indent

INDENT(1L)                                                          INDENT(1L)



NAME
       indent - changes the appearance of a C program by inserting or deleting
       whitespace.

SYNOPSIS
       indent [options] [input-files]

       indent [options] [single-input-file] [-o output-file]

       indent --version

DESCRIPTION
       This man page is generated from the file indent.texinfo.  This is
       Edition  of "The indent Manual", for Indent Version , last updated .

       The indent program can be used to make code easier to read.  It can
       also convert from one style of writing C to another.

       indent understands a substantial amount about the syntax of C, but it
       also attempts to cope with incomplete and misformed syntax.

       In version 1.2 and more recent versions, the GNU style of indenting is
       the default.

OPTIONS
       -bad, --blank-lines-after-declarations
           Force blank lines after the declarations.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -bap, --blank-lines-after-procedures
           Force blank lines after procedure bodies.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -bbb, --blank-lines-before-block-comments
           Force blank lines before block comments.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -bbo, --break-before-boolean-operator
           Prefer to break long lines before boolean operators.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -bc, --blank-lines-after-commas
           Force newline after comma in declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -bl, --braces-after-if-line
           Put braces on line after if, etc.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -blf, --braces-after-func-def-line
           Put braces on line following function definition line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -blin, --brace-indentn
           Indent braces n spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -bls, --braces-after-struct-decl-line
           Put braces on the line after struct declaration lines.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -br, --braces-on-if-line
           Put braces on line with if, etc.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -brf, --braces-on-func-def-line
           Put braces on function definition line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -brs, --braces-on-struct-decl-line
           Put braces on struct declaration line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -bs, --Bill-Shannon, --blank-before-sizeof
           Put a space between sizeof and its argument.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -cn, --comment-indentationn
           Put comments to the right of code in column n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cbin, --case-brace-indentationn
           Indent braces after a case label N spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -cdn, --declaration-comment-columnn
           Put comments to the right of the declarations in column n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cdb, --comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines
           Put comment delimiters on blank lines.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cdw, --cuddle-do-while
           Cuddle while of do {} while; and preceding ‘}’.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -ce, --cuddle-else
           Cuddle else and preceding ‘}’.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cin, --continuation-indentationn
           Continuation indent of n spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -clin, --case-indentationn
           Case label indent of n spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -cpn, --else-endif-columnn
           Put comments to the right of #else and #endif statements in column
           n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cs, --space-after-cast
           Put a space after a cast operator.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -dn, --line-comments-indentationn
           Set indentation of comments not to the right of code to n spaces.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -bfda, --break-function-decl-args
           Break the line before all arguments in a declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -bfde, --break-function-decl-args-end
           Break the line after the last argument in a declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -djn, --left-justify-declarations
           If -cd 0 is used then comments after declarations are left
           justified behind the declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -din, --declaration-indentationn
           Put variables in column n.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -fc1, --format-first-column-comments
           Format comments in the first column.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -fca, --format-all-comments
           Do not disable all formatting of comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -gnu, --gnu-style
           Use GNU coding style.  This is the default.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -hnl, --honour-newlines
           Prefer to break long lines at the position of newlines in the
           input.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -in, --indent-leveln
           Set indentation level to n spaces.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -iln, --indent-labeln
           Set offset for labels to column n.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -ipn, --parameter-indentationn
           Indent parameter types in old-style function definitions by n
           spaces.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -kr, --k-and-r-style
           Use Kernighan & Ritchie coding style.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -ln, --line-lengthn
           Set maximum line length for non-comment lines to n.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -lcn, --comment-line-lengthn
           Set maximum line length for comment formatting to n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -linux, --linux-style
           Use Linux coding style.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -lp, --continue-at-parentheses
           Line up continued lines at parentheses.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -lps, --leave-preprocessor-space
           Leave space between ‘#’ and preprocessor directive.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nbad, --no-blank-lines-after-declarations
           Do not force blank lines after declarations.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -nbap, --no-blank-lines-after-procedures
           Do not force blank lines after procedure bodies.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -nbbo, --break-after-boolean-operator
           Do not prefer to break long lines before boolean operators.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -nbc, --no-blank-lines-after-commas
           Do not force newlines after commas in declarations.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -nbfda, --dont-break-function-decl-args
           Don’t put each argument in a function declaration on a separate
           line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -ncdb, --no-comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines
           Do not put comment delimiters on blank lines.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -ncdw, --dont-cuddle-do-while
           Do not cuddle } and the while of a do {} while;.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nce, --dont-cuddle-else
           Do not cuddle } and else.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -ncs, --no-space-after-casts
           Do not put a space after cast operators.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -ndjn, --dont-left-justify-declarations
           Comments after declarations are treated the same as comments after
           other statements.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -nfc1, --dont-format-first-column-comments
           Do not format comments in the first column as normal.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -nfca, --dont-format-comments
           Do not format any comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -nhnl, --ignore-newlines
           Do not prefer to break long lines at the position of newlines in
           the input.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -nip, --no-parameter-indentation
           Zero width indentation for parameters.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nlp, --dont-line-up-parentheses
           Do not line up parentheses.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -npcs, --no-space-after-function-call-names
           Do not put space after the function in function calls.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nprs, --no-space-after-parentheses
           Do not put a space after every ’(’ and before every ’)’.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -npsl, --dont-break-procedure-type
           Put the type of a procedure on the same line as its name.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -nsaf, --no-space-after-for
           Do not put a space after every for.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nsai, --no-space-after-if
           Do not put a space after every if.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nsaw, --no-space-after-while
           Do not put a space after every while.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nsc, --dont-star-comments
           Do not put the ‘*’ character at the left of comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -nsob, --leave-optional-blank-lines
           Do not swallow optional blank lines.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -nss, --dont-space-special-semicolon
           Do not force a space before the semicolon after certain statements.
           Disables ‘-ss’.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nut, --no-tabs
           Use spaces instead of tabs.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nv, --no-verbosity
           Disable verbose mode.
           See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.

