ipset

IPSET(8)                                                              IPSET(8)



NAME
       ipset — administration tool for IP sets

SYNOPSIS
       ipset [ OPTIONS ] COMMAND [ COMMAND-OPTIONS ]

       COMMANDS := { create | add | del | test | destroy | list | save |
       restore | flush | rename | swap | help | version | - }

       OPTIONS := { -exist | -output { plain | save | xml } | -quiet |
       -resolve | -sorted | -name | -terse | -file filename }

       ipset create SETNAME TYPENAME [ CREATE-OPTIONS ]

       ipset add SETNAME ADD-ENTRY [ ADD-OPTIONS ]

       ipset del SETNAME DEL-ENTRY [ DEL-OPTIONS ]

       ipset test SETNAME TEST-ENTRY [ TEST-OPTIONS ]

       ipset destroy [ SETNAME ]

       ipset list [ SETNAME ]

       ipset save [ SETNAME ]

       ipset restore

       ipset flush [ SETNAME ]

       ipset rename SETNAME-FROM SETNAME-TO

       ipset swap SETNAME-FROM SETNAME-TO

       ipset help [ TYPENAME ]

       ipset version

       ipset -

DESCRIPTION
       ipset is used to set up, maintain and inspect so called IP sets in the
       Linux kernel. Depending on the type of the set, an IP set may store
       IP(v4/v6) addresses, (TCP/UDP) port numbers, IP and MAC address pairs,
       IP address and port number pairs, etc. See the set type definitions
       below.

       Iptables matches and targets referring to sets create references, which
       protect the given sets in the kernel. A set cannot be destroyed while
       there is a single reference pointing to it.

OPTIONS
       The options that are recognized by ipset can be divided into several
       different groups.

   COMMANDS
       These options specify the desired action to perform.  Only one of them
       can be specified on the command line unless otherwise specified below.
       For all the long versions of the command names, you need to use only
       enough letters to ensure that ipset can differentiate it from all other
       commands. The ipset parser follows the order here when looking for the
       shortest match in the long command names.

       n, create SETNAME TYPENAME [ CREATE-OPTIONS ]
              Create a set identified with setname and specified type. The
              type may require type specific options. If the -exist option is
              specified, ipset ignores the error otherwise raised when the
              same set (setname and create parameters are identical) already
              exists.

       add SETNAME ADD-ENTRY [ ADD-OPTIONS ]
              Add a given entry to the set. If the -exist option is specified,
              ipset ignores if the entry already added to the set.

       del SETNAME DEL-ENTRY [ DEL-OPTIONS ]
              Delete an entry from a set. If the -exist option is specified
              and the entry is not in the set (maybe already expired), then
              the command is ignored.

       test SETNAME TEST-ENTRY [ TEST-OPTIONS ]
              Test whether an entry is in a set or not. Exit status number is
              zero if the tested entry is in the set and nonzero if it is
              missing from the set.

       x, destroy [ SETNAME ]
              Destroy the specified set or all the sets if none is given.

              If the set has got reference(s), nothing is done and no set
              destroyed.

       list [ SETNAME ] [ OPTIONS ]
              List the header data and the entries for the specified set, or
              for all sets if none is given. The -resolve option can be used
              to force name lookups (which may be slow). When the -sorted
              option is given, the entries are listed/saved sorted (which may
              be slow).  The option -output can be used to control the format
              of the listing: plain, save or xml.  (The default is plain.)  If
              the option -name is specified, just the names of the existing
              sets are listed. If the option -terse is specified, just the set
              names and headers are listed. The output is printed to stdout,
              the option -file can be used to specify a filename instead of
              stdout.

       save [ SETNAME ]
              Save the given set, or all sets if none is given to stdout in a
              format that restore can read. The option -file can be used to
              specify a filename instead of stdout.

       restore
              Restore a saved session generated by save.  The saved session
              can be fed from stdin or the option -file can be used to specify
              a filename instead of stdin.

              Please note, existing sets and elements are not erased by
              restore unless specified so in the restore file. All commands
              are allowed in restore mode except list, help, version,
              interactive mode and restore itself.

       flush [ SETNAME ]
              Flush all entries from the specified set or flush all sets if
              none is given.

       e, rename SETNAME-FROM SETNAME-TO
              Rename a set. Set identified by SETNAME-TO must not exist.

       w, swap SETNAME-FROM SETNAME-TO
              Swap the content of two sets, or in another words, exchange the
              name of two sets. The referred sets must exist and compatible
              type of sets can be swapped only.

       help [ TYPENAME ]
              Print help and set type specific help if TYPENAME is specified.

       version
              Print program version.

