intel(4)                    Kernel Interfaces Manual                    intel(4)

       intel - Intel integrated graphics chipsets

       Section "Device"
         Identifier "devname"
         Driver "intel"

       intel is an Xorg driver for Intel integrated graphics chipsets.  The
       driver supports depths 8, 15, 16 and 24.  All visual types are supported
       in depth 8.  For the i810/i815 other depths support the TrueColor and
       DirectColor visuals.  For the i830M and later, only the TrueColor visual
       is supported for depths greater than 8.  The driver supports hardware
       accelerated 3D via the Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI), but only in
       depth 16 for the i810/i815 and depths 16 and 24 for the 830M and later.

       intel supports the i810, i810-DC100, i810e, i815, i830M, 845G, 852GM,
       855GM, 865G, 915G, 915GM, 945G, 945GM, 965G, 965Q, 946GZ, 965GM, 945GME,
       G33, Q33, Q35, G35, GM45, G45, Q45, G43, G41 chipsets, Pineview-M in Atom
       N400 series, Pineview-D in Atom D400/D500 series, Intel(R) HD Graphics,
       Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics, Intel(R) Iris(TM) Pro Graphics.

       Please refer to xorg.conf(5) for general configuration details.  This
       section only covers configuration details specific to this driver.

       The Intel 8xx and 9xx families of integrated graphics chipsets have a
       unified memory architecture meaning that system memory is used as video
       RAM.  For the i810 and i815 family of chipsets, operating system support
       for allocating system memory is required in order to use this driver.
       For the 830M and later, this is required in order for the driver to use
       more video RAM than has been pre-allocated at boot time by the BIOS.
       This is usually achieved with an "agpgart" or "agp" kernel driver.
       Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, and Solaris have such kernel drivers

       By default, the i810/i815 will use 8 MB of system memory for graphics if
       AGP allocable memory is < 128 MB, 16 MB if < 192 MB or 24 MB if higher.
       Use the VideoRam option to change the default value.

       For the 830M and later, the driver will automatically size its memory
       allocation according to the features it will support.  Therefore, the
       VideoRam option, which in the past had been necessary to allow more than
       some small amount of memory to be allocated, is now ignored.

       The following driver Options are supported

       Option "ColorKey" "integer"
              This sets the default pixel value for the YUV video overlay key.

              Default: undefined.

       Option "DRI" "string"
              Disable or enable DRI support. A driver name to use can be
              provided instead of simple boolean value, which will be passed to
              the GL implementation for it to load the appropriate backend.
              Alternatively the maximum level of DRI to enable (e.g. "1", "2" or
              "3") can be specified.

              Default: All levels of DRI are enabled for configurations where it
              is supported.

       The following driver Options are supported for the i810 and i815

       Option "CacheLines" "integer"
              This allows the user to change the amount of graphics memory used
              for 2D acceleration and video when XAA acceleration is enabled.
              Decreasing this amount leaves more for 3D textures.  Increasing it
              can improve 2D performance at the expense of 3D performance.

              Default: depends on the resolution, depth, and available video
              memory.  The driver attempts to allocate space for at 3 screenfuls
              of pixmaps plus an HD-sized XV video.  The default used for a
              specific configuration can be found by examining the Xorg log

       Option "DDC" "boolean"
              Disable or enable DDC support.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "Dac6Bit" "boolean"
              Enable or disable 6-bits per RGB for 8-bit modes.

              Default: 8-bits per RGB for 8-bit modes.

       Option "XvMCSurfaces" "integer"
              This option enables XvMC.  The integer parameter specifies the
              number of surfaces to use.  Valid values are 6 and 7.

              Default: XvMC is disabled.

       VideoRam integer
              This option specifies the amount of system memory to use for
              graphics, in KB.

              The default is 8192 if AGP allocable memory is < 128 MB, 16384 if
              < 192 MB, 24576 if higher. DRI require at least a value of 16384.
              Higher values may give better 3D performance, at expense of
              available system memory.

       Option "Accel" "boolean"
              Enable or disable acceleration.

