KERNEL-COMMAND-LINE(7)         kernel-command-line        KERNEL-COMMAND-LINE(7)

       kernel-command-line - Kernel command line parameters


       The kernel, the initial RAM disk (initrd) and basic userspace
       functionality may be configured at boot via kernel command line
       arguments. In addition, various systemd tools look at the EFI variable
       "SystemdOptions" (if available). Both sources are combined, but the
       kernel command line has higher priority. Please note that the EFI
       variable is only used by systemd tools, and is ignored by the kernel and
       other user space tools, so it is not a replacement for the kernel command

       For command line parameters understood by the kernel, please see
       kernel-parameters.html[1] and bootparam(7).

       For command line parameters understood by the initial RAM disk, please
       see dracut.cmdline(7), or the documentation of the specific initrd
       implementation of your installation.

       systemd.unit=, rd.systemd.unit=, systemd.dump_core,
       systemd.early_core_pattern=, systemd.crash_chvt, systemd.crash_shell,
       systemd.crash_reboot, systemd.confirm_spawn, systemd.service_watchdogs,
       systemd.show_status, systemd.status_unit_format=, systemd.log_target=,
       systemd.log_level=, systemd.log_location=, systemd.log_color,
       systemd.default_standard_output=, systemd.default_standard_error=,
       systemd.setenv=, systemd.machine_id=, systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy,
           Parameters understood by the system and service manager to control
           system behavior. For details, see systemd(1).

       systemd.mask=, systemd.wants=, systemd.debug_shell
           Additional parameters understood by systemd-debug-generator(8), to
           mask or start specific units at boot, or invoke a debug shell on
           tty9., systemd.run_success_action=, systemd.run_failure_action=
           Additional parameters understood by systemd-run-generator(8), to run
           a command line specified on the kernel command line as system service
           after booting up.

           During early boot, the generation of core dump files is disabled
           until a core dump handler (if any) takes over. This parameter allows
           specifying an absolute path where core dump files should be stored
           until a handler is installed. The path should be absolute and may
           contain specifiers, see core(5) for details.

           This parameter is understood by several system tools to control
           whether or not they should restore system state from the previous
           boot. For details, see systemd-backlight@.service(8) and systemd-

           This parameter controls whether the system shall boot up in volatile
           mode. Takes a boolean argument, or the special value "state". If
           false (the default), normal boot mode is selected, the root directory
           and /var/ are mounted as specified on the kernel command line or
           /etc/fstab, or otherwise configured. If true, full state-less boot
           mode is selected. In this case the root directory is mounted as
           volatile memory file system ("tmpfs"), and only /usr/ is mounted from
           the file system configured as root device, in read-only mode. This
           enables fully state-less boots were the vendor-supplied OS is used as
           shipped, with only default configuration and no stored state in
           effect, as /etc/ and /var/ (as well as all other resources shipped in
           the root file system) are reset at boot and lost on shutdown. If this
           setting is set to "state" the root file system is mounted read-only,
           however /var/ is mounted as a volatile memory file system ("tmpfs"),
           so that the system boots up with the normal configuration applied,
           but all state reset at boot and lost at shutdown. If this setting is
           set to "overlay" the root file system is set up as "overlayfs" mount
           combining the read-only root directory with a writable "tmpfs", so
           that no modifications are made to disk, but the file system may be
           modified nonetheless with all changes being lost at reboot. For
           details, see systemd-volatile-root.service(8) and systemd-fstab-

           Parameter understood by both the kernel and the system and service
           manager to control console log verbosity. For details, see

           Parameter understood by both the kernel and the system and service
           manager to control console log verbosity. For details, see

       -b, rd.emergency, emergency, rd.rescue, rescue, single, s, S, 1, 2, 3, 4,
           Parameters understood by the system and service manager, as
           compatibility and convenience options. For details, see systemd(1).

       locale.LANG=, locale.LANGUAGE=, locale.LC_CTYPE=, locale.LC_NUMERIC=,
       locale.LC_TIME=, locale.LC_COLLATE=, locale.LC_MONETARY=,
       locale.LC_MESSAGES=, locale.LC_PAPER=, locale.LC_NAME=,
       locale.LC_ADDRESS=, locale.LC_TELEPHONE=, locale.LC_MEASUREMENT=,
           Parameters understood by the system and service manager to control
           locale and language settings. For details, see systemd(1).

           Parameters understood by the file system checker services. For
           details, see systemd-fsck@.service(8).

           Parameter understood by the file quota checker service. For details,
           see systemd-quotacheck.service(8).

       systemd.journald.forward_to_syslog=, systemd.journald.forward_to_kmsg=,
       systemd.journald.forward_to_console=, systemd.journald.forward_to_wall=
           Parameters understood by the journal service. For details, see

       vconsole.keymap=, vconsole.keymap_toggle=, vconsole.font=,
       vconsole.font_map=, vconsole.font_unimap=
           Parameters understood by the virtual console setup logic. For
           details, see vconsole.conf(5).

       udev.log_level=, rd.udev.log_level=, udev.children_max=,
       rd.udev.children_max=, udev.exec_delay=, rd.udev.exec_delay=,
       udev.event_timeout=, rd.udev.event_timeout=, udev.timeout_signal=,
       rd.udev.timeout_signal=, udev.blockdev_read_only,
       rd.udev.blockdev_read_only, net.ifnames=, net.naming-scheme=
           Parameters understood by the device event managing daemon. For
           details, see systemd-udevd.service(8).