       -      If a dash is specified as command, then ipset enters a simple
              interactive mode and the commands are read from the standard
              input.  The interactive mode can be finished by entering the
              pseudo-command quit.

   OTHER OPTIONS
       The following additional options can be specified. The long option
       names cannot be abbreviated.

       -!, -exist
              Ignore errors when exactly the same set is to be created or
              already added entry is added or missing entry is deleted.

       -o, -output { plain | save | xml }
              Select the output format to the list command.

       -q, -quiet
              Suppress any output to stdout and stderr.  ipset will still exit
              with error if it cannot continue.

       -r, -resolve
              When listing sets, enforce name lookup. The program will try to
              display the IP entries resolved to host names which requires
              slow DNS lookups.

       -s, -sorted
              Sorted output. When listing or saving sets, the entries are
              listed sorted.

       -n, -name
              List just the names of the existing sets, i.e. suppress listing
              of set headers and members.

       -t, -terse
              List the set names and headers, i.e. suppress listing of set
              members.

       -f, -file filename
              Specify a filename to print into instead of stdout (list or save
              commands) or read from instead of stdin (restore command).

INTRODUCTION
       A set type comprises of the storage method by which the data is stored
       and the data type(s) which are stored in the set. Therefore the
       TYPENAME parameter of the create command follows the syntax

       TYPENAME := method:datatype[,datatype[,datatype]]

       where the current list of the methods are bitmap, hash, and list and
       the possible data types are ip, net, mac, port and iface.  The
       dimension of a set is equal to the number of data types in its type
       name.

       When adding, deleting or testing entries in a set, the same comma
       separated data syntax must be used for the entry parameter of the
       commands, i.e

              ipset add foo ipaddr,portnum,ipaddr

       If host names or service names with dash in the name are used instead
       of IP addresses or service numbers, then the host name or service name
       must be enclosed in square brackets. Example:

              ipset add foo [test-hostname],[ftp-data]

       In the case of host names the DNS resolver is called internally by
       ipset but if it returns multiple IP addresses, only the first one is
       used.

       The bitmap and list types use a fixed sized storage. The hash types use
       a hash to store the elements. In order to avoid clashes in the hash, a
       limited number of chaining, and if that is exhausted, the doubling of
       the hash size is performed when adding entries by the ipset command.
       When entries added by the SET target of iptables/ip6tables, then the
       hash size is fixed and the set won't be duplicated, even if the new
       entry cannot be added to the set.

GENERIC CREATE AND ADD OPTIONS
   timeout
       All set types supports the optional timeout parameter when creating a
       set and adding entries. The value of the timeout parameter for the
       create command means the default timeout value (in seconds) for new
       entries. If a set is created with timeout support, then the same
       timeout option can be used to specify non-default timeout values when
       adding entries. Zero timeout value means the entry is added permanent
       to the set.  The timeout value of already added elements can be changed
       by re-adding the element using the -exist option. The largest possible
       timeout value is 2147483 (in seconds). Example:

              ipset create test hash:ip timeout 300

              ipset add test 192.168.0.1 timeout 60

              ipset -exist add test 192.168.0.1 timeout 600

       When listing the set, the number of entries printed in the header might
       be larger than the listed number of entries for sets with the timeout
       extensions: the number of entries in the set is updated when elements
       added/deleted to the set and periodically when the garbage collector
       evicts the timed out entries.

   counters, packets, bytes
       All set types support the optional counters option when creating a set.
       If the option is specified then the set is created with packet and byte
       counters per element support. The packet and byte counters are
       initialized to zero when the elements are (re-)added to the set, unless
       the packet and byte counter values are explicitly specified by the
       packets and bytes options. An example when an element is added to a set
       with non-zero counter values:

              ipset create foo hash:ip counters

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1 packets 42 bytes 1024

   comment
       All set types support the optional comment extension.  Enabling this
       extension on an ipset enables you to annotate an ipset entry with an
       arbitrary string. This string is completely ignored by both the kernel
       and ipset itself and is purely for providing a convenient means to
       document the reason for an entry's existence. Comments must not contain
       any quotation marks and the usual escape character (\) has no meaning.
       For example, the following shell command is illegal:

              ipset add foo 1.1.1.1 comment "this comment is \"bad\""