              Default: acceleration is enabled.

       The following driver Options are supported for the 830M and later

       Option "Accel" "boolean"
              Enable or disable acceleration.

              Default: acceleration is enabled.

       Option "Present" "boolean"
              Enable use of hardware counters and flow control for the Present

              Default: Enabled

       Option "AccelMethod" "string"
              Select acceleration method.  There are a couple of backends
              available for accelerating the DDX. "UXA" (Unified Acceleration
              Architecture) is the mature backend that was introduced to support
              the GEM driver model. It is in the process of being superseded by
              "SNA" (Sandybridge's New Acceleration). Until that process is
              complete, the ability to choose which backend to use remains for
              backwards compatibility.  In addition, there are a pair of sub-
              options to limit the acceleration for debugging use. Specify "off"
              or "none" to disable all acceleration, or "blt" to disable render
              acceleration and only use the BLT engine.

              Default: use SNA (render acceleration)

       Option "TearFree" "boolean"
              Disable or enable TearFree updates. This option forces X to
              perform all rendering to a backbuffer prior to updating the actual
              display. It requires an extra memory allocation the same size as a
              framebuffer, the occasional extra copy, and requires Damage
              tracking. Thus enabling TearFree requires more memory and is
              slower (reduced throughput) and introduces a small amount of
              output latency, but it should not impact input latency. However,
              the update to the screen is then performed synchronously with the
              vertical refresh of the display so that the entire update is
              completed before the display starts its refresh. That is only one
              frame is ever visible, preventing an unsightly tear between two
              visible and differing frames. Note that this replicates what the
              compositing manager should be doing, however TearFree will
              redirect the compositor updates (and those of fullscreen games)
              directly on to the scanout thus incurring no additional overhead
              in the composited case. Also note that not all compositing
              managers prevent tearing, and if the outputs are rotated, there
              will still be tearing without TearFree enabled.

              Default: TearFree is disabled.

       Option "ReprobeOutputs" "boolean"
              Disable or enable rediscovery of connected displays during server
              startup.  As the kernel driver loads it scans for connected
              displays and configures a console spanning those outputs. When the
              X server starts, we then take the list of connected displays and
              framebuffer layout and use that for the initial configuration.
              Sometimes, not all displays are correctly detected by the kernel
              and so it is useful in a few circumstances for X to force the
              kernel to reprobe all displays when it starts. To make the X
              server recheck the status of connected displays, set the
              "ReprobeOutputs" option to true.  Please do file a bug for any
              circumstances which require this workaround.

              Default: reprobing is disabled for a faster startup.

       Option "VideoKey" "integer"
              This is the same as the "ColorKey" option described above.  It is
              provided for compatibility with most other drivers.

       Option "XvPreferOverlay" "boolean"
              Make hardware overlay be the first XV adaptor.  The overlay
              behaves incorrectly in the presence of compositing, but some
              prefer it due to it syncing to vblank in the absence of
              compositing.  While most XV-using applications have options to
              select which XV adaptor to use, this option can be used to place
              the overlay first for applications which don't have options for
              selecting adaptors.

              Default: Textured video adaptor is preferred.

       Option "Backlight" "string"
              Override the probed backlight control interface. Sometimes the
              automatically selected backlight interface may not correspond to
              the correct, or simply most useful, interface available on the
              system. This allows you to override that choice by specifying the
              entry under /sys/class/backlight to use.

              Default: Automatic selection.

       Option "CustomEDID" "string"
              Override the probed EDID on particular outputs. Sometimes the
              manufacturer supplied EDID is corrupt or lacking a few usable
              modes and supplying a corrected EDID may be easier than specifying
              every modeline. This option allows to pass the path to load an
              EDID from per output. The format is a comma separated string of
              output:path pairs, e.g.

              Default: No override, use manufacturer supplied EDIDs.

       Option "FallbackDebug" "boolean"
              Enable printing of debugging information on acceleration fallbacks
              to the server log.

              Default: Disabled

       Option "DebugFlushBatches" "boolean"
              Flush the batch buffer after every single operation.

