ISPELL(1)                   General Commands Manual                  ISPELL(1)

       ispell, buildhash, munchlist, findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin -
       Interactive spelling checking

       ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
       ispell [common-flags] -l
       ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] {-a|-A}
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
       ispell [-d file] -D
       ispell -v[v]

              [-t] [-n] [-h] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S] [-d file] [-p
              file] [-w chars] [-W n] [-T type]

       buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
       buildhash -s count affix-file

       munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
                 [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

       findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
                 [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

       tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix[+addition]

       icombine [-T type] [aff-file]

       ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2

       Ispell is fashioned after the spell program from ITS (called ispell on
       Twenex systems.)  The most common usage is "ispell filename".  In this
       case, ispell will display each word which does not appear in the
       dictionary at the top of the screen and allow you to change it.  If
       there are "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ by only a
       single letter, a missing or extra letter, a pair of transposed letters,
       or a missing space or hyphen), then they are also displayed on
       following lines.  As well as "near misses", ispell may display other
       guesses at ways to make the word from a known root, with each guess
       preceded by question marks.  Finally, the line containing the word and
       the previous line are printed at the bottom of the screen.  If your
       terminal can display in reverse video, the word itself is highlighted.
       You have the option of replacing the word completely, or choosing one
       of the suggested words.  Commands are single characters as follows
       (case is ignored):

              R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

              Space  Accept the word this time only.

              A      Accept the word for the rest of this ispell session.

              I      Accept the word, capitalized as it is in the file, and
                     update private dictionary.

              U      Accept the word, and add an uncapitalized (actually, all
                     lower-case) version to the private dictionary.

              0-n    Replace with one of the suggested words.

              L      Look up words in system dictionary (controlled by the
                     WORDS compilation option).

              X      Write the rest of this file, ignoring misspellings, and
                     start next file.

              Q      Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.

              !      Shell escape.

              ^L     Redraw screen.

              ^Z     Suspend ispell.

              ?      Give help screen.

       If the -M switch is specified, a one-line mini-menu at the bottom of
       the screen will summarize these options.  Conversely, the -N switch may
       be used to suppress the mini-menu.  (The minimenu is displayed by
       default if ispell was compiled with the MINIMENU option, but these two
       switches will always override the default).

       If the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the number of
       lines of context to be shown at the bottom of the screen (The default
       is to calculate the amount of context as a certain percentage of the
       screen size).  The amount of context is subject to a system-imposed

       If the -V flag is given, characters that are not in the 7-bit ANSI
       printable character set will always be displayed in the style of "cat
       -v", even if ispell thinks that these characters are legal ISO Latin-1
       on your system.  This is useful when working with older terminals.
       Without this switch, ispell will display 8-bit characters "as is" if
       they have been defined as string characters for the chosen file type.

       "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and -A options (see below) also
       accepts the following "common" flags on the command line:

              -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

              -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

              -h     The input file is in html format.

              -b     Create a backup file by appending ".bak" to the name of
                     the input file.

              -x     Don't create a backup file.

              -B     Report run-together words with missing blanks as spelling

              -C     Consider run-together words as legal compounds.

              -P     Don't generate extra root/affix combinations.

              -m     Make possible root/affix combinations that aren't in the

              -S     Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.

              -d file
                     Specify an alternate dictionary file.  For example, use
                     -d deutsch to choose a German dictionary in a German

              -p file
                     Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

              -w chars
                     Specify additional characters that can be part of a word.

              -W n   Specify length of words that are always legal.

              -T type
                     Assume a given formatter type for all files.