       In the above, your shell will of course escape the quotation marks and
       ipset will see the quote marks in the argument for the comment, which
       will result in a parse error.  If you are writing your own system, you
       should avoid creating comments containing a quotation mark if you do
       not want to break "ipset save" and "ipset restore", nonetheless, the
       kernel will not stop you from doing so. The following is perfectly
       acceptable:

              ipset create foo hash:ip comment

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1/24 comment "allow access to SMB share
              on \\\\fileserv\\"

              the above would appear as: "allow access to SMB share on
              \\fileserv\"

   skbinfo, skbmark, skbprio, skbqueue
       All set types support the optional skbinfo extension. This extension
       allows you to store the metainfo (firewall mark, tc class and hardware
       queue) with every entry and map it to packets by usage of SET netfilter
       target with --map-set option.  skbmark option format: MARK or
       MARK/MASK, where MARK and MASK are 32bit hex numbers with 0x prefix. If
       only mark is specified mask 0xffffffff are used.  skbprio option has tc
       class format: MAJOR:MINOR, where major and minor numbers are hex
       without 0x prefix.  skbqueue option is just decimal number.

              ipset create foo hash:ip skbinfo

              ipset add foo skbmark 0x1111/0xff00ffff skbprio 1:10 skbqueue 10

   hashsize
       This parameter is valid for the create command of all hash type sets.
       It defines the initial hash size for the set, default is 1024. The hash
       size must be a power of two, the kernel automatically rounds up non
       power of two hash sizes to the first correct value.  Example:

              ipset create test hash:ip hashsize 1536

   maxelem
       This parameter is valid for the create command of all hash type sets.
       It does define the maximal number of elements which can be stored in
       the set, default 65536.  Example:

              ipset create test hash:ip maxelem 2048.

   family { inet | inet6 }
       This parameter is valid for the create command of all hash type sets
       except for hash:mac.  It defines the protocol family of the IP
       addresses to be stored in the set. The default is inet, i.e IPv4.  For
       the inet family one can add or delete multiple entries by specifying a
       range or a network of IPv4 addresses in the IP address part of the
       entry:

       ipaddr := { ip | fromaddr-toaddr | ip/cidr }

       netaddr := { fromaddr-toaddr | ip/cidr }

       Example:

              ipset create test hash:ip family inet6

   nomatch
       The hash set types which can store net type of data (i.e. hash:*net*)
       support the optional nomatch option when adding entries. When matching
       elements in the set, entries marked as nomatch are skipped as if those
       were not added to the set, which makes possible to build up sets with
       exceptions. See the example at hash type hash:net below.

       When elements are tested by ipset, the nomatch flags are taken into
       account. If one wants to test the existence of an element marked with
       nomatch in a set, then the flag must be specified too.

   forceadd
       All hash set types support the optional forceadd parameter when
       creating a set.  When sets created with this option become full the
       next addition to the set may succeed and evict a random entry from the
       set.

              ipset create foo hash:ip forceadd

   wildcard
       This flag is valid when adding elements to a hash:net,iface set. If the
       flag is set, then prefix matching is used when comparing with this
       element. For example, an element containing the interface name "eth"
       will match any name with that prefix.

SET TYPES
   bitmap:ip
       The bitmap:ip set type uses a memory range to store either IPv4 host
       (default) or IPv4 network addresses. A bitmap:ip type of set can store
       up to 65536 entries.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := range fromip-toip|ip/cidr [ netmask cidr ] [ timeout
       value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := { ip | fromip-toip | ip/cidr }

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := { ip | fromip-toip | ip/cidr }

       TEST-ENTRY := ip

       Mandatory create options:

       range fromip-toip|ip/cidr
              Create the set from the specified inclusive address range
              expressed in an IPv4 address range or network. The size of the
              range (in entries) cannot exceed the limit of maximum 65536
              elements.

       Optional create options:

       netmask cidr
              When the optional netmask parameter specified, network addresses
              will be stored in the set instead of IP host addresses. The cidr
              prefix value must be between 1-32.  An IP address will be in the
              set if the network address, which is resulted by masking the
              address with the specified netmask, can be found in the set.