              Default: Disabled

       Option "DebugFlushCaches" "boolean"
              Include an MI_FLUSH at the end of every batch buffer to force data
              to be flushed out of cache and into memory before the completion
              of the batch.

              Default: Disabled

       Option "DebugWait" "boolean"
              Wait for the completion of every batch buffer before continuing,
              i.e. perform synchronous rendering.

              Default: Disabled

       Option "HWRotation" "boolean"
              Override the use of native hardware rotation and force the use of
              software, but GPU accelerated where possible, rotation. On some
              platforms the hardware can scanout directly into a rotated output
              bypassing the intermediate rendering and extra allocations
              required for software implemented rotation (i.e. native rotation
              uses less resources, is quicker and uses less power). This allows
              you to disable the native rotation in case of errors.

              Default: Enabled (use hardware rotation)

       Option "VSync" "boolean"
              This option controls the use of commands to synchronise rendering
              with the vertical refresh of the display. Some rendering commands
              have the option to be performed in a "tear-free" fashion by
              stalling the GPU to wait for the display to be outside of the
              region to be updated. This slows down all rendering, and
              historically has been the source of many GPU hangs.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "PageFlip" "boolean"
              This option controls the use of commands to flip the scanout
              address on a VBlank. This is used by glXSwapBuffers to efficiently
              perform the back-to-front exchange at the end of a frame without
              incurring the penalty of a copy, or stalling the render pipeline
              (the flip is performed asynchronrously to the render command
              stream by the display engine). However, it has historically been
              the source of many GPU hangs.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "SwapbuffersWait" "boolean"
              This option controls the behavior of glXSwapBuffers and
              glXCopySubBufferMESA calls by GL applications.  If enabled, the
              calls will avoid tearing by making sure the display scanline is
              outside of the area to be copied before the copy occurs.  If
              disabled, no scanline synchronization is performed, meaning
              tearing will likely occur.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "TripleBuffer" "boolean"
              This option enables the use of a third buffer for page-flipping.
              The third buffer allows applications to run at vrefresh rates even
              if they occasionally fail to swapbuffers on time. The effect of
              such missed swaps is the output jitters between 60fps and 30fps,
              and in the worst case appears frame-locked to 30fps. The
              disadvantage of triple buffering is that there is an extra frame
              of latency, due to the pre-rendered frame sitting in the swap
              queue, between input and any display update.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "Tiling" "boolean"
              This option controls whether memory buffers for Pixmaps are
              allocated in tiled mode.  In most cases (especially for complex
              rendering), tiling dramatically improves performance.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "LinearFramebuffer" "boolean"
              This option controls whether the memory for the scanout (also
              known as the front or frame buffer) is allocated in linear memory.
              A tiled framebuffer is required for power conservation features,
              but for certain system configurations you may wish to override
              this and force a linear layout.

              Default: disabled

       Option "RelaxedFencing" "boolean"
              This option controls whether we attempt to allocate the minimal
              amount of memory required for the buffers. The reduction in
              working set has a substantial improvement on system performance.
              However, this has been demonstrate to be buggy on older hardware
              (845-865 and 915-945, but ok on PineView and later) so on those
              chipsets defaults to off.

              Default: Enabled for G33 (includes PineView), and later, class

       Option "XvMC" "boolean"
              Enable XvMC driver. Current support MPEG2 MC on 915/945 and G33
              series.  User should provide absolute path to in
              XvMCConfig file.

              Default: Disabled.

       Option "Throttle" "boolean"
              This option controls whether the driver periodically waits for
              pending drawing operations to complete. Throttling ensures that
              the GPU does not lag too far behind the CPU and thus noticeable
              delays in user responsible at the cost of throughput performance.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "HotPlug" "boolean"
              This option controls whether the driver automatically notifies
              applications when monitors are connected or disconnected.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "Virtualheads" "integer"
              This option controls specifies the number of fake outputs to
              create in addition to the normal outputs detected on your
              hardware. These outputs cannot be assigned to the regular displays
              attached to the GPU, but do otherwise act as any other xrandr
              output and share a portion of the regular framebuffer. One use
              case for these extra heads is for extending your desktop onto a
              discrete GPU using the Bumblebee project. However, the
              recommendation here is to use PRIME instead to create a single
              Xserver that can addresses and coordinate between multiple GPUs.

