iconv

ICONV(1)                        Linux User Manual                       ICONV(1)



NAME
       iconv - convert text from one character encoding to another

SYNOPSIS
       iconv [options] [-f from-encoding] [-t to-encoding] [inputfile]...

DESCRIPTION
       The iconv program reads in text in one encoding and outputs the text in
       another encoding.  If no input files are given, or if it is given as a
       dash (-), iconv reads from standard input.  If no output file is given,
       iconv writes to standard output.

       If no from-encoding is given, the default is derived from the current
       locale's character encoding.  If no to-encoding is given, the default is
       derived from the current locale's character encoding.

OPTIONS
       -f from-encoding, --from-code=from-encoding
              Use from-encoding for input characters.

       -t to-encoding, --to-code=to-encoding
              Use to-encoding for output characters.

              If the string //IGNORE is appended to to-encoding, characters that
              cannot be converted are discarded and an error is printed after
              conversion.

              If the string //TRANSLIT is appended to to-encoding, characters
              being converted are transliterated when needed and possible.  This
              means that when a character cannot be represented in the target
              character set, it can be approximated through one or several
              similar looking characters.  Characters that are outside of the
              target character set and cannot be transliterated are replaced
              with a question mark (?) in the output.

       -l, --list
              List all known character set encodings.

       -c     Silently discard characters that cannot be converted instead of
              terminating when encountering such characters.

       -o outputfile, --output=outputfile
              Use outputfile for output.

       -s, --silent
              This option is ignored; it is provided only for compatibility.

       --verbose
              Print progress information on standard error when processing
              multiple files.

       -?, --help
              Print a usage summary and exit.

       --usage
              Print a short usage summary and exit.

       -V, --version
              Print the version number, license, and disclaimer of warranty for
              iconv.

EXIT STATUS
       Zero on success, nonzero on errors.

ENVIRONMENT
       Internally, the iconv program uses the iconv(3) function which in turn
       uses gconv modules (dynamically loaded shared libraries) to convert to
       and from a character set.  Before calling iconv(3), the iconv program
       must first allocate a conversion descriptor using iconv_open(3).  The
       operation of the latter function is influenced by the setting of the
       GCONV_PATH environment variable:

       *  If GCONV_PATH is not set, iconv_open(3) loads the system gconv module
          configuration cache file created by iconvconfig(8) and then, based on
          the configuration, loads the gconv modules needed to perform the
          conversion.  If the system gconv module configuration cache file is
          not available then the system gconv module configuration file is used.

       *  If GCONV_PATH is defined (as a colon-separated list of pathnames), the
          system gconv module configuration cache is not used.  Instead,
          iconv_open(3) first tries to load the configuration files by searching
          the directories in GCONV_PATH in order, followed by the system default
          gconv module configuration file.  If a directory does not contain a
          gconv module configuration file, any gconv modules that it may contain
          are ignored.  If a directory contains a gconv module configuration
          file and it is determined that a module needed for this conversion is
          available in the directory, then the needed module is loaded from that
          directory, the order being such that the first suitable module found
          in GCONV_PATH is used.  This allows users to use custom modules and
          even replace system-provided modules by providing such modules in
          GCONV_PATH directories.

FILES
       /usr/lib/gconv
              Usual default gconv module path.

       /usr/lib/gconv/gconv-modules
              Usual system default gconv module configuration file.

       /usr/lib/gconv/gconv-modules.cache
              Usual system gconv module configuration cache.

CONFORMING TO
       POSIX.1-2001.

EXAMPLES
       Convert text from the ISO 8859-15 character encoding to UTF-8:

           $ iconv -f ISO-8859-15 -t UTF-8 < input.txt > output.txt

       The next example converts from UTF-8 to ASCII, transliterating when
       possible:

           $ echo abc ß α € àḃç | iconv -f UTF-8 -t ASCII//TRANSLIT
           abc ss ? EUR abc

SEE ALSO
       locale(1), uconv(1), iconv(3), nl_langinfo(3), charsets(7),
       iconvconfig(8)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 5.09 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



GNU                                2020-06-09                           ICONV(1)