       The bitmap:ip type supports adding or deleting multiple entries in one
       command.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo bitmap:ip range 192.168.0.0/16

              ipset add foo 192.168.1/24

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1

   bitmap:ip,mac
       The bitmap:ip,mac set type uses a memory range to store IPv4 and a MAC
       address pairs. A bitmap:ip,mac type of set can store up to 65536
       entries.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := range fromip-toip|ip/cidr [ timeout value ] [
       counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ip[,macaddr]

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ip[,macaddr]

       TEST-ENTRY := ip[,macaddr]

       Mandatory options to use when creating a bitmap:ip,mac type of set:

       range fromip-toip|ip/cidr
              Create the set from the specified inclusive address range
              expressed in an IPv4 address range or network. The size of the
              range cannot exceed the limit of maximum 65536 entries.

       The bitmap:ip,mac type is exceptional in the sense that the MAC part
       can be left out when adding/deleting/testing entries in the set. If we
       add an entry without the MAC address specified, then when the first
       time the entry is matched by the kernel, it will automatically fill out
       the missing MAC address with the MAC address from the packet. The
       source MAC address is used if the entry matched due to a src parameter
       of the set match, and the destination MAC address is used if available
       and the entry matched due to a dst parameter.  If the entry was
       specified with a timeout value, the timer starts off when the IP and
       MAC address pair is complete.

       The bitmap:ip,mac type of sets require two src/dst parameters of the
       set match and SET target netfilter kernel modules. For matches on
       destination MAC addresses, see COMMENTS below.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo bitmap:ip,mac range 192.168.0.0/16

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,12:34:56:78:9A:BC

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1

   bitmap:port
       The bitmap:port set type uses a memory range to store port numbers and
       such a set can store up to 65536 ports.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := range fromport-toport [ timeout value ] [ counters ]
       [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := { [proto:]port | [proto:]fromport-toport }

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := { [proto:]port | [proto:]fromport-toport }

       TEST-ENTRY := [proto:]port

       Mandatory options to use when creating a bitmap:port type of set:

       range [proto:]fromport-toport
              Create the set from the specified inclusive port range.

       The set match and SET target netfilter kernel modules interpret the
       stored numbers as TCP or UDP port numbers.

       proto only needs to be specified if a service name is used and that
       name does not exist as a TCP service. The protocol is never stored in
       the set, just the port number of the service.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo bitmap:port range 0-1024

              ipset add foo 80

              ipset test foo 80

              ipset del foo udp:[macon-udp]-[tn-tl-w2]

   hash:ip
       The hash:ip set type uses a hash to store IP host addresses (default)
       or network addresses. Zero valued IP address cannot be stored in a
       hash:ip type of set.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ netmask cidr ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [
       comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr

       Optional create options:

       netmask cidr
              When the optional netmask parameter specified, network addresses
              will be stored in the set instead of IP host addresses. The cidr
              prefix value must be between 1-32 for IPv4 and between 1-128 for
              IPv6. An IP address will be in the set if the network address,
              which is resulted by masking the address with the netmask, can
              be found in the set.  Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip netmask 30

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.0/24

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.2

   hash:mac
       The hash:mac set type uses a hash to store MAC addresses. Zero valued
       MAC addresses cannot be stored in a hash:mac type of set. For matches
       on destination MAC addresses, see COMMENTS below.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ hashsize value ] [ maxelem value ] [ timeout value
       ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := macaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := macaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := macaddr

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:mac

              ipset add foo 01:02:03:04:05:06

              ipset test foo 01:02:03:04:05:06


   hash:ip,mac
       The hash:ip,mac set type uses a hash to store IP and a MAC address
       pairs. Zero valued MAC addresses cannot be stored in a hash:ip,mac type
       of set. For matches on destination MAC addresses, see COMMENTS below.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr,macaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr,macaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr,macaddr

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip,mac

              ipset add foo 1.1.1.1,01:02:03:04:05:06

              ipset test foo 1.1.1.1,01:02:03:04:05:06


   hash:net
       The hash:net set type uses a hash to store different sized IP network
       addresses.  Network address with zero prefix size cannot be stored in
       this type of sets.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value ] [ comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       When adding/deleting/testing entries, if the cidr prefix parameter is
       not specified, then the host prefix value is assumed. When
       adding/deleting entries, the exact element is added/deleted and
       overlapping elements are not checked by the kernel.  When testing
       entries, if a host address is tested, then the kernel tries to match
       the host address in the networks added to the set and reports the
       result accordingly.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching for a match
       always  starts  from  the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       prefix) to the largest one (least specific prefix) added to the set.
       When  adding/deleting IP addresses  to the set by the SET netfilter
       target, it  will  be added/deleted by the most specific prefix which
       can be found in  the set, or by the host prefix value if the set is
       empty.