       -orig, --original
           Use the original Berkeley coding style.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -npro, --ignore-profile
           Do not read ‘.indent.pro’ files.
           See  INVOKING INDENT.

       -pcs, --space-after-procedure-calls
           Insert a space between the name of the procedure being called and
           the ‘(’.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -pin, --paren-indentationn
           Specify the extra indentation per open parentheses ’(’ when a
           statement is broken.See  STATEMENTS.

       -pmt, --preserve-mtime
           Preserve access and modification times on output files.See
            MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.

       -ppin, --preprocessor-indentationn
           Specify the indentation for preprocessor conditional statements.See
            INDENTATION.

       -prs, --space-after-parentheses
           Put a space after every ’(’ and before every ’)’.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -psl, --procnames-start-lines
           Put the type of a procedure on the line before its name.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -saf, --space-after-for
           Put a space after each for.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -sai, --space-after-if
           Put a space after each if.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -saw, --space-after-while
           Put a space after each while.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -sbin, --struct-brace-indentationn
           Indent braces of a struct, union or enum N spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -sc, --start-left-side-of-comments
           Put the ‘*’ character at the left of comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -sob, --swallow-optional-blank-lines
           Swallow optional blank lines.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -ss, --space-special-semicolon
           On one-line for and while statements, force a blank before the
           semicolon.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -st, --standard-output
           Write to standard output.
           See  INVOKING INDENT.

       -T  Tell indent the name of typenames.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -tsn, --tab-sizen
           Set tab size to n spaces.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -ut, --use-tabs
           Use tabs. This is the default.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -v, --verbose
           Enable verbose mode.
           See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.

       -version
           Output the version number of indent.
           See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.


INVOKING INDENT
       As of version 1.3, the format of the indent command is:


            indent [options] [input-files]

            indent [options] [single-input-file] [-o output-file]


       This format is different from earlier versions and other versions of
       indent.

       In the first form, one or more input files are specified.  indent makes
       a backup copy of each file, and the original file is replaced with its
       indented version.  See BACKUP FILES, for an explanation of how backups
       are made.

       In the second form, only one input file is specified.  In this case, or
       when the standard input is used, you may specify an output file after
       the ‘-o’ option.

       To cause indent to write to standard output, use the ‘-st’ option.
       This is only allowed when there is only one input file, or when the
       standard input is used.

       If no input files are named, the standard input is read for input.
       Also, if a filename named ‘-’ is specified, then the standard input is
       read.

       As an example, each of the following commands will input the program
       ‘slithy_toves.c’ and write its indented text to ‘slithy_toves.out’:


            indent slithy_toves.c -o slithy_toves.out

            indent -st slithy_toves.c > slithy_toves.out

            cat slithy_toves.c | indent -o slithy_toves.out


       Most other options to indent control how programs are formatted.  As of
       version 1.2, indent also recognizes a long name for each option name.
       Long options are prefixed by either ‘--’ or ‘+’.  [ ‘+’ is being
       superseded by ‘--’ to maintain consistency with the POSIX standard.]
        In most of this document, the traditional, short names are used for
       the sake of brevity.  See OPTION SUMMARY, for a list of options,
       including both long and short names.

       Here is another example:

            indent -br test/metabolism.c -l85

       This will indent the program ‘test/metabolism.c’ using the ‘-br’ and
       ‘-l85’ options, write the output back to ‘test/metabolism.c’, and write
       the original contents of ‘test/metabolism.c’ to a backup file in the
       directory ‘test’.

       Equivalent invocations using long option names for this example would
       be:


            indent --braces-on-if-line --line-length185 test/metabolism.c

            indent +braces-on-if-line +line-length185 test/metabolism.c


       If you find that you often use indent with the same options, you may
       put those options into a file named ‘.indent.pro’.  indent will look
       for a profile file in three places. First it will check the environment
       variable INDENT_PROFILE. If that exists its value is expected to name
       the file that is to be used. If the environment variable does not
       exist, indent looks for ‘.indent.pro’ in the current directory
        and use that if found.  Finally indent will search your home directory
       for ‘.indent.pro’ and use that file if it is found.  This behaviour is
       different from that of other versions of indent, which load both files
       if they both exist.

       The format of ‘.indent.pro’ is simply a list of options, just as they
       would appear on the command line, separated by white space (tabs,
       spaces, and newlines).  Options in ‘.indent.pro’ may be surrounded by C
       or C++ comments, in which case they are ignored.

