5.  You are not required to accept this License, since you
    have not signed it.  However, nothing else grants you
    permission to modify or distribute the Program or its
    derivative works.  These actions are prohibited by law
    if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
    modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based
    on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this
    License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for
    copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works
    based on it.

6.  Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work
    based on the Program), the recipient automatically
    receives a license from the original licensor to copy,
    distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms
    and conditions.  You may not impose any further
    restrictions on the recipients’ exercise of the rights
    granted herein.  You are not responsible for enforcing
    compliance by third parties to this License.

7.  If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation
    of patent infringement or for any other reason (not
    limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you
    (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that
    contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
    excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you
    cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your
    obligations under this License and any other pertinent
    obligations, then as a consequence you may not
    distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
    license would not permit royalty‐free redistribution of
    the Program by all those who receive copies directly or
    indirectly through you, then the only way you could
    satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain
    entirely from distribution of the Program.

    If any portion of this section is held invalid or
    unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the
    balance of the section is intended to apply and the
    section as a whole is intended to apply in other
    circumstances.

    It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to
    infringe any patents or other property right claims or
    to contest validity of any such claims; this section has
    the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free









                             ‐6‐


    software distribution system, which is implemented by
    public license practices.  Many people have made
    generous contributions to the wide range of software
    distributed through that system in reliance on
    consistent application of that system; it is up to the
    author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to
    distribute software through any other system and a
    licensee cannot impose that choice.

    This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what
    is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this
    License.

8.  If the distribution and/or use of the Program is
    restricted in certain countries either by patents or by
    copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder
    who places the Program under this License may add an
    explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
    those countries, so that distribution is permitted only
    in or among countries not thus excluded.  In such case,
    this License incorporates the limitation as if written
    in the body of this License.

9.  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or
    new versions of the General Public License from time to
    time.  Such new versions will be similar in spirit to
    the present version, but may differ in detail to address
    new problems or concerns.

    Each version is given a distinguishing version number.
    If the Program specifies a version number of this
    License which applies to it and ‘‘any later version’’,
    you have the option of following the terms and
    conditions either of that version or of any later
    version published by the Free Software Foundation.  If
    the Program does not specify a version number of this
    License, you may choose any version ever published by
    the Free Software Foundation.

10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into
    other free programs whose distribution conditions are
    different, write to the author to ask for permission.
    For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software
    Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we
    sometimes make exceptions for this.  Our decision will
    be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status
    of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting
    the sharing and reuse of software generally.

     NO WARRANTY


11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS
    NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY









                             ‐7‐


    APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING
    THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE
    PROGRAM ‘‘AS IS’’ WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
    EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
    IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
    PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY
    AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE
    PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
    NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED
    TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER
    PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS
    PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING
    ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
    DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE
    PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR
    DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
    YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO
    OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR
    OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
    DAMAGES.

     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS


     How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

       If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the ‘‘copyright’’ line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

        <one line to give the program’s name and a brief idea of what it does.>
        Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

        This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
        it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
        the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
        (at your option) any later version.

        This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
        but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
        MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
        GNU General Public License for more details.

        You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
        along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
        Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place ‐ Suite 330,
        Boston, MA 02111‐1307, USA.









                             ‐8‐


Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and
paper mail.

     If the program is interactive, make it output a short
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

             Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
        Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
        type ‘show w’.
        This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
        under certain conditions; type ‘show c’ for details.

The hypothetical commands show w and show c should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course,
the commands you use may be called something other than show
w and show c; they could even be mouse‐clicks or menu
items−−−whatever suits your program.

     You should also get your employer (if you work as a
programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a ‘‘copyright
disclaimer’’ for the program, if necessary.  Here is a
sample; alter the names:

             Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
        ‘Gnomovision’ (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.

        <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
        Ty Coon, President of Vice

This General Public License does not permit incorporating
your program into proprietary programs.  If your program is
a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to
permit linking proprietary applications with the library.
If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
Public License instead of this License.

gfdl(7), fsf‐funding(7).

Copyright (c) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  59
Temple Place − Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111−1307, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim
copies of this license document, but changing it is not
allowed.