LaTeX2HTML(1)               Debian GNU/Linux manual              LaTeX2HTML(1)

       latex2html - translate LaTeX files to HTML (HyperText Markup Language)

       latex2html [options] [target [target ...]]

       This manual page explains the LaTeX2HTML utility, which is a Perl
       program that translates LaTeX document into HTML format. For each
       source file given as an argument the translator will create a directory
       containing the corresponding HTML files. For details and examples,
       please consult the online html documentation, a copy of which should be
       available in /usr/share/doc/latex2html/ or

       This documentation has been derived from the TeX manual, and may not be
       up to date. Please refer to the online manual for authoritative

Options controlling Titles, File-Names and Sectioning
       -t <top-page-title>
              Same as setting: $TITLE = <top-page-title> ; Name the document
              using this title.

              Same as setting: $SHORTEXTN = 1; Use a filename prefix of .htm
              for the produced HTML files. This is particularly useful for
              creating pages to be stored on CD-ROM or other media, to be used
              with operating systems that require a 3-character extension.

       -long_titles <num>
              Same as setting: $LONG_TITLES = <num>; Instead of the standard
              names: node1.html, node2.html,... the filenames for each HTML
              page are constructed from the first <num> words of the section
              heading for that page, separated by the `_' character.  Commas
              and common short words (a an to by of and for the) are omitted
              from both title and word-count.  Warning: Use this switch with
              great caution. Currently there are no checks for uniqueness of
              names or overall length. Very long names can easily result from
              using this feature.

              Same as setting: $CUSTOM_TITLES = 1; Instead of the standard
              names: node1.html, node2.html, ... the filenames for each HTML
              page are constructed using a Perl subroutine named
              custom_title_hook . The user may define his/her own version of
              this subroutine, within a .latex2html-init file say, to override
              the default (which uses the standard names). This subroutine
              takes the section-heading as a parameter and must return the
              required name, or the empty string (default).

       -dir <output-directory>
              Same as setting: $DESTDIR = <output-directory> ; Redirect the
              output to the specified directory.  The default behaviour is to
              create (or reuse) a directory having the same name as the prefix
              of the document being processed.

              Same as setting: $NO_SUBDIR = 1; Place the generated HTML files
              into the current directory. This overrides any $DESTDIR setting.

       -prefix <filename-prefix>
              Same as setting: $PREFIX = <filename-prefix> ; The <filename-
              prefix> will be prepended to all .gif, .pl and .html files
              produced, except for the top-level .html file; it may include a
              (relative) directory path. This will enable multiple products of
              LaTeX2HTML to peacefully coexist in the same directory. However,
              do not attempt to simultaneously run multiple instances of
              LaTeX2HTML using the same output directory, else various
              temporary files will overwrite each other.

              Same as setting: $AUTO_PREFIX = 1; Constructs the prefix as
              `<title>-' to be prepended to all the files produced, where
              <title> is the name of the LaTeX file being processed.  (Note
              the `-' in this prefix.)  This overrides any $PREFIX setting.

              Same as setting: $NO_AUTO_LINK = 1; If $NO_AUTO_LINK is empty
              and variables $LINKPOINT and $LINKNAME are defined appropriately
              (as is the default in the latex2html.config file), then a hard
              link to the main HTML page is produced, using the name supplied
              in $LINKNAME.  Typically this is index.html; on many systems a
              file of this name will be used, if it exists, when a browser
              tries to view a URL which points to a directory. On other
              systems a different value for $LINKNAME may be appropriate.
              Typically $LINKPOINT has value $FILE.html, but this may also be
              changed to match whichever HTML page is to become the target of
              the automatic link.  Use of the -no_auto_link switch cancels
              this automatic linking facility, when not required for a
              particular document.

       -split <num>
              Same as setting: $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 8) Stop
              splitting sections into separate files at this depth. Specifying
              -split 0 will put the entire document into a single HTML file.
              See below for the different levels of sectioning. Also see the
              next item for how to set a ``relative'' depth for splitting.