       Command line switches are handled after processing ‘.indent.pro’.
       Options specified later override arguments specified earlier, with one
       exception: Explicitly specified options always override background
       options (See COMMON STYLES).  You can prevent indent from reading an
       ‘.indent.pro’ file by specifying the ‘-npro’ option.


BACKUP FILES
       As of version 1.3, GNU indent makes GNU-style backup files, the same
       way GNU Emacs does.  This means that either simple or numbered backup
       filenames may be made.

       Simple backup file names are generated by appending a suffix to the
       original file name.  The default for this suffix is the one-character
       string ‘~’ (tilde).  Thus, the backup file for ‘python.c’ would be
       ‘python.c~’.

       Instead of the default, you may specify any string as a suffix by
       setting the environment variable SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX to your preferred
       suffix.

       Numbered backup versions of a file ‘momeraths.c’ look like
       ‘momeraths.c.~23~’, where 23 is the version of this particular backup.
       When making a numbered backup of the file ‘src/momeraths.c’, the backup
       file will be named ‘src/momeraths.c.~V~’, where V is one greater than
       the highest version currently existing in the directory ‘src’.  The
       environment variable VERSION_WIDTH controls the number of digits, using
       left zero padding when necessary.  For instance, setting this variable
       to "2" will lead to the backup file being named ‘momeraths.c.~04~’.

       The type of backup file made is controlled by the value of the
       environment variable VERSION_CONTROL.  If it is the string ‘simple’,
       then only simple backups will be made.  If its value is the string
       ‘numbered’, then numbered backups will be made.  If its value is
       ‘numbered-existing’, then numbered backups will be made if there
       already exist numbered backups for the file being indented; otherwise,
       a simple backup is made.  If VERSION_CONTROL is not set, then indent
       assumes the behaviour of ‘numbered-existing’.

       Other versions of indent use the suffix ‘.BAK’ in naming backup files.
       This behaviour can be emulated by setting SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX to
       ‘.BAK’.

       Note also that other versions of indent make backups in the current
       directory, rather than in the directory of the source file as GNU
       indent now does.


COMMON STYLES
       There are several common styles of C code, including the GNU style, the
       Kernighan & Ritchie style, and the original Berkeley style.  A style
       may be selected with a single background option, which specifies a set
       of values for all other options.  However, explicitly specified options
       always override options implied by a background option.

       As of version 1.2, the default style of GNU indent is the GNU style.
       Thus, it is no longer necessary to specify the option ‘-gnu’ to obtain
       this format, although doing so will not cause an error.  Option
       settings which correspond to the GNU style are:

            -nbad -bap -nbc -bbo -bl -bli2 -bls -ncdb -nce -cp1 -cs -di2
            -ndj -nfc1 -nfca -hnl -i2 -ip5 -lp -pcs -nprs -psl -saf -sai
            -saw -nsc -nsob

       The GNU coding style is that preferred by the GNU project.  It is the
       style that the GNU Emacs C mode encourages and which is used in the C
       portions of GNU Emacs.  (People interested in writing programs for
       Project GNU should get a copy of "The GNU Coding Standards", which also
       covers semantic and portability issues such as memory usage, the size
       of integers, etc.)

       The Kernighan & Ritchie style is used throughout their well-known book
       "The C Programming Language".  It is enabled with the ‘-kr’ option.
       The Kernighan & Ritchie style corresponds to the following set of
       options:

            -nbad -bap -bbo -nbc -br -brs -c33 -cd33 -ncdb -ce -ci4 -cli0
            -cp33 -cs -d0 -di1 -nfc1 -nfca -hnl -i4 -ip0 -l75 -lp -npcs
            -nprs -npsl -saf -sai -saw -nsc -nsob -nss

       Kernighan & Ritchie style does not put comments to the right of code in
       the same column at all times (nor does it use only one space to the
       right of the code), so for this style indent has arbitrarily chosen
       column 33.

       The style of the original Berkeley indent may be obtained by specifying
       ‘-orig’ (or by specifying ‘--original’, using the long option name).
       This style is equivalent to the following settings:

            -nbad -nbap -bbo -bc -br -brs -c33 -cd33 -cdb -ce -ci4 -cli0
            -cp33 -di16 -fc1 -fca -hnl -i4 -ip4 -l75 -lp -npcs -nprs -psl
            -saf -sai -saw -sc -nsob -nss -ts8

       The Linux style is used in the linux kernel code and drivers. Code
       generally has to follow the Linux coding style to be accepted.  This
       style is equivalent to the following settings:

            -nbad -bap -nbc -bbo -hnl -br -brs -c33 -cd33 -ncdb -ce -ci4
            -cli0 -d0 -di1 -nfc1 -i8 -ip0 -l80 -lp -npcs -nprs -npsl -sai
            -saf -saw -ncs -nsc -sob -nfca -cp33 -ss -ts8 -il1


BLANK LINES
       Various programming styles use blank lines in different places.  indent
       has a number of options to insert or delete blank lines in specific
       places.

       The ‘-bad’ option causes indent to force a blank line after every block
       of declarations.  The ‘-nbad’ option causes indent not to force such
       blank lines.

       The ‘-bap’ option forces a blank line after every procedure body.  The
       ‘-nbap’ option forces no such blank line.