       The -n and -t options select whether ispell runs in nroff/troff (-n) or
       TeX/LaTeX (-t) input mode (This does not work for html (-h) mode.
       However html-mode is assumed for any files with a ".html" or ".htm"
       extension unless nroff/troff or TeX/LaTeX modes have being explicted
       defined).  (The default mode is controlled by the DEFTEXFLAG
       installation option.)  TeX/LaTeX mode is also automatically selected if
       an input file has the extension ".tex", unless overridden by the -n
       switch.  In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash ("\") is found, ispell
       will skip to the next whitespace or TeX/LaTeX delimiter.  Certain
       commands contain arguments which should not be checked, such as labels
       and reference keys as are found in the \cite command, since they
       contain arbitrary, non-word arguments.  Spell checking is also
       suppressed when in math mode.  Thus, for example, given

              \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

       ispell will find "Ckapter" but not "SCH".  The -t option does not
       recognize the TeX comment character "%", so comments are also spell-
       checked.  It also assumes correct LaTeX syntax.  Arguments to
       infrequently used commands and some optional arguments are sometimes
       checked unnecessarily.  The bibliography will not be checked if ispell
       was compiled with IGNOREBIB defined.  Otherwise, the bibliography will
       be checked but the reference key will not.

       References for the tib(1) bibliography system, that is, text between a
       ``[.'' or ``<.'' and ``.]'' or ``.>'' will always be ignored in
       TeX/LaTeX mode.

       The -b and -x options control whether ispell leaves a backup (.bak)
       file for each input file.  The .bak file contains the pre-corrected
       text.  If there are file opening / writing errors, the .bak file may be
       left for recovery purposes even with the -x option.  The default for
       this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.

       The -B and -C options control how ispell handles run-together words,
       such as "notthe" for "not the".  If -B is specified, such words will be
       considered as errors, and ispell will list variations with an inserted
       blank or hyphen as possible replacements.  If -C is specified, run-
       together words will be considered to be legal compounds, so long as
       both components are in the dictionary, and each component is at least
       as long as a language-dependent minimum (3 characters, by default).
       This is useful for languages such as German and Norwegian, where many
       compound words are formed by concatenation.  (Note that compounds
       formed from three or more root words will still be considered errors).
       The default for this option is language-dependent; in a multi-lingual
       installation the default may vary depending on which dictionary you

       The -P and -m options control when ispell automatically generates
       suggested root/affix combinations for possible addition to your
       personal dictionary.  (These are the entries in the "guess" list which
       are preceded by question marks.)  If -P is specified, such guesses are
       displayed only if ispell cannot generate any possibilities that match
       the current dictionary.  If -m is specified, such guesses are always
       displayed.  This can be useful if the dictionary has a limited word
       list, or a word list with few suffixes.  However, you should be careful
       when using this option, as it can generate guesses that produce illegal
       words.  The default for this option is controlled by the dictionary
       file used.

       The -S option suppresses ispell's normal behavior of sorting the list
       of possible replacement words.  Some people may prefer this, since it
       somewhat enhances the probability that the correct word will be low-

       The -d option is used to specify an alternate hashed dictionary file,
       other than the default.  If the filename does not contain a "/", the
       library directory for the default dictionary file is prefixed; thus, to
       use a dictionary in the local directory "-d ./xxx.hash" must be used.
       This is useful to allow dictionaries for alternate languages.  Unlike
       previous versions of ispell, a dictionary of /dev/null is illegal,
       because the dictionary contains the affix table.  If you need an
       effectively empty dictionary, create a one-entry list with an unlikely
       string (e.g., "qqqqq").

       The -p option is used to specify an alternate personal dictionary file.
       If the file name does not begin with "/", $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the
       shell variable WORDLIST may be set, which renames the personal
       dictionary in the same manner.  The command line overrides any WORDLIST
       setting.  If neither the -p switch nor the WORDLIST environment
       variable is given, ispell will search for a personal dictionary in both
       the current directory and $HOME, creating one in $HOME if none is
       found.  The preferred name is constructed by appending ".ispell_" to
       the base name of the hash file.  For example, if you use the English
       dictionary, your personal dictionary would be named ".ispell_english".
       However, if the file ".ispell_words" exists, it will be used as the
       personal dictionary regardless of the language hash file chosen.  This
       feature is included primarily for backwards compatibility.

       If the -p option is not specified, ispell will look for personal
       dictionaries in both the current directory and the home directory.  If
       dictionaries exist in both places, they will be merged.  If any words
       are added to the personal dictionary, they will be written to the
       current directory if a dictionary already existed in that place;
       otherwise they will be written to the dictionary in the home directory.