       -split +<num>
              Same as setting: $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = -<num>; (default is 8) The
              level at which to stop splitting sections is calculated
              ``relative to'' the shallowest level of sectioning that occurs
              within the document. For example, if the document contains
              \section commands, but no \part or \chapter commands, then
              -split +1 will cause splitting at each \section but not at any
              deeper level; whereas -split +2 or -split +3 also split down to
              \subsection and \subsubsection commands respectively. Specifying
              -split +0 puts the entire document into a single HTML file.

       -link <num>
              Same as setting: $MAX_LINK_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 4) For
              each node, create links to child nodes down to this much deeper
              than the node's sectioning-level.  Specifying -link 0 will show
              no links to child nodes from that page, -link 1 will show only
              the immediate descendants, etc.  A value at least as big as that
              of the -split <num> depth will produce a mini table-of-contents
              (when not empty) on each page, for the tree structure rooted at
              that node.  When the page has a sectioning-level less than the
              -split depth, so that the a mini table-of-contents has links to
              other HTML pages, this table is located at the bottom of the
              page, unless placed elsewhere using the \tableofchildlinks
              command.  On pages having a sectioning-level just less than the
              -split depth the mini table-of-contents contains links to
              subsections etc. occurring on the same HTML page. Now the table
              is located at the top of this page, unless placed elsewhere
              using the \tableofchildlinks command.

       -toc_depth <num>
              Same as setting: $TOC_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 4) Sectioning
              levels down to <num> are to be included within the Table-of-
              Contents tree.

              Same as setting: $TOC_STARS = 1; Sections created using the
              starred-form of sectioning commands are included within the
              Table-of-Contents. As with LaTeX, normally such sections are not

              Same as setting: $SHOW_SECTION_NUMBERS = 1; Show section
              numbers. By default section numbers are not shown, so as to
              encourage the use of particular sections as stand-alone
              documents.  In order to be shown, section titles must be unique
              and must not contain inlined graphics.

              Same as setting: $UNSEGMENT = 1; Treat a segmented document (see
              the section about document segmentation) like it were not
              segmented. This will cause the translator to concatenate all
              segments and process them as a whole. You might find this useful
              to check a segmented document for consistency.  For all
              documents the sectioning levels referred to above are:
               0  document
               1  part
               2  chapter
               3  section
               4  subsection
               5  subsubsection
               6  paragraph
               7  subparagraph
               8  subsubparagraph

       These levels apply even when the document contains no sectioning for
       the shallower levels; e.g. no \part or \chapter commands is most
       common, especially when using LaTeX's article document-class.

Options controlling Extensions and Special Features
       The switches described here govern the type of HTML code that can be
       generated, and how to choose between the available options when there
       are alternative strategies for implementing portions of LaTeX code.

       -html_version (2.0|3.0|3.2)[,(math|i18n|table)]*
              Same as setting: $HTML_VERSION = ...  ; This specifies both the
              HTML version to generate, and any extra (non-standard) HTML
              features that may be required.  The version number corresponds
              to a published DTD for an HTML standard (although 3.0 was never
              accepted and subsequently withdrawn). A corresponding Perl file
              in the versions/ subdirectory is loaded; these files are named
              `html<num>.pl'.  Following the version number, a comma-separated
              list of extensions can be given. Each corresponds to a file
              `<name>.pl' also located in the versions/ subdirectory. When
              such a file is loaded the resulting HTML code can no longer be
              expected to validate with the specified DTD. An exception is
              math when the -no_math switch is also used, which should still
              validate.  Currently, versions 2.0, 3.2 and 4.0 are available.
              (and also 2.1, 2.2, 3.0 and 3.1, for historical reasons). The
              extensions i18n, tables, math correspond roughly to what used to
              be called versions `2.1', `2.2', `3.1' respectively, in releases
              of LaTeX2HTML up to 1996. Now these extensions can be loaded
              with any of `2.0', `3.2' or `4.0' as the specified standard.
              The default version is usually set to be `3.2', within