           May be used to disable the Plymouth boot splash. For details, see

       luks=, rd.luks=, luks.crypttab=, rd.luks.crypttab=,,, luks.uuid=, rd.luks.uuid=, luks.options=,
       rd.luks.options=, luks.key=, rd.luks.key=
           Configures the LUKS full-disk encryption logic at boot. For details,
           see systemd-cryptsetup-generator(8).

       fstab=, rd.fstab=
           Configures the /etc/fstab logic at boot. For details, see systemd-

       root=, rootfstype=, rootflags=, ro, rw
           Configures the root file system and its file system type and mount
           options, as well as whether it shall be mounted read-only or
           read-write initially. For details, see systemd-fstab-generator(8).

       mount.usr=, mount.usrfstype=, mount.usrflags=
           Configures the /usr file system (if required) and its file system
           type and mount options. For details, see systemd-fstab-generator(8).

       roothash=, systemd.verity=, rd.systemd.verity=,
       systemd.verity_root_data=, systemd.verity_root_hash=
           Configures the integrity protection root hash for the root file
           system, and other related parameters. For details, see systemd-

       systemd.gpt_auto=, rd.systemd.gpt_auto=
           Configures whether GPT based partition auto-discovery shall be
           attempted. For details, see systemd-gpt-auto-generator(8).

           Overwrites the default start job timeout DefaultTimeoutStartSec= at
           boot. For details, see systemd-system.conf(5).

           Overwrites the watchdog device path WatchdogDevice=. For details, see

           Overrides the CPU affinity mask for the service manager and the
           default for all child processes it forks. This takes precedence over
           CPUAffinity=, see systemd-system.conf(5) for details.

       modules_load=, rd.modules_load=
           Load a specific kernel module early at boot. For details, see

       resume=, resumeflags=
           Enables resume from hibernation using the specified device and mount
           options. All fstab(5)-like paths are supported. For details, see

           Takes a boolean argument, defaults to on. If off, systemd-
           firstboot.service(8) will not query the user for basic system
           settings, even if the system boots up for the first time and the
           relevant settings are not initialized yet. Not to be confused with
           systemd.condition-first-boot= (see below), which overrides the result
           of the ConditionFirstBoot= unit file condition, and thus controls
           more than just systemd-firstboot.service behaviour.

           Takes a boolean argument. If specified, overrides the result of
           ConditionNeedsUpdate= unit condition checks. See systemd.unit(5) for

           Takes a boolean argument. If specified, overrides the result of
           ConditionFirstBoot= unit condition checks. See systemd.unit(5) for
           details. Not to be confused with systemd.firstboot= which only
           controls behaviour of the systemd-firstboot.service system service
           but has no effect on the condition check (see above).

           Takes a decimal, numeric timestamp in ┬Ás since January 1st 1970,
           00:00am, to set the system clock to. The system time is set to the
           specified timestamp early during boot. It is not propagated to the
           hardware clock (RTC).

           Takes a base64 encoded random seed value to credit with full entropy
           to the kernel's random pool during early service manager
           initialization. This option is useful in testing environments where
           delays due to random pool initialization in entropy starved virtual
           machines shall be avoided.

           Note that if this option is used the seed is accessible to
           unprivileged programs from /proc/cmdline. This option is hence a
           security risk when used outside of test systems, since the (possibly)
           only seed used for initialization of the kernel's entropy pool might
           be easily acquired by unprivileged programs.

           It is recommended to pass 512 bytes of randomized data (as that
           matches the Linux kernel pool size), which may be generated with a
           command like the following:

               dd if=/dev/urandom bs=512 count=1 status=none | base64 -w 0

           Again: do not use this option outside of testing environments, it's a
           security risk elsewhere, as secret key material derived from the
           entropy pool can possibly be reconstructed by unprivileged programs.

           Accepts a hostname to set during early boot. If specified takes
           precedence over what is set in /etc/hostname. Note that this does not
           bar later runtime changes to the hostname, it simply controls the
           initial hostname set during early boot.

       systemd(1), systemd-system.conf(5), bootparam(7), dracut.cmdline(7),
       systemd-debug-generator(8), systemd-fsck@.service(8), systemd-
       quotacheck.service(8), systemd-journald.service(8), systemd-vconsole-
       setup.service(8), systemd-udevd.service(8), plymouth(8), systemd-
       cryptsetup-generator(8), systemd-veritysetup-generator(8), systemd-fstab-
       generator(8), systemd-gpt-auto-generator(8), systemd-volatile-
       root.service(8), systemd-modules-load.service(8), systemd-
       backlight@.service(8), systemd-rfkill.service(8), systemd-hibernate-
       resume-generator(8), systemd-firstboot.service(8), bootctl(1)

        1. kernel-parameters.html

systemd 247                                               KERNEL-COMMAND-LINE(7)