       The -w option may be used to specify characters other than alphabetics
       which may also appear in words.  For instance, -w "&" will allow "AT&T"
       to be picked up.  Underscores are useful in many technical documents.
       There is an admittedly crude provision in this option for 8-bit
       international characters.  Non-printing characters may be specified in
       the usual way by inserting a backslash followed by the octal character
       code; e.g., "\014" for a form feed.  Alternatively, if "n" appears in
       the character string, the (up to) three characters following are a
       DECIMAL code 0 - 255, for the character.  For example, to include bells
       and form feeds in your words (an admittedly silly thing to do, but
       aren't most pedagogical examples):


       Numeric digits other than the three following "n" are simply numeric
       characters.  Use of "n" does not conflict with anything because actual
       alphabetics have no meaning - alphabetics are already accepted.  Ispell
       will typically be used with input from a file, meaning that preserving
       parity for possible 8 bit characters from the input text is OK.  If you
       specify the -l option, and actually type text from the terminal, this
       may create problems if your stty settings preserve parity.

       The -W option may be used to change the length of words that ispell
       always accepts as legal.  Normally, ispell will accept all 1-character
       words as legal, which is equivalent to specifying "-W 1."  (The default
       for this switch is actually controlled by the MINWORD installation
       option, so it may vary at your installation.)  If you want all words to
       be checked against the dictionary, regardless of length, you might want
       to specify "-W 0."  On the other hand, if your document specifies a lot
       of three-letter acronyms, you would specify "-W 3" to accept all words
       of three letters or less.  Regardless of the setting of this option,
       ispell will only generate words that are in the dictionary as suggested
       replacements for words; this prevents the list from becoming too long.
       Obviously, this option can be very dangerous, since short misspellings
       may be missed.  If you use this option a lot, you should probably make
       a last pass without it before you publish your document, to protect
       yourself against errors.

       The -T option is used to specify a default formatter type for use in
       generating string characters.  This switch overrides the default type
       determined from the file name.  The type argument may be either one of
       the unique names defined in the language affix file (e.g., nroff) or a
       file suffix including the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no -T option appears
       and no type can be determined from the file name, the default string
       character type declared in the language affix file will be used.

       The -l or "list" option to ispell is used to produce a list of
       misspelled words from the standard input.

       The -a option is intended to be used from other programs through a
       pipe.  In this mode, ispell prints a one-line version identification
       message, and then begins reading lines of input.  For each input line,
       a single line is written to the standard output for each word checked
       for spelling on the line.  If the word was found in the main
       dictionary, or your personal dictionary, then the line contains only a
       '*'.  If the word was found through affix removal, then the line
       contains a '+', a space, and the root word.  If the word was found
       through compound formation (concatenation of two words, controlled by
       the -C option), then the line contains only a '-'.

       If the word is not in the dictionary, but there are near misses, then
       the line contains an '&', a space, the misspelled word, a space, the
       number of near misses, the number of characters between the beginning
       of the line and the beginning of the misspelled word, a colon, another
       space, and a list of the near misses separated by commas and spaces.
       Following the near misses (and identified only by the count of near
       misses), if the word could be formed by adding (illegal) affixes to a
       known root, is a list of suggested derivations, again separated by
       commas and spaces.  If there are no near misses at all, the line format
       is the same, except that the '&' is replaced by '?' (and the near-miss
       count is always zero).  The suggested derivations following the near
       misses are in the form:

              [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

       (e.g., "re+fry-y+ies" to get "refries") where each optional pfx and sfx
       is a string.  Also, each near miss or guess is capitalized the same as
       the input word unless such capitalization is illegal; in the latter
       case each near miss is capitalized correctly according to the

       Finally, if the word does not appear in the dictionary, and there are
       no near misses, then the line contains a '#', a space, the misspelled
       word, a space, and the character offset from the beginning of the line.
       Each sentence of text input is terminated with an additional blank
       line, indicating that ispell has completed processing the input line.