              Default: 0

       Option "ZaphodHeads" "string"

              Specify the randr output(s) to use with zaphod mode for a
              particular driver instance.  If you set this option you must use
              it with all instances of the driver. By default, each head is
              assigned only one CRTC (which limits using multiple outputs with
              that head to cloned mode). CRTC can be manually assigned to
              individual heads by preceding the output names with a comma
              delimited list of pipe numbers followed by a colon. Note that
              different pipes may be limited in their functionality and some
              outputs may only work with different pipes.
              For example:

              Option "ZaphodHeads" "LVDS1,VGA1"

              will assign xrandr outputs LVDS1 and VGA1 to this instance of the

              Option "ZaphodHeads" "0,2:HDMI1,DP2"

              will assign xrandr outputs HDMI1 and DP2 and CRTCs 0 and 2 to this
              instance of the driver.

       On 830M and better chipsets, the driver supports runtime configuration of
       detected outputs.  You can use the xrandr tool to control outputs on the
       command line as follows:

              xrandr --output output --set property value

       Note that you may need to quote property and value arguments that contain
       spaces.  Each output listed below may have one or more properties
       associated with it (like a binary EDID block if one is found).  Some
       outputs have unique properties which are described below.  See the
       "MULTIHEAD CONFIGURATIONS" section below for additional information.

       VGA output port (typically exposed via an HD15 connector).

       Low Voltage Differential Signalling output (typically a laptop LCD
       panel).  Available properties:

       BACKLIGHT - current backlight level (adjustable)
              By adjusting the BACKLIGHT property, the brightness on the LVDS
              output can be adjusted.  In some cases, this property may be
              unavailable (for example if your platform uses an external
              microcontroller to control the backlight).

       scaling mode - control LCD panel scaling mode
              When the currently selected display mode differs from the native
              panel resolution, various scaling options are available. These

              Center Simply center the image on-screen without scaling. This is
                     the only scaling mode that guarantees a one-to-one
                     correspondence between native and displayed pixels, but
                     some portions of the panel may be unused (so-called

              Full aspect
                     Scale the image as much as possible while preserving aspect
                     ratio. Pixels may not be displayed one-to-one (there may be
                     some blurriness). Some portions of the panel may be unused
                     if the aspect ratio of the selected mode does not match
                     that of the panel.

              Full   Scale the image to the panel size without regard to aspect
                     ratio. This is the only mode which guarantees that every
                     pixel of the panel will be used. But the displayed image
                     may be distorted by stretching either horizontally or
                     vertically, and pixels may not be displayed one-to-one
                     (there may be some blurriness).

       The precise names of these options may differ depending on the kernel
       video driver, (but the functionality should be similar). See the output
       of xrandr --prop for a list of currently available scaling modes.

       Integrated TV output.  Available properties include:

       BOTTOM, RIGHT, TOP, LEFT - margins
              Adjusting these properties allows you to control the placement of
              your TV output buffer on the screen. The options with the same
              name can also be set in xorg.conf with integer value.

       BRIGHTNESS - TV brightness, range 0-255
              Adjust TV brightness, default value is 128.

       CONTRAST - TV contrast, range 0-255
              Adjust TV contrast, default value is 1.0 in chipset specific

       SATURATION - TV saturation, range 0-255
              Adjust TV saturation, default value is 1.0 in chipset specific

       HUE - TV hue, range 0-255
              Adjust TV hue, default value is 0.

       TV_FORMAT - output standard
              This property allows you to control the output standard used on
              your TV output port.  You can select between NTSC-M, NTSC-443,
              NTSC-J, PAL-M, PAL-N, and PAL.