       The lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different prefix
       values added to the set.

       Example:

              ipset create foo hash:net

              ipset add foo 192.168.0.0/24

              ipset add foo 10.1.0.0/16

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/24

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/30 nomatch

       When matching the elements in the set above, all IP addresses will
       match from the networks 192.168.0.0/24, 10.1.0.0/16 and 192.168.0/24
       except the ones from 192.168.0/30.

   hash:net,net
       The hash:net,net set type uses a hash to store pairs of different sized
       IP network addresses.  Bear  in  mind  that  the  first parameter has
       precedence over the second, so a nomatch entry could be potentially be
       ineffective if a more specific first parameter existed with a suitable
       second parameter.  Network address with zero prefix size cannot be
       stored in this type of set.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr,netaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value ] [ comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr,netaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr,netaddr

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       When adding/deleting/testing entries, if the cidr prefix parameter is
       not specified, then the host prefix value is assumed. When
       adding/deleting entries, the exact element is added/deleted and
       overlapping elements are not checked by the kernel.  When testing
       entries, if a host address is tested, then the kernel tries to match
       the host address in the networks added to the set and reports the
       result accordingly.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching for a match
       always  starts  from  the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       prefix) to the largest one (least specific prefix) with the first param
       having precedence.  When  adding/deleting IP addresses  to the set by
       the SET netfilter target, it  will  be  added/deleted  by  the most
       specific prefix which can be found in the set, or by the host prefix
       value if the set is empty.

       The lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different prefix
       values added to the first parameter of the set. The number of secondary
       prefixes further increases this as the list of secondary prefixes is
       traversed per primary prefix.

       Example:

              ipset create foo hash:net,net

              ipset add foo 192.168.0.0/24,10.0.1.0/24

              ipset add foo 10.1.0.0/16,10.255.0.0/24

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/24,192.168.54.0-192.168.54.255

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/30,192.168.64/30 nomatch

       When matching the elements in the set above, all IP addresses will
       match from the networks 192.168.0.0/24<->10.0.1.0/24,
       10.1.0.0/16<->10.255.0.0/24 and 192.168.0/24<->192.168.54.0/24 except
       the ones from 192.168.0/30<->192.168.64/30.

   hash:ip,port
       The hash:ip,port set type uses a hash to store IP address and port
       number pairs.  The port number is interpreted together with a protocol
       (default TCP) and zero protocol number cannot be used.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port

       The [proto:]port part of the elements may be expressed in the following
       forms, where the range variations are valid when adding or deleting
       entries:

       portname[-portname]
              TCP port or range of ports expressed in TCP portname identifiers
              from /etc/services

       portnumber[-portnumber]
              TCP port or range of ports expressed in TCP port numbers

       tcp|sctp|udp|udplite:portname|portnumber[-portname|portnumber]
              TCP, SCTP, UDP or UDPLITE port or port range expressed in port
              name(s) or port number(s)

       icmp:codename|type/code
              ICMP codename or type/code. The supported ICMP codename
              identifiers can always be listed by the help command.

       icmpv6:codename|type/code
              ICMPv6 codename or type/code. The supported ICMPv6 codename
              identifiers can always be listed by the help command.

       proto:0
              All other protocols, as an identifier from /etc/protocols or
              number. The pseudo port number must be zero.

       The hash:ip,port type of sets require two src/dst parameters of the set
       match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip,port

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.0/24,80-82

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,udp:53

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,vrrp:0

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1,80

   hash:net,port
       The hash:net,port set type uses a hash to store different sized IP
       network address and port pairs. The port number is interpreted together
       with a protocol (default TCP) and zero protocol number cannot be used.
       Network address with zero prefix size is not accepted either.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ]  [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value ] [ comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       For the netaddr part of the elements see the description at the
       hash:net set type. For the [proto:]port part of the elements see the
       description at the hash:ip,port set type.