       The ‘-bbb’ option forces a blank line before every boxed comment (See
       COMMENTS.)  The ‘-nbbb’ option does not force such blank lines.

       The ‘-sob’ option causes indent to swallow optional blank lines (that
       is, any optional blank lines present in the input will be removed from
       the output).  If the ‘-nsob’ is specified, any blank lines present in
       the input file will be copied to the output file.



--blank-lines-after-declarations
       The ‘-bad’ option forces a blank line after every block of
       declarations.  The ‘-nbad’ option does not add any such blank lines.

       For example, given the input
            char *foo;
            char *bar;
            /* This separates blocks of declarations.  */
            int baz;

       indent -bad produces

            char *foo;
            char *bar;

            /* This separates blocks of declarations.  */
            int baz;

       and indent -nbad produces

            char *foo;
            char *bar;
            /* This separates blocks of declarations.  */
            int baz;


--blank-lines-after-procedures
       The ‘-bap’ option forces a blank line after every procedure body.

       For example, given the input

            int
            foo ()
            {
              puts("Hi");
            }
            /* The procedure bar is even less interesting.  */
            char *
            bar ()
            {
              puts("Hello");
            }

       indent -bap produces

            int
            foo ()
            {
              puts ("Hi");
            }

            /* The procedure bar is even less interesting.  */
            char *
            bar ()
            {
              puts ("Hello");
            }

       and indent -nbap produces

            int
            foo ()
            {
              puts ("Hi");
            }
            /* The procedure bar is even less interesting.  */
            char *
            bar ()
            {
              puts ("Hello");
            }

       No blank line will be added after the procedure foo.


COMMENTS
       indent formats both C and C++ comments. C comments are begun with ‘/*’,
       terminated with ‘*/’ and may contain newline characters.  C++ comments
       begin with the delimiter ‘//’ and end at the newline.

       indent handles comments differently depending upon their context.
       indent attempts to distinguish between comments which follow
       statements, comments which follow declarations, comments following
       preprocessor directives, and comments which are not preceded by code of
       any sort, i.e., they begin the text of the line (although not
       necessarily in column 1).

       indent further distinguishes between comments found outside of
       procedures and aggregates, and those found within them.  In particular,
       comments beginning a line found within a procedure will be indented to
       the column at which code is currently indented.  The exception to this
       is a comment beginning in the leftmost column;  such a comment is
       output at that column.

       indent attempts to leave boxed comments unmodified. The general idea of
       such a comment is that it is enclosed in a rectangle or ‘‘box’’ of
       stars or dashes to visually set it apart.  More precisely, boxed
       comments are defined as those in which the initial ‘/*’ is followed
       immediately by the character ‘*’, ‘=’, ‘_’, or ‘-’, or those in which
       the beginning comment delimiter (‘/*’) is on a line by itself, and the
       following line begins with a ‘*’ in the same column as the star of the
       opening delimiter.

       Examples of boxed comments are:

            /**********************
             * Comment in a box!! *
             **********************/

                   /*
                    * A different kind of scent,
                    * for a different kind of comment.
                    */

       indent attempts to leave boxed comments exactly as they are found in
       the source file.  Thus the indentation of the comment is unchanged, and
       its length is not checked in any way.  The only alteration made is that
       an embedded tab character may be converted into the appropriate number
       of spaces.

       If the ‘-bbb’ option is specified, all such boxed comments will be
       preceded by a blank line, unless such a comment is preceded by code.

       Comments which are not boxed comments may be formatted, which means
       that the line is broken to fit within a right margin and left-filled
       with whitespace.  Single newlines are equivalent to a space, but blank
       lines (two or more newlines in a row) are taken to mean a paragraph
       break.  Formatting of comments which begin after the first column is
       enabled with the ‘-fca’ option.  To format those beginning in column
       one, specify ‘-fc1’.  Such formatting is disabled by default.

       The right margin for formatting defaults to 78, but may be changed with
       the ‘-lc’ option.  If the margin specified does not allow the comment
       to be printed, the margin will be automatically extended for the
       duration of that comment.  The margin is not respected if the comment
       is not being formatted.

       If the comment begins a line (i.e., there is no program text to its
       left), it will be indented to the column it was found in unless the
       comment is within a block of code.  In that case, such a comment will
       be aligned with the indented code of that block (unless the comment
       began in the first column).  This alignment may be affected by the ‘-d’
       option, which specifies an amount by which such comments are moved to
       the left, or unindented.  For example, ‘-d2’ places comments two spaces
       to the left of code.  By default, comments are aligned with code,
       unless they begin in the first column, in which case they are left
       there by default --- to get them aligned with the code, specify ‘-fc1’.

       Comments to the right of code will appear by default in column 33.
       This may be changed with one of three options.  ‘-c’ will specify the
       column for comments following code, ‘-cd’ specifies the column for
       comments following declarations, and ‘-cp’ specifies the column for
       comments following preprocessor directives #else and #endif. ‘-dj’
       together with ‘-cd0’ can be used to suppress alignment of comments to
       the right of declarations, causing the comment to follow one tabstop
       from the end of the declaration. Normally ‘-cd0’ causes ‘-c’ to become
       effective.

       If the code to the left of the comment exceeds the beginning column,
       the comment column will be extended to the next tabstop column past the
       end of the code, or in the case of preprocessor directives, to one
       space past the end of the directive.  This extension lasts only for the
       output of that particular comment.

