htpasswd(1)                 General Commands Manual                htpasswd(1)

       htpasswd - Create and update user authentication files

       htpasswd [ -c ] [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] passwdfile username
       htpasswd -b [ -c ] [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] passwdfile username password
       htpasswd -n [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username
       htpasswd -nb [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username password

       htpasswd is used to create and update the flat-files used to store
       usernames and password for basic authentication of HTTP users.  If
       htpasswd cannot access a file, such as not being able to write to the
       output file or not being able to read the file in order to update it,
       it returns an error status and makes no changes.

       Resources available from the httpd Apache web server can be restricted
       to just the users listed in the files created by htpasswd.  This
       program can only manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file.
       It can encrypt and display password information for use in other types
       of data stores, though.  To use a DBM database see dbmmanage.

       htpasswd encrypts passwords using either a version of MD5 modified for
       Apache, or the system's crypt() routine.  Files managed by htpasswd may
       contain both types of passwords; some user records may have
       MD5-encrypted passwords while others in the same file may have
       passwords encrypted with crypt().

       This manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details of
       the directives necessary to configure user authentication in httpd see
       the Apache manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or can be
       found at <URL:>.

       -b     Use batch mode; i.e., get the password from the command line
              rather than prompting for it. This option should be used with
              extreme care, since the password is clearly visible on the
              command line.

       -c     Create the passwdfile. If passwdfile already exists, it is
              rewritten and truncated.  This option cannot be combined with
              the -n option.

       -n     Display the results on standard output rather than updating a
              file.  This is useful for generating password records acceptable
              to Apache for inclusion in non-text data stores.  This option
              changes the syntax of the command line, since the passwdfile
              argument (usually the first one) is omitted.  It cannot be
              combined with the -c option.

       -m     Use Apache's modified MD5 algorithm for passwords.  Passwords
              encrypted with this algorithm are transportable to any platform
              (Windows, Unix, BeOS, et cetera) running Apache 1.3.9 or later.
              On Windows and TPF, this flag is the default.

       -d     Use crypt() encryption for passwords. The default on all
              platforms but Windows and TPF. Though possibly supported by
              htpasswd on all platforms, it is not supported by the httpd
              server on Windows and TPF.

       -s     Use SHA encryption for passwords. Faciliates migration from/to
              Netscape servers using the LDAP Directory Interchange Format

       -p     Use plaintext passwords. Though htpasswd will support creation
              on all platforms, the httpd deamon will only accept plain text
              passwords on Windows and TPF.

              Name of the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is
              given, this file is created if it does not already exist, or
              rewritten and truncated if it does exist.

              The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username does
              not exist in this file, an entry is added. If it does exist, the
              password is changed.

              The plaintext password to be encrypted and stored in the file.
              Only used with the -b flag.

       htpasswd returns a zero status ("true") if the username and password
       have been successfully added or updated in the passwdfile.  htpasswd
       returns 1 if it encounters some problem accessing files, 2 if there was
       a syntax problem with the command line, 3 if the password was entered
       interactively and the verification entry didn't match, 4 if its
       operation was interrupted, 5 if a value is too long (username,
       filename, password, or final computed record), and 6 if the username
       contains illegal characters (see the RESTRICTIONS section).

       htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith

              Adds or modifies the password for user jsmith.  The user is
              prompted for the password.  If executed on a Windows system, the
              password will be encrypted using the modified Apache MD5
              algorithm; otherwise, the system's crypt() routine will be used.
              If the file does not exist, htpasswd will do nothing except
              return an error.

       htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane

              Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user jane.  The
              user is prompted for the password.  If the file exists and
              cannot be read, or cannot be written, it is not altered and
              htpasswd will display a message and return an error status.

       htpasswd -mb /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve

              Encrypts the password from the command line (Pwd4Steve) using
              the MD5 algorithm, and stores it in the specified file.

       Web password files such as those managed by htpasswd should not be
       within the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should not be
       fetchable with a browser.

       The use of the -b option is discouraged, since when it is used the
       unencrypted password appears on the command line.

       On the Windows and MPE platforms, passwords encrypted with htpasswd are
       limited to no more than 255 characters in length.  Longer passwords
       will be truncated to 255 characters.

       The MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd is specific to the Apache software;
       passwords encrypted using it will not be usable with other Web servers.

       Usernames are limited to 255 bytes and may not include the character

       httpd(8) and the scripts in support/SHA1 which come with the

                                   May 2000                        htpasswd(1)