       When adding/deleting/testing entries, if the cidr prefix parameter is
       not specified, then the host prefix value is assumed. When
       adding/deleting entries, the exact element is added/deleted and
       overlapping elements are not checked by the kernel.  When testing
       entries, if a host address is tested, then the kernel tries to match
       the host address in the networks added to the set and reports the
       result accordingly.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching for a  match
       always  starts  from  the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       prefix) to the largest one (least specific prefix) added to the set.
       When  adding/deleting IP addresses  to the set by the SET netfilter
       target, it  will  be added/deleted by the most specific prefix which
       can be found in  the set, or by the host prefix value if the set is
       empty.

       The lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different prefix
       values added to the set.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:net,port

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/24,25

              ipset add foo 10.1.0.0/16,80

              ipset test foo 192.168.0/24,25

   hash:ip,port,ip
       The hash:ip,port,ip set type uses a hash to store IP address, port
       number and a second IP address triples. The port number is interpreted
       together with a protocol (default TCP) and zero protocol number cannot
       be used.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,ip

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,ip

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,ip

       For the first ipaddr and [proto:]port parts of the elements see the
       descriptions at the hash:ip,port set type.

       The hash:ip,port,ip type of sets require three src/dst parameters of
       the set match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip,port,ip

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,80,10.0.0.1

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1,udp:53,10.0.0.1

   hash:ip,port,net
       The hash:ip,port,net set type uses a hash to store IP address, port
       number and IP network address triples. The port number is interpreted
       together with a protocol (default TCP) and zero protocol number cannot
       be used. Network address with zero prefix size cannot be stored either.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ]  [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value ] [ comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       For the ipaddr and [proto:]port parts of the elements see the
       descriptions at the hash:ip,port set type. For the netaddr part of the
       elements see the description at the hash:net set type.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching for a match
       always  starts  from  the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       cidr) to the largest one (least specific cidr) added to the set.  When
       adding/deleting triples to the set by the SET netfilter target, it
       will  be added/deleted by the most specific cidr which can be found in
       the set, or by the host cidr value if the set is empty.

       The lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different cidr
       values added to the set.

       The hash:ip,port,net type of sets require three src/dst parameters of
       the set match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip,port,net

              ipset add foo 192.168.1,80,10.0.0/24

              ipset add foo 192.168.2,25,10.1.0.0/16

              ipset test foo 192.168.1,80.10.0.0/24

   hash:ip,mark
       The hash:ip,mark set type uses a hash to store IP address and packet
       mark pairs.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ markmask value ] [
       hashsize value ] [ maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [
       comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr,mark

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr,mark

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr,mark

       Optional create options:

       markmask value
              Allows you to set bits you are interested in the packet mark.
              This values is then used to perform bitwise AND operation for
              every mark added.  markmask can be any value between 1 and
              4294967295, by default all 32 bits are set.

       The mark can be any value between 0 and 4294967295.

       The hash:ip,mark type of sets require two src/dst parameters of the set
       match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip,mark

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.0/24,555

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,0x63

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,111236

   hash:net,port,net
       The hash:net,port,net set type behaves similarly to hash:ip,port,net
       but accepts a cidr value for both the first and last parameter. Either
       subnet is permitted to be a /0 should you wish to match port between
       all destinations.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ]  [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value ] [ comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       For the [proto:]port part of the elements see the description at the
       hash:ip,port set type. For the netaddr part of the elements see the
       description at the hash:net set type.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching for a match
       always  starts  from  the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       cidr) to the largest one (least specific cidr) added to the set.  When
       adding/deleting triples to the set by the SET netfilter target, it
       will  be added/deleted by the most specific cidr which can be found in
       the set, or by the host cidr value if the set is empty. The first
       subnet has precedence when performing the most-specific lookup, just as
       for hash:net,net

       The lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different cidr
       values added to the set and by the number of secondary cidr values per
       primary.

       The hash:net,port,net type of sets require three src/dst parameters of
       the set match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:net,port,net

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.0/24,0,10.0.0/24

              ipset add foo 192.168.2.0/24,25,10.1.0.0/16

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1,80,10.0.0.1

   hash:net,iface
       The hash:net,iface set type uses a hash to store different sized IP
       network address and interface name pairs.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr,[physdev:]iface

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ]  [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value ] [ comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [
       skbqueue value ] [ wildcard ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr,[physdev:]iface

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr,[physdev:]iface

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       For the netaddr part of the elements see the description at the
       hash:net set type.