       These output lines can be summarized as follows:

              OK:    *

              Root:  + <root>


              Miss:  & <original> <count> <offset>: <miss>, <miss>, ...,
                     <guess>, ...

              Guess: ? <original> 0 <offset>: <guess>, <guess>, ...

              None:  # <original> <offset>

       For example, a dummy dictionary containing the words "fray", "Frey",
       "fry", and "refried" might produce the following response to the
       command "echo 'frqy refries | ispell -a -m -d ./test.hash":
              (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
              & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
              & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

       This mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want to figure
       out the spelling of a single word.

       The -A option works just like -a, except that if a line begins with the
       string "&Include_File&", the rest of the line is taken as the name of a
       file to read for further words.  Input returns to the original file
       when the include file is exhausted.  Inclusion may be nested up to five
       deep.  The key string may be changed with the environment variable
       INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).

       When in the -a mode, ispell will also accept lines of single words
       prefixed with any of '*', '&', '@', '+', '-', '~', '#', '!', '%', or
       '^'.  A line starting with '*' tells ispell to insert the word into the
       user's dictionary (similar to the I command).  A line starting with '&'
       tells ispell to insert an all-lowercase version of the word into the
       user's dictionary (similar to the U command).  A line starting with '@'
       causes ispell to accept this word in the future (similar to the A
       command).  A line starting with '+', followed immediately by tex or
       nroff will cause ispell to parse future input according the syntax of
       that formatter.  A line consisting solely of a '+' will place ispell in
       TeX/LaTeX mode (similar to the -t option) and '-' returns ispell to
       nroff/troff mode (but these commands are obsolete).  However, string
       character type is not changed; the '~' command must be used to do this.
       A line starting with '~' causes ispell to set internal parameters (in
       particular, the default string character type) based on the filename
       given in the rest of the line.  (A file suffix is sufficient, but the
       period must be included.  Instead of a file name or suffix, a unique
       name, as listed in the language affix file, may be specified.)
       However, the formatter parsing is not changed;  the '+' command must be
       used to change the formatter.  A line prefixed with '#' will cause the
       personal dictionary to be saved.  A line prefixed with '!' will turn on
       terse mode (see below), and a line prefixed with '%' will return ispell
       to normal (non-terse) mode.  Any input following the prefix characters
       '+', '-', '#', '!', or '%' is ignored, as is any input following the
       filename on a '~' line.  To allow spell-checking of lines beginning
       with these characters, a line starting with '^' has that character
       removed before it is passed to the spell-checking code.  It is
       recommended that programmatic interfaces prefix every data line with an
       uparrow to protect themselves against future changes in ispell.

       To summarize these:

              *      Add to personal dictionary

              @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

              #      Save current personal dictionary

              ~      Set parameters based on filename

              +      Enter TeX mode

              -      Exit TeX mode

              !      Enter terse mode

              %      Exit terse mode

              ^      Spell-check rest of line

       In terse mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with '*', '+', or
       '-', all of which indicate correct words.  This significantly improves
       running speed when the driving program is going to ignore correct words

       The -s option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options,
       and only on BSD-derived systems.  If specified, ispell will stop itself
       with a SIGTSTP signal after each line of input.  It will not read more
       input until it receives a SIGCONT signal.  This may be useful for
       handshaking with certain text editors.

       The -f option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options.
       If -f is specified, ispell will write its results to the given file,
       rather than to standard output.

       The -v option causes ispell to print its current version identification
       on the standard output and exit.  If the switch is doubled, ispell will
       also print the options that it was compiled with.