       The ‘-cdb’ option places the comment delimiters on blank lines.  Thus,
       a single line comment like /* Loving hug */ can be transformed into:

            /*
               Loving hug
             */

       Stars can be placed at the beginning of multi-line comments with the
       ‘-sc’ option.  Thus, the single-line comment above can be transformed
       (with ‘-cdb -sc’) into:

            /*
             * Loving hug
             */


STATEMENTS
       The ‘-br’ or ‘-bl’ option specifies how to format braces.

       The ‘-br’ option formats statement braces like this:

            if (x > 0) {
              x--;
            }

       The ‘-bl’ option formats them like this:

            if (x > 0)
              {
                x--;
              }

       If you use the ‘-bl’ option, you may also want to specify the ‘-bli’
       option.  This option specifies the number of spaces by which braces are
       indented.  ‘-bli2’, the default, gives the result shown above.  ‘-bli0’
       results in the following:

            if (x > 0)
            {
              x--;
            }

       If you are using the ‘-br’ option, you probably want to also use the
       ‘-ce’ option.  This causes the else in an if-then-else construct to
       cuddle up to the immediately preceding ‘}’.  For example, with ‘-br
       -ce’ you get the following:

            if (x > 0) {
              x--;
            } else {
              fprintf (stderr, "...something wrong?\n");
            }

       With ‘-br -nce’ that code would appear as

            if (x > 0) {
              x--;
            }
            else {
              fprintf (stderr, "...something wrong?\n");
            }

       This causes the while in a do-while loop to cuddle up to the
       immediately preceding ‘}’.  For example, with ‘-cdw’ you get the
       following:

            do {
              x--;
            } while (x);

       With ‘-ncdw’ that code would appear as

            do {
              x--;
            }
            while (x);

       The ‘-cli’ option specifies the number of spaces that case labels
       should be indented to the right of the containing switch statement.

       The default gives code like:

            switch (i)
              {
              case 0:
                break;
              case 1:
                {
                  ++i;
                }
              default:
                break;
              }

       Using the ‘-cli2’ that would become:

            switch (i)
              {
                case 0:
                  break;
                case 1:
                  {
                    ++i;
                  }
                default:
                  break;
              }

       The indentation of the braces below a case statement can be controlled
       with the ‘-cbin’ option.  For example, using ‘-cli2 -cbi0’ results in:

            switch (i)
              {
                case 0:
                  break;
                case 1:
                {
                  ++i;
                }
                default:
                  break;
              }

       If a semicolon is on the same line as a for or while statement, the
       ‘-ss’ option will cause a space to be placed before the semicolon.
       This emphasizes the semicolon, making it clear that the body of the for
       or while statement is an empty statement.  ‘-nss’ disables this
       feature.

       The ‘-pcs’ option causes a space to be placed between the name of the
       procedure being called and the ‘(’ (for example, puts ("Hi");.  The
       ‘-npcs’ option would give puts("Hi");).


       If the ‘-cs’ option is specified, indent puts a space between a cast
       operator and the object to be cast. The ‘-ncs’ ensures that there is no
       space between the cast operator and the object. Remember that indent
       only knows about the standard C data types and so cannot recognise
       user-defined types in casts. Thus (mytype)thing is not treated as a
       cast.

       The ‘-bs’ option ensures that there is a space between the keyword
       sizeof and its argument.  In some versions, this is known as the
       ‘Bill_Shannon’ option.

       The ‘-saf’ option forces a space between a for and the following
       parenthesis.  This is the default.

       The ‘-sai’ option forces a space between a if and the following
       parenthesis.  This is the default.

       The ‘-saw’ option forces a space between a while and the following
       parenthesis.  This is the default.

       The ‘-prs’ option causes all parentheses to be separated with a space
       from whatever is between them.  For example, using ‘-prs’ results in
       code like:

              while ( ( e_code - s_code ) < ( dec_ind - 1 ) )
                {
                  set_buf_break ( bb_dec_ind );
                  *e_code++ = ’ ’;
                }


DECLARATIONS
       By default indent will line up identifiers, in the column specified by
       the ‘-di’ option.  For example, ‘-di16’ makes things look like:

            int             foo;
            char           *bar;

       Using a small value (such as one or two) for the ‘-di’ option can be
       used to cause the identifiers to be placed in the first available
       position; for example:

            int foo;
            char *bar;

       The value given to the ‘-di’ option will still affect variables which
       are put on separate lines from their types, for example ‘-di2’ will
       lead to:

            int
              foo;

       If the ‘-bc’ option is specified, a newline is forced after each comma
       in a declaration.  For example,

            int a,
              b,
              c;

       With the ‘-nbc’ option this would look like

            int a, b, c;

       The ‘-bfda’ option causes a newline to be forced after the comma
       separating the arguments of a function declaration.  The arguments will
       appear at one indention level deeper than the function declaration.
       This is particularly helpful for functions with long argument lists.
       The option ‘-bfde’ causes a newline to be forced before the closing
       bracket of the function declaration. For both options the ’n’ setting
       is the default: -nbdfa and -nbdfe.


