last

LAST, LASTB(1)                   User Commands                  LAST, LASTB(1)



NAME
       last, lastb - show a listing of last logged in users

SYNOPSIS
       last [options] [username...] [tty...]
       lastb [options] [username...] [tty...]

DESCRIPTION
       last searches back through the /var/log/wtmp file (or the file
       designated by the -f option) and displays a list of all users logged in
       (and out) since that file was created.  One or more usernames and/or
       ttys can be given, in which case last will show only the entries
       matching those arguments.  Names of ttys can be abbreviated, thus last
       0 is the same as last tty0.

       When catching a SIGINT signal (generated by the interrupt key, usually
       control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal, last will show how far it has searched
       through the file; in the case of the SIGINT signal last will then
       terminate.

       The pseudo user reboot logs in each time the system is rebooted.  Thus
       last reboot will show a log of all the reboots since the log file was
       created.

       lastb is the same as last, except that by default it shows a log of the
       /var/log/btmp file, which contains all the bad login attempts.

OPTIONS
       -a, --hostlast
              Display the hostname in the last column.  Useful in combination
              with the --dns option.

       -d, --dns
              For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the
              remote host, but its IP number as well.  This option translates
              the IP number back into a hostname.

       -f, --file file
              Tell last to use a specific file instead of /var/log/wtmp.  The
              --file option can be given multiple times, and all of the
              specified files will be processed.

       -F, --fulltimes
              Print full login and logout times and dates.

       -i, --ip
              Like --dns , but displays the host's IP number instead of the
              name.

       -number
       -n, --limit number
              Tell last how many lines to show.

       -p, --present time
              Display the users who were present at the specified time.  This
              is like using the options --since and --until together with the
              same time.

       -R, --nohostname
              Suppresses the display of the hostname field.

       -s, --since time
              Display the state of logins since the specified time.  This is
              useful, e.g., to easily determine who was logged in at a
              particular time.  The option is often combined with --until.

       -t, --until time
              Display the state of logins until the specified time.

       --time-format format
              Define the output timestamp format to be one of notime, short,
              full, or iso.  The notime variant will not print any timestamps
              at all, short is the default, and full is the same as the
              --fulltimes option.  The iso variant will display the timestamp
              in ISO-8601 format.  The ISO format contains timezone
              information, making it preferable when printouts are
              investigated outside of the system.

       -w, --fullnames
              Display full user names and domain names in the output.

       -x, --system
              Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.

TIME FORMATS
       The options that take the time argument understand the following
       formats:

       YYYYMMDDhhmmss
       YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss
       YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm     (seconds will be set to 00)
       YYYY-MM-DD           (time will be set to 00:00:00)
       hh:mm:ss             (date will be set to today)
       hh:mm                (date will be set to today, seconds to 00)
       now
       yesterday            (time is set to 00:00:00)
       today                (time is set to 00:00:00)
       tomorrow             (time is set to 00:00:00)
       +5min
       -5days

NOTES
       The files wtmp and btmp might not be found.  The system only logs
       information in these files if they are present.  This is a local
       configuration issue.  If you want the files to be used, they can be
       created with a simple touch(1) command (for example, touch
       /var/log/wtmp).

FILES
       /var/log/wtmp
       /var/log/btmp

AUTHOR
       Miquel van Smoorenburg ⟨miquels@cistron.nl⟩

AVAILABILITY
       The last command is part of the util-linux package and is available
       from Linux Kernel Archive ⟨https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-
       linux/⟩.

SEE ALSO
       login(1), wtmp(5), init(8), shutdown(8)



util-linux                       October 2013                   LAST, LASTB(1)