       The -c, -e[1-4], and -D options of ispell, are primarily intended for
       use by the munchlist shell script.  The -c switch causes a list of
       words to be read from the standard input.  For each word, a list of
       possible root words and affixes will be written to the standard output.
       Some of the root words will be illegal and must be filtered from the
       output by other means; the munchlist script does this.  As an example,
       the command:

              echo BOTHER | ispell -c


              BOTHER BOTHE/R BOTH/R

       The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags to produce a
       list of words.  For example, the command:

              echo BOTH/R | ispell -e


              BOTH BOTHER

       An optional expansion level can also be specified.  A level of 1 (-e1)
       is the same as -e alone.  A level of 2 causes the original root/affix
       combination to be prepended to the line:

              BOTH/R BOTH BOTHER

       A level of 3 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated
       word, with the original root/affix combination followed by the word it

              BOTH/R BOTH
              BOTH/R BOTHER

       A level of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended to each of
       the level-3 lines, giving the ratio between the length of the root and
       the total length of all generated words including the root:

              BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
              BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

       Finally, the -D flag causes the affix tables from the dictionary file
       to be dumped to standard output.

       Unless your system administrator has suppressed the feature to save
       space, ispell is aware of the correct capitalizations of words in the
       dictionary and in your personal dictionary.  As well as recognizing
       words that must be capitalized (e.g., George) and words that must be
       all-capitals (e.g., NASA), it can also handle words with "unusual"
       capitalization (e.g., "ITCorp" or "TeX").  If a word is capitalized
       incorrectly, the list of possibilities will include all acceptable
       capitalizations.  (More than one capitalization may be acceptable; for
       example, my dictionary lists both "ITCorp" and "ITcorp".)

       Normally, this feature will not cause you surprises, but there is one
       circumstance you need to be aware of.  If you use "I" to add a word to
       your dictionary that is at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., the first
       word of this paragraph if "normally" were not in the dictionary), it
       will be marked as "capitalization required".  A subsequent usage of
       this word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted word in the previous
       sentence) will be considered a misspelling by ispell, and it will
       suggest the capitalized version.  You must then compare the actual
       spellings by eye, and then type "I" to add the uncapitalized variant to
       your personal dictionary.  You can avoid this problem by using "U" to
       add the original word, rather than "I".

       The rules for capitalization are as follows:

       (1)    Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.

       (2)    Any word that is in the dictionary in all-lowercase form may
              appear either in lowercase or capitalized (as at the beginning
              of a sentence).

       (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it contains both
              cases and there is an uppercase character besides the first)
              must appear exactly as in the dictionary, except as permitted by
              rule (1).  If the word is acceptable in all-lowercase, it must
              appear thus in a dictionary entry.

       The buildhash program builds hashed dictionary files for later use by
       ispell.  The raw word list (with affix flags) is given in dict-file,
       and the the affix flags are defined by affix-file.  The hashed output
       is written to hash-file.  The formats of the two input files are
       described in ispell(4).  The -s (silent) option suppresses the usual
       status messages that are written to the standard error device.

       The munchlist shell script is used to reduce the size of dictionary
       files, primarily personal dictionary files.  It is also capable of
       combining dictionaries from various sources.  The given files are read
       (standard input if no arguments are given), reduced to a minimal set of
       roots and affixes that will match the same list of words, and written
       to standard output.

       Input for munchlist contains of raw words (e.g from your personal
       dictionary files) or root and affix combinations (probably generated in
       earlier munchlist runs).  Each word or root/affix combination must be
       on a separate line.

       The -D (debug) option leaves temporary files around under standard
       names instead of deleting them, so that the script can be debugged.
       Warning: this option can eat up an enormous amount of temporary file

       The -v (verbose) option causes progress messages to be reported to
       stderr so you won't get nervous that munchlist has hung.

       If the -s (strip) option is specified, words that are in the specified
       hash-file are removed from the word list.  This can be useful with
       personal dictionaries.

       The -l option can be used to specify an alternate affix-file for
       munching dictionaries in languages other than English.

       The -c option can be used to convert dictionaries that were built with
       an older affix file, without risk of accidentally introducing
       unintended affix combinations into the dictionary.

       The -T option allows dictionaries to be converted to a canonical
       string-character format.  The suffix specified is looked up in the
       affix file (-l switch) to determine the string-character format used
       for the input file; the output always uses the canonical string-
       character format.  For example, a dictionary collected from TeX source
       files might be converted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.

       The -w option is passed on to ispell.