       For example,

            void foo (int arg1, char arg2, int *arg3, long arg4, char arg5);
       With the ‘-bfda’ option this would look like

            void foo (
                int arg1,
                char arg2,
                int *arg3,
                long arg4,
                char arg5);

       With, in addition, the ‘-bfde’ option this would look like

            void foo (
                int arg1,
                char arg2,
                int *arg3,
                long arg4,
                char arg5
                );

       The ‘-psl’ option causes the type of a procedure being defined to be
       placed on the line before the name of the procedure.  This style is
       required for the etags program to work correctly, as well as some of
       the c-mode functions of Emacs.

       You must use the ‘-T’ option to tell indent the name of all the
       typenames in your program that are defined by typedef.  ‘-T’ can be
       specified more than once, and all names specified are used.  For
       example, if your program contains

            typedef unsigned long CODE_ADDR;
            typedef enum {red, blue, green} COLOR;

       you would use the options ‘-T CODE_ADDR -T COLOR’.


       The ‘-brs’ or ‘-bls’ option specifies how to format braces in struct
       declarations.  The ‘-brs’ option formats braces like this:

            struct foo {
              int x;
            };

       The ‘-bls’ option formats them like this:

            struct foo
            {
              int x;
            };


       Similarly to the structure brace ‘-brs’ and ‘-bls’ options,
        the function brace options ‘-brf’ or ‘-blf’ specify how to format the
       braces in function definitions.  The ‘-brf’ option formats braces like
       this:

            int one(void) {
              return 1;
            };

       The ‘-blf’ option formats them like this:

            int one(void)
            {
              return 1;
            };


INDENTATION
       One issue in the formatting of code is how far each line should be
       indented from the left margin.  When the beginning of a statement such
       as if or for is encountered, the indentation level is increased by the
       value specified by the ‘-i’ option.  For example, use ‘-i8’ to specify
       an eight character indentation for each level.  When a statement is
       broken across two lines, the second line is indented by a number of
       additional spaces specified by the ‘-ci’ option.  ‘-ci’ defaults to 0.
       However, if the ‘-lp’ option is specified, and a line has a left
       parenthesis which is not closed on that line, then continuation lines
       will be lined up to start at the character position just after the left
       parenthesis.  This processing also applies to ‘[’ and applies to ‘{’
       when it occurs in initialization lists.  For example, a piece of
       continued code might look like this with ‘-nlp -ci3’ in effect:

              p1 = first_procedure (second_procedure (p2, p3),
                 third_procedure (p4, p5));

       With ‘-lp’ in effect the code looks somewhat clearer:

              p1 = first_procedure (second_procedure (p2, p3),
                                    third_procedure (p4, p5));

       When a statement is broken in between two or more paren pairs (...),
       each extra pair causes the indentation level extra indentation:

            if ((((i < 2 &&
                    k > 0) || p == 0) &&
                q == 1) ||
              n = 0)

       The option ‘-ipN’ can be used to set the extra offset per paren.  For
       instance, ‘-ip0’ would format the above as:

            if ((((i < 2 &&
              k > 0) || p == 0) &&
              q == 1) ||
              n = 0)

       indent assumes that tabs are placed at regular intervals of both input
       and output character streams.  These intervals are by default 8 columns
       wide, but (as of version 1.2) may be changed by the ‘-ts’ option.  Tabs
       are treated as the equivalent number of spaces.

       The indentation of type declarations in old-style function definitions
       is controlled by the ‘-ip’ parameter.  This is a numeric parameter
       specifying how many spaces to indent type declarations.  For example,
       the default ‘-ip5’ makes definitions look like this:

            char *
            create_world (x, y, scale)
                 int x;
                 int y;
                 float scale;
            {
              . . .
            }

       For compatibility with other versions of indent, the option ‘-nip’ is
       provided, which is equivalent to ‘-ip0’.

       ANSI C allows white space to be placed on preprocessor command lines
       between the character ‘#’ and the command name.  By default, indent
       removes this space, but specifying the ‘-lps’ option directs indent to
       leave this space unmodified. The option ‘-ppi’ overrides  ‘-nlps’ and
       ‘-lps’.

       This option can be used to request that preprocessor conditional
       statements can be indented by to given number of spaces, for example
       with the option ‘-ppi 3’

            #if X
            #if Y
            #define Z 1
            #else
            #define Z 0
            #endif
            #endif
       becomes
            #if X
            #   if Y
            #      define Z 1
            #   else
            #      define Z 0
            #   endif
            #endif

       This option sets the offset at which a label (except case labels) will
       be positioned. If it is set to zero or a positive number, this
       indicates how far from the left margin to indent a label.  If it is set
       to a negative number, this indicates how far back from the current
       indent level to place the label.  The default setting is -2 which
       matches the behaviour of earlier versions of indent.  Note that this
       parameter does not affect the placing of case labels; see the ‘-cli’
       parameter for that. For example with the option ‘-il 1’

            group
            function()
            {
                if (do_stuff1() == ERROR)
                    goto cleanup1;

                if (do_stuff2() == ERROR)
                    goto cleanup2;

                return SUCCESS;

              cleanup2:
                do_cleanup2();

              cleanup1:
                do_cleanup1();

                return ERROR;
            }
       becomes
            group
            function()
            {
                if (do_stuff1() == ERROR)
                    goto cleanup1;

                if (do_stuff2() == ERROR)
                    goto cleanup2;

                return SUCCESS;

             cleanup2:
                do_cleanup2();

             cleanup1:
                do_cleanup1();

                return ERROR;
            }


BREAKING LONG LINES
       With the option ‘-ln’, or ‘--line-lengthn’, it is possible to specify
       the maximum length of a line of C code, not including possible comments
       that follow it.