       TV_Connector - connector type
              This config option should be added to xorg.conf TV monitor's
              section, it allows you to force the TV output connector type,
              which bypass load detect and TV will always be taken as connected.
              You can select between S-Video, Composite and Component.

       First DVI SDVO output

       Second DVI SDVO output

   TMDS-1 , TMDS-2 , HDMI-1 , HDMI-2
       DVI/HDMI outputs. Available common properties include:

       BROADCAST_RGB - method used to set RGB color range
              Adjusting this property allows you to set RGB color range on each
              channel in order to match HDTV requirement(default 0 for full
              range). Setting 1 means RGB color range is 16-235, 0 means RGB
              color range is 0-255 on each channel.  (Full range is 0-255, not

       SDVO and DVO TV outputs are not supported by the driver at this time.

       See xorg.conf(5) for information on associating Monitor sections with
       these outputs for configuration.  Associating Monitor sections with each
       output can be helpful if you need to ignore a specific output, for
       example, or statically configure an extended desktop monitor layout.

       The number of independent outputs is dictated by the number of CRTCs (in
       X parlance) a given chip supports.  Most recent Intel chips have two
       CRTCs, meaning that two separate framebuffers can be displayed
       simultaneously, in an extended desktop configuration.  If a chip supports
       more outputs than it has CRTCs (say local flat panel, VGA and TV in the
       case of many outputs), two of the outputs will have to be "cloned",
       meaning that they display the same framebuffer contents (or one displays
       a subset of another's framebuffer if the modes aren't equal).

       You can use the "xrandr" tool, or various desktop utilities, to change
       your output configuration at runtime.  To statically configure your
       outputs, you can use the "Monitor-<type>" options along with additional
       monitor sections in your xorg.conf to create your screen topology.  The
       example below puts the VGA output to the right of the builtin laptop
       screen, both running at 1024x768.

       Section "Monitor"
         Identifier "Laptop FooBar Internal Display"
         Option "Position" "0 0"

       Section "Monitor"
         Identifier "Some Random CRT"
         Option "Position" "1024 0"
         Option "RightOf" "Laptop FoodBar Internal Display"

       Section "Device"
         Driver "intel"
         Option "monitor-LVDS" "Laptop FooBar Internal Display"
         Option "monitor-VGA" "Some Random CRT"

       The driver supports the following X11 Xv attributes for Textured Video.
       You can use the "xvattr" tool to query/set those attributes at runtime.

       XV_SYNC_TO_VBLANK is used to control whether textured adapter
       synchronizes the screen update to the vblank to eliminate tearing. It is
       a Boolean attribute with values of 0 (never sync) or 1 (always sync). An
       historic value of -1 (sync for large windows only) will now be
       interpreted as 1, (since the current approach for sync is not costly even
       with small video windows).

       The xf86-video-intel driver is part of the X.Org and
       umbrella projects.  Details on bug reporting can be found at  Mailing
       lists are also commonly used to report experiences and ask questions
       about configuration and other topics.  See for more
       information (the mailing list is the most
       appropriate place to ask X.Org and driver related questions).

       Xorg(1), xorg.conf(5), Xserver(1), X(7)

       Authors include: Keith Whitwell, and also Jonathan Bian, Matthew J
       Sottek, Jeff Hartmann, Mark Vojkovich, Alan Hourihane, H. J. Lu.  830M
       and 845G support reworked for XFree86 4.3 by David Dawes and Keith
       Whitwell.  852GM, 855GM, and 865G support added by David Dawes and Keith
       Whitwell.  915G, 915GM, 945G, 945GM, 965G, 965Q and 946GZ support added
       by Alan Hourihane and Keith Whitwell. Lid status support added by Alan
       Hourihane. Textured video support for 915G and later chips, RandR 1.2 and
       hardware modesetting added by Eric Anholt and Keith Packard. EXA and
       Render acceleration added by Wang Zhenyu. TV out support added by Zou Nan
       Hai and Keith Packard. 965GM, G33, Q33, and Q35 support added by Wang

X Version 11                xf86-video-intel 2.99.917                   intel(4)