       The findaffix shell script is an aid to writers of new language
       descriptions in choosing affixes.  The given dictionary files (standard
       input if none are given) are examined for possible prefixes (-p switch)
       or suffixes (-s switch, the default).  Each commonly-occurring affix is
       presented along with a count of the number of times it appears and an
       estimate of the number of bytes that would be saved in a dictionary
       hash file if it were added to the language table.  Only affixes that
       generate legal roots (found in the original input) are listed.

       If the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the following


       where strip is the string that should be stripped from a root word
       before adding the affix, add is the affix to be added, count is a count
       of the number of times that this strip/add combination appears, and
       bytes is an estimate of the number of bytes that might be saved in the
       raw dictionary file if this combination is added to the affix file.
       The field separator in the output will be the tab character specified
       by the -t switch;  the default is a slash ("/").

       If the -c ("clean output") option is given, the appearance of the
       output is made visually cleaner (but harder to post-process) by
       changing it to:


       where strip, add, count, and bytes are as before, and <tab> represents
       the ASCII tab character.

       The method used to generate possible affixes will also generate longer
       affixes which have common headers or trailers.  For example, the two
       words "moth" and "mother" will generate not only the obvious
       substitution "+er" but also "-h+her" and "-th+ther" (and possibly even
       longer ones, depending on the value of min).  To prevent cluttering the
       output with such affixes, any affix pair that shares a common header
       (or, for prefixes, trailer) string longer than elim characters (default
       1) will be suppressed.  You may want to set "elim" to a value greater
       than 1 if your language has string characters; usually the need for
       this parameter will become obvious when you examine the output of your
       findaffix run.

       Normally, the affixes are sorted according to the estimate of bytes
       saved.  The -f switch may be used to cause the affixes to be sorted by
       frequency of appearance.

       To save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10 times are
       eliminated; this limit may be changed with the -l switch.  The -M
       switch specifies a maximum affix length (default 8).  Affixes longer
       than this will not be reported.  (This saves on temporary disk space
       and makes the script run faster.)

       Affixes which generate stems shorter than 3 characters are suppressed.
       (A stem is the word after the strip string has been removed, and before
       the add string has been added.)  This reduces both the running time and
       the size of the output file.  This limit may be changed with the -m
       switch.  The minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have a
       lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days and hundreds
       of megabytes).

       The findaffix script requires a non-blank field-separator character for
       internal use.  Normally, this character is a slash ("/"), but if the
       slash appears as a character in the input word list, a different
       character can be specified with the -t switch.

       Ispell dictionaries should be expanded before being fed to findaffix;
       in addition, characters that are not in the English alphabet (if any)
       should be translated to lowercase.

       The tryaffix shell script is used to estimate the effectiveness of a
       proposed prefix (-p switch) or suffix (-s switch, the default) with a
       given expanded-file.  Only one affix can be tried with each execution
       of tryaffix, although multiple arguments can be used to describe
       varying forms of the same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English can
       add either D or ED depending on whether a trailing E is already
       present).  Each word in the expanded dictionary that ends (or begins)
       with the chosen suffix (or prefix) has that suffix (prefix) removed;
       the dictionary is then searched for root words that match the stripped
       word.  Normally, all matching roots are written to standard output, but
       if the -c (count) flag is given, only a statistical summary of the
       results is written.  The statistics given are a count of words the
       affix potentially applies to and an estimate of the number of
       dictionary bytes that a flag using the affix would save.  The estimate
       will be high if the flag generates words that are currently generated
       by other affix flags (e.g., in English, bathers can be generated by
       either bath/X or bather/S).

       The dictionary file, expanded-file, must already be expanded (using the
       -e switch of ispell) and sorted, and things will usually work best if
       uppercase has been folded to lower with 'tr'.

       The affix arguments are things to be stripped from the dictionary file
       to produce trial roots: for English, con (prefix) and ing (suffix) are
       examples.  The addition parts of the argument are letters that would
       have been stripped off the root before adding the affix.  For example,
       in English the affix ing normally strips e for words ending in that
       letter (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:

              tryaffix ing ing+e

       to cover both cases.