       When lines become longer than the specified line length, GNU indent
       tries to break the line at a logical place.  This is new as of version
       2.1 however and not very intelligent or flexible yet.

       Currently there are two options that allow one to interfere with the
       algorithm that determines where to break a line.

       The ‘-bbo’ option causes GNU indent to prefer to break long lines
       before the boolean operators && and ||.  The ‘-nbbo’ option causes GNU
       indent not have that preference.  For example, the default option
       ‘-bbo’ (together with ‘--line-length60’ and ‘--ignore-newlines’) makes
       code look like this:

              if (mask
                  && ((mask[0] == ’\0’)
                      || (mask[1] == ’\0’
                          && ((mask[0] == ’0’) || (mask[0] == ’*’)))))

       Using the option ‘-nbbo’ will make it look like this:

              if (mask &&
                  ((mask[0] == ’\0’) ||
                   (mask[1] == ’\0’ &&
                    ((mask[0] == ’0’) || (mask[0] == ’*’)))))

       The default ‘-hnl’, however, honours newlines in the input file by
       giving them the highest possible priority to break lines at.  For
       example, when the input file looks like this:

              if (mask
                  && ((mask[0] == ’\0’)
                  || (mask[1] == ’\0’ && ((mask[0] == ’0’) || (mask[0] == ’*’)))))

       then using the option ‘-hnl’, or ‘--honour-newlines’, together with the
       previously mentioned ‘-nbbo’ and ‘--line-length60’, will cause the
       output not to be what is given in the last example but instead will
       prefer to break at the positions where the code was broken in the input
       file:

              if (mask
                  && ((mask[0] == ’\0’)
                      || (mask[1] == ’\0’ &&
                          ((mask[0] == ’0’) || (mask[0] == ’*’)))))

       The idea behind this option is that lines which are too long, but are
       already broken up, will not be touched by GNU indent.  Really messy
       code should be run through indent at least once using the ‘--ignore-
       newlines’ option though.


DISABLING FORMATTING
       Formatting of C code may be disabled for portions of a program by
       embedding special control comments in the program.  To turn off
       formatting for a section of a program, place the disabling control
       comment /* *INDENT-OFF* */ on a line by itself just before that
       section.  Program text scanned after this control comment is output
       precisely as input with no modifications until the corresponding
       enabling comment is scanned on a line by itself.  The disabling control
       comment is /* *INDENT-ON* */, and any text following the comment on the
       line is also output unformatted.  Formatting begins again with the
       input line following the enabling control comment.

       More precisely, indent does not attempt to verify the closing delimiter
       (*/) for these C comments, and any whitespace on the line is totally
       transparent.

       These control comments also function in their C++ formats, namely //
       *INDENT-OFF* and // *INDENT-ON*.

       It should be noted that the internal state of indent remains unchanged
       over the course of the unformatted section.  Thus, for example, turning
       off formatting in the middle of a function and continuing it after the
       end of the function may lead to bizarre results.  It is therefore wise
       to be somewhat modular in selecting code to be left unformatted.

       As a historical note, some earlier versions of indent produced error
       messages beginning with *INDENT**.  These versions of indent were
       written to ignore any input text lines which began with such error
       messages.  I have removed this incestuous feature from GNU indent.


MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS
       To find out what version of indent you have, use the command indent
       -version. This will report the version number of indent, without doing
       any of the normal processing.

       The ‘-v’ option can be used to turn on verbose mode.  When in verbose
       mode, indent reports when it splits one line of input into two more
       more lines of output, and gives some size statistics at completion.

       The ‘-pmt’ option causes indent to preserve the access and modification
       times on the output files.  Using this option has the advantage that
       running indent on all source and header files in a project won’t cause
       make to rebuild all targets.  This option is only available on
       Operating Systems that have the POSIX utime(2) function.


BUGS
       Please report any bugs to bug-indent@gnu.org.

       When indent is run twice on a file, with the same profile, it should
       never change that file the second time.  With the current design of
       indent, this can not be guaranteed, and it has not been extensively
       tested.

       indent does not understand C. In some cases this leads to the inability
       to join lines.  The result is that running a file through indent is
       irreversible, even if the used input file was the result of running
       indent with a given profile (‘.indent.pro’).

       While an attempt was made to get indent working for C++, it will not do
       a good job on any C++ source except the very simplest.

       indent does not look at the given ‘--line-length’ option when writing
       comments to the output file.  This results often in comments being put
       far to the right.  In order to prohibit indent from joining a broken
       line that has a comment at the end, make sure that the comments start
       on the first line of the break.

       indent does not count lines and comments (see the ‘-v’ option) when
       indent is turned off with /* *INDENT-OFF* */.

       Comments of the form /*UPPERCASE*/ are not treated as comment but as an
       identifier, causing them to be joined with the next line. This renders
       comments of this type useless, unless they are embedded in the code to
       begin with.