       When adding/deleting/testing entries, if the cidr prefix parameter is
       not specified, then the host prefix value is assumed. When
       adding/deleting entries, the exact element is added/deleted and
       overlapping elements are not checked by the kernel.  When testing
       entries, if a host address is tested, then the kernel tries to match
       the host address in the networks added to the set and reports the
       result accordingly.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching for a  match
       always  starts  from  the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       prefix) to the largest one (least specific prefix) added to the set.
       When  adding/deleting IP addresses  to the set by the SET netfilter
       target, it  will  be added/deleted by the most specific prefix which
       can be found in  the set, or by the host prefix value if the set is
       empty.

       The second direction parameter of the set match and SET target modules
       corresponds to the incoming/outgoing interface: src to the incoming one
       (similar to the -i flag of iptables), while dst to the outgoing one
       (similar to the -o flag of iptables). When the interface is flagged
       with physdev:, the interface is interpreted as the incoming/outgoing
       bridge port.

       The lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different prefix
       values added to the set.

       The internal restriction of the hash:net,iface set type is that the
       same network prefix cannot be stored with more than 64 different
       interfaces in a single set.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:net,iface

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/24,eth0

              ipset add foo 10.1.0.0/16,eth1

              ipset test foo 192.168.0/24,eth0

   list:set
       The list:set type uses a simple list in which you can store set names.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ size value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [
       comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := setname [ { before | after } setname ]

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := setname [ { before | after } setname ]

       TEST-ENTRY := setname [ { before | after } setname ]

       Optional create options:

       size value
              The size of the list, the default is 8. The parameter is ignored
              since ipset version 6.24.

       By the ipset command you  can add, delete and test set names in a
       list:set type of set.

       By the set match or SET target of netfilter you can test, add or delete
       entries in the sets added to the list:set type of set. The match will
       try to find a matching entry in the sets and the target will try to add
       an entry to the first set to which it can be added.  The number of
       direction options of the match and target are important: sets which
       require more parameters than specified are skipped, while sets with
       equal or less parameters are checked, elements added/deleted. For
       example if a and b are list:set type of sets then in the command

              iptables -m set --match-set a src,dst -j SET --add-set b src,dst

       the match and target will skip any set in a and b which stores data
       triples, but will match all sets with single or double data storage in
       a set and stop matching at the first successful set, and add src to the
       first single or src,dst to the first double data storage set in b to
       which the entry can be added. You can imagine a list:set type of set as
       an ordered union of the set elements.

       Please note: by the ipset command you can add, delete and test the
       setnames in a list:set type of set, and not the presence of a set's
       member (such as an IP address).

GENERAL RESTRICTIONS
       Zero valued set entries cannot be used with hash methods. Zero protocol
       value with ports cannot be used.

COMMENTS
       If you want to store same size subnets from a given network (say /24
       blocks from a /8 network), use the bitmap:ip set type.  If you want to
       store random same size networks (say random /24 blocks), use the
       hash:ip set type. If you have got random size of netblocks, use
       hash:net.

       Matching on destination MAC addresses using the dst parameter of the
       set match netfilter kernel modules will only work if the destination
       MAC address is available in the packet at the given processing stage,
       that is, it only applies for incoming packets in the PREROUTING, INPUT
       and FORWARD chains, against the MAC address as originally found in the
       received packet (typically, one of the MAC addresses of the local
       host). This is not the destination MAC address a destination IP address
       resolves to, after routing. If the MAC address is not available (e.g.
       in the OUTPUT chain), the packet will simply not match.

       Backward compatibility is maintained and old ipset syntax is still
       supported.

       The iptree and iptreemap set types are removed: if you refer to them,
       they are automatically replaced by hash:ip type of sets.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Various error messages are printed to standard error.  The exit code is
       0 for correct functioning.

BUGS
       Bugs? No, just funny features. :-) OK, just kidding...

SEE ALSO
       iptables(8), ip6tables(8) iptables-extensions(8)

AUTHORS
       Jozsef Kadlecsik wrote ipset, which is based on ippool by Joakim
       Axelsson, Patrick Schaaf and Martin Josefsson.
       Sven Wegener wrote the iptreemap type.

LAST REMARK
       I stand on the shoulders of giants.



Jozsef Kadlecsik                 Jun 25, 2015                         IPSET(8)