HTPASSWD(1)                         htpasswd                         HTPASSWD(1)

       htpasswd - Manage user files for basic authentication

       htpasswd [ -c ] [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ] [ -v
       ] passwdfile username

       htpasswd -b [ -c ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ] [ -v ]
       passwdfile username password

       htpasswd -n [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username

       htpasswd -nb [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username password

       htpasswd is used to create and update the flat-files used to store
       usernames and password for basic authentication of HTTP users. If
       htpasswd cannot access a file, such as not being able to write to the
       output file or not being able to read the file in order to update it, it
       returns an error status and makes no changes.

       Resources available from the Apache HTTP server can be restricted to just
       the users listed in the files created by htpasswd. This program can only
       manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file. It can encrypt and
       display password information for use in other types of data stores,
       though. To use a DBM database see dbmmanage or htdbm.

       htpasswd encrypts passwords using either bcrypt, a version of MD5
       modified for Apache, SHA1, or the system's crypt() routine. Files managed
       by htpasswd may contain a mixture of different encoding types of
       passwords; some user records may have bcrypt or MD5-encrypted passwords
       while others in the same file may have passwords encrypted with crypt().

       This manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details of
       the directives necessary to configure user authentication in httpd see
       the Apache manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or can be
       found at

       -b     Use batch mode; i.e., get the password from the command line
              rather than prompting for it. This option should be used with
              extreme care, since the password is clearly visible on the command
              line. For script use see the -i option. Available in 2.4.4 and

       -i     Read the password from stdin without verification (for script

       -c     Create the passwdfile. If passwdfile already exists, it is
              rewritten and truncated. This option cannot be combined with the
              -n option.

       -n     Display the results on standard output rather than updating a
              file. This is useful for generating password records acceptable to
              Apache for inclusion in non-text data stores. This option changes
              the syntax of the command line, since the passwdfile argument
              (usually the first one) is omitted. It cannot be combined with the
              -c option.

       -m     Use MD5 encryption for passwords. This is the default (since
              version 2.2.18).

       -B     Use bcrypt encryption for passwords. This is currently considered
              to be very secure.

       -C     This flag is only allowed in combination with -B (bcrypt
              encryption). It sets the computing time used for the bcrypt
              algorithm (higher is more secure but slower, default: 5, valid: 4
              to 17).

       -d     Use crypt() encryption for passwords. This is not supported by the
              httpd server on Windows and Netware. This algorithm limits the
              password length to 8 characters. This algorithm is insecure by
              today's standards. It used to be the default algorithm until
              version 2.2.17.

       -s     Use SHA encryption for passwords. Facilitates migration from/to
              Netscape servers using the LDAP Directory Interchange Format
              (ldif). This algorithm is insecure by today's standards.

       -p     Use plaintext passwords. Though htpasswd will support creation on
              all platforms, the httpd daemon will only accept plain text
              passwords on Windows and Netware.

       -D     Delete user. If the username exists in the specified htpasswd
              file, it will be deleted.

       -v     Verify password. Verify that the given password matches the
              password of the user stored in the specified htpasswd file.
              Available in 2.4.5 and later.

              Name of the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is
              given, this file is created if it does not already exist, or
              rewritten and truncated if it does exist.

              The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username does
              not exist in this file, an entry is added. If it does exist, the
              password is changed.

              The plaintext password to be encrypted and stored in the file.
              Only used with the -b flag.

       htpasswd returns a zero status ("true") if the username and password have
       been successfully added or updated in the passwdfile. htpasswd returns 1
       if it encounters some problem accessing files, 2 if there was a syntax
       problem with the command line, 3 if the password was entered
       interactively and the verification entry didn't match, 4 if its operation
       was interrupted, 5 if a value is too long (username, filename, password,
       or final computed record), 6 if the username contains illegal characters
       (see the Restrictions section), and 7 if the file is not a valid password

             htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith

       Adds or modifies the password for user jsmith. The user is prompted for
       the password. The password will be encrypted using the modified Apache
       MD5 algorithm. If the file does not exist, htpasswd will do nothing
       except return an error.

             htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane

       Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user jane. The user is
       prompted for the password. If the file exists and cannot be read, or
       cannot be written, it is not altered and htpasswd will display a message
       and return an error status.

             htpasswd -db /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve

       Encrypts the password from the command line (Pwd4Steve) using the crypt()
       algorithm, and stores it in the specified file.

       Web password files such as those managed by htpasswd should not be within
       the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should not be fetchable with
       a browser.

       This program is not safe as a setuid executable. Do not make it setuid.

       The use of the -b option is discouraged, since when it is used the
       unencrypted password appears on the command line.

       When using the crypt() algorithm, note that only the first 8 characters
       of the password are used to form the password. If the supplied password
       is longer, the extra characters will be silently discarded.

       The SHA encryption format does not use salting: for a given password,
       there is only one encrypted representation. The crypt() and MD5 formats
       permute the representation by prepending a random salt string, to make
       dictionary attacks against the passwords more difficult.

       The SHA and crypt() formats are insecure by today's standards.

       On the Windows platform, passwords encrypted with htpasswd are limited to
       no more than 255 characters in length. Longer passwords will be truncated
       to 255 characters.

       The MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd is specific to the Apache software;
       passwords encrypted using it will not be usable with other Web servers.

       Usernames are limited to 255 bytes and may not include the character :.

       The cost of computing a bcrypt password hash value increases with the
       number of rounds specified by the -C option. The apr-util library
       enforces a maximum number of rounds of 17 in version 1.6.0 and later.

Apache HTTP Server                 2019-08-09                        HTPASSWD(1)