COPYRIGHT
       The following copyright notice applies to the indent program.  The
       copyright and copying permissions for this manual appear near the
       beginning of ‘indent.texinfo’ and ‘indent.info’, and near the end of
       ‘indent.1’.

       Copyright (c) 2001 David Ingamells.
       Copyright (c) 1999 Carlo Wood.
       Copyright (c) 1995, 1996 Joseph Arceneaux.
       Copyright (c) 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996 Free Software Foundation
       Copyright (c) 1985 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
       Copyright (c) 1980 The Regents of the University of California.
       Copyright (c) 1976 Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.
       All rights reserved.

       Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted
       provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
       duplicated in all such forms and that any documentation,
       advertising materials, and other materials related to such
       distribution and use acknowledge that the software was developed
       by the University of California, Berkeley, the University of Illinois,
       Urbana, and Sun Microsystems, Inc.  The name of either University
       or Sun Microsystems may not be used to endorse or promote products
       derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
       THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ‘‘AS IS’’ AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR
       IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
       WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.


Options’ Cross Key
       Here is a list of options alphabetized by long option, to help you find
       the corresponding short option.


            --blank-lines-after-commas                      -bc
            --blank-lines-after-declarations                -bad
            --blank-lines-after-procedures                  -bap
            --blank-lines-before-block-comments             -bbb
            --braces-after-if-line                          -bl
            --braces-after-func-def-line                    -blf
            --brace-indent                                  -bli
            --braces-after-struct-decl-line                 -bls
            --braces-on-if-line                             -br
            --braces-on-func-def-line                       -brf
            --braces-on-struct-decl-line                    -brs
            --break-after-boolean-operator                  -nbbo
            --break-before-boolean-operator                 -bbo
            --break-function-decl-args                      -bfda
            --break-function-decl-args-end                  -bfde
            --case-indentation                              -clin
            --case-brace-indentation                        -cbin
            --comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines             -cdb
            --comment-indentation                           -cn
            --continuation-indentation                      -cin
            --continue-at-parentheses                       -lp
            --cuddle-do-while                               -cdw
            --cuddle-else                                   -ce
            --declaration-comment-column                    -cdn
            --declaration-indentation                       -din
            --dont-break-function-decl-args                 -nbfda
            --dont-break-function-decl-args-end             -nbfde
            --dont-break-procedure-type                     -npsl
            --dont-cuddle-do-while                          -ncdw
            --dont-cuddle-else                              -nce
            --dont-format-comments                          -nfca
            --dont-format-first-column-comments             -nfc1
            --dont-line-up-parentheses                      -nlp
            --dont-left-justify-declarations                -ndj
            --dont-space-special-semicolon                  -nss
            --dont-star-comments                            -nsc
            --else-endif-column                             -cpn
            --format-all-comments                           -fca
            --format-first-column-comments                  -fc1
            --gnu-style                                     -gnu
            --honour-newlines                               -hnl
            --ignore-newlines                               -nhnl
            --ignore-profile                                -npro
            --indent-label                                  -iln
            --indent-level                                  -in
            --k-and-r-style                                 -kr
            --leave-optional-blank-lines                    -nsob
            --leave-preprocessor-space                      -lps
            --left-justify-declarations                     -dj
            --line-comments-indentation                     -dn
            --line-length                                   -ln
            --linux-style                                   -linux
            --no-blank-lines-after-commas                   -nbc
            --no-blank-lines-after-declarations             -nbad
            --no-blank-lines-after-procedures               -nbap
            --no-blank-lines-before-block-comments          -nbbb
            --no-comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines          -ncdb
            --no-space-after-casts                          -ncs
            --no-parameter-indentation                      -nip
            --no-space-after-for                    -nsaf
            --no-space-after-function-call-names            -npcs
            --no-space-after-if                -nsai
            --no-space-after-parentheses                    -nprs
            --no-space-after-while                  -nsaw
            --no-tabs                                       -nut
            --no-verbosity                                  -nv
            --original                                      -orig
            --parameter-indentation                         -ipn
            --paren-indentation                             -pin
            --preserve-mtime                   -pmt
            --preprocessor-indentation                      -ppin
            --procnames-start-lines                         -psl
            --space-after-cast                              -cs
            --space-after-for                  -saf
            --space-after-if                   -sai
            --space-after-parentheses                       -prs
            --space-after-procedure-calls                   -pcs
            --space-after-while                -saw
            --space-special-semicolon                       -ss
            --standard-output                               -st
            --start-left-side-of-comments                   -sc
            --struct-brace-indentation                      -sbin
            --swallow-optional-blank-lines                  -sob
            --tab-size                                      -tsn
            --use-tabs                                      -ut
            --verbose                                       -v


RETURN VALUE
       Unknown

FILES
       $HOME/.indent.pro   holds default options for indent.

AUTHORS
       Carlo Wood
       Joseph Arceneaux
       Jim Kingdon
       David Ingamells

HISTORY
       Derived from the UCB program "indent".

COPYING
       Copyright (C) 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996 Free Software
       Foundation, Inc.  Copyright (C) 1995, 1996 Joseph Arceneaux.  Copyright
       (C) 1999 Carlo Wood.  Copyright (C) 2001 David Ingamells.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.





                                                                    INDENT(1L)