       All of the shell scripts contain documentation as commentary at the
       beginning; sometimes these comments contain useful information beyond
       the scope of this manual page.

       It is possible to install ispell in such a way as to only support ASCII
       range text if desired.

       The icombine program is a helper for munchlist.  It reads a list of
       words in dictionary format (roots plus flags) from the standard input,
       and produces a reduced list on standard output which combines common
       roots found on adjacent entries.  Identical roots which have differing
       flags will have their flags combined, and roots which have differing
       capitalizations will be combined in a way which only preserves
       important capitalization information.  The optional aff-file specifies
       a language file which defines the character sets used and the meanings
       of the various flags.  The -T switch can be used to select among
       alternative string character types by giving a dummy suffix that can be
       found in an altstringtype statement.

       The ijoin program is a re-implementation of join(1) which handles long
       lines and 8-bit characters correctly.  The -s switch specifies that the
       sort(1) program used to prepare the input to ijoin uses signed
       comparisons on 8-bit characters; the -u switch specifies that sort(1)
       uses unsigned comparisons.  All other options and behaviors of join(1)
       are duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual page, except
       that ijoin will not handle newline as a field separator.  See the
       join(1) manual page for more information.

              Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.

              Personal dictionary file name

              Code for file inclusion under the -A option

       TMPDIR Directory used for some of munchlist's temporary files

              Hashed dictionary (may be found in some other local directory,
              depending on the system).

              Affix-definition file for munchlist

       /usr/dict/web2 or /usr/dict/words
              For the Lookup function (depending on the WORDS compilation

              User's private dictionary

              Directory-specific private dictionary

       spell(1), egrep(1), look(1), join(1), sort(1), sq(1L), tib(1L),
       ispell(4L), english(4L)

       It takes several to many seconds for ispell to read in the hash table,
       depending on size.

       When all options are enabled, ispell may take several seconds to
       generate all the guesses at corrections for a misspelled word; on
       slower machines this time is long enough to be annoying.

       The hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte (or larger) array, so a
       PDP-11 or 286 version does not seem likely.

       Ispell should understand more troff syntax, and deal more intelligently
       with contractions.

       Although small personal dictionaries are sorted before they are written
       out, the order of capitalizations of the same word is somewhat random.

       When the -x flag is specified, ispell will unlink any existing .bak

       There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic names.

       Munchlist does not deal very gracefully with dictionaries which contain
       "non-word" characters.  Such characters ought to be deleted from the
       dictionary with a warning message.

       Findaffix and munchlist require tremendous amounts of temporary file
       space for large dictionaries.  They do respect the TMPDIR environment
       variable, so this space can be redirected.  However, a lot of the
       temporary space needed is for sorting, so TMPDIR is only a partial help
       on systems with an uncooperative sort(1).  ("Cooperative" is defined as
       accepting the undocumented -T switch).  At its peak usage, munchlist
       takes 10 to 40 times the original dictionary's size in Kb.  (The larger
       ratio is for dictionaries that already have heavy affix use, such as
       the one distributed with ispell).  Munchlist is also very slow;
       munching a normal-sized dictionary (15K roots, 45K expanded words)
       takes around an hour on a small workstation.  (Most of this time is
       spent in sort(1), and munchlist can run much faster on machines that
       have a more modern sort that makes better use of the memory available
       to it.)  Findaffix is even worse; the smallest English dictionary
       cannot be processed with this script in a mere 50Kb of free space, and
       even after specifying switches to reduce the temporary space required,
       the script will run for over 24 hours on a small workstation.

       Pace Willisson (pace@mit-vax), 1983, based on the PDP-10 assembly
       version.  That version was written by R. E. Gorin in 1971, and later
       revised by W. E. Matson (1974) and W. B. Ackerman (1978).

       Collected, revised, and enhanced for the Usenet by Walt Buehring, 1987.

       Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning, 1987-88.

       Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

       A complete list of contributors is too large to list here, but is
       distributed with the ispell sources in the file "Contributors".

       The version of ispell described by this manual page is International
       Ispell Version 3.1.00, 10/08/93.

                                     local                           ISPELL(1)