              Same as setting: $TEXDEFS = 0; (default is 1) When $TEXDEFS is
              set (default) the file texdefs.perl will be read. This provides
              code to allow common TEX commands like \def, \newbox, \newdimen
              and others, to be recognised, especially within the document
              preamble. In the case of \def, the definition may even be fully
              interpreted, but this requires the pattern-matching to be not
              too complicated.  If $TEXDEFS is `0' or empty, then texdefs.perl
              will not be loaded; the translator will make no attempt to
              interpret any raw TEX commands. This feature is intended to
              enable sophisticated authors the ability to insert arbitrary TEX
              commands in environments that are destined to be processed by
              LaTeX anyway; e.g. figures, theorems, pictures, etc.  However
              this should rarely be needed, as now there is better support for
              these types of environment. There are now other methods to
              specify which chunks of code are to be passed to LaTeX for
              explicit image-generation; see the discussion of the makeimage

       -external_file <filename>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_FILE = <filename> ; Specifies the
              prefix of the .aux file that this document should read.  The
              .aux extension will be appended to this prefix to get the
              complete filename, with directory path if needed.  This file
              could contain necessary information regarding citations, figure,
              table and section numbers from LaTeX and perhaps other
              information also. Use of this switch is vital for document
              segments, processed separately and linked to appear as if
              generated from a single LaTeX document.

       -font_size <size>
              Same as setting: $FONT_SIZE = <size> ; This option provides
              better control over the font size of environments made into
              images using LaTeX.  <size> must be one of the font sizes that
              LaTeX recognizes; i.e. `10pt', `11pt', `12pt', etc. Default is
              `10pt', or whatever option may have been specified on the
              \documentclass or \documentstyle line.  Whatever size is
              selected, it will be magnified by the installation variables
              as appropriate.  Note: This switch provides no control over the
              size of text on the HTML pages. Such control is subject entirely
              to the user's choices of settings for the browser windows.

              Same as setting: $SCALABLE_FONTS = 1; This is used when scalable
              fonts, such as PostScript versions of the TEX fonts, are
              available for image-generation.  It has the effect of setting
              $PK_GENERATION to `1', and $DVIPS_MODE to be empty, overriding
              any previous settings for these variables.

              Same as setting: $NO_SIMPLE_MATH = 1; Ordinarily simple
              mathematical expressions are set using the ordinary text font,
              but italicized. When part of the expression can not be
              represented this way, an image is made of the whole formula.
              This is called ``simple math''. When $NO_SIMPLE_MATH is set,
              then all mathematics is made into images, whether simple or not.
              However, if the math extension is loaded, using the
              -html_version switch described earlier, then specifying -no_math
              produces a quite different effect. Now it is the special <MATH>
              tags and entities which are canceled. In their place a
              sophisticated scheme for parsing mathematical expressions is
              used. Images are made of those sub-parts of a formula which
              cannot be adequately expressed using (italicized) text
              characters and <SUB> and <SUP> tags. See the subsection on
              mathematics for more details.

              Same as setting: $LOCAL_ICONS = 1; A copy of each of the icons
              actually used within the document is placed in the directory
              along with the HTML files and generated images. This allows the
              whole document to be fully self-contained, within this
              directory; otherwise the icons must be retrieved from a (perhaps
              remote) server.  The icons are normally copied from a
              subdirectory of the

               set within latex2html.config. An alternative set of icons can
              be used by specifying a (relative) directory path in
              $ALTERNATIVE_ICONS to where the customised images can be found.

       -init_file <file>
              Load the specified initialisation file. This Perl file will be
              loaded after loading $HOME/.latex2html-init, or .latex2html-init
              in the local directory, if either file exists. It is read at the
              time the switch is processed, so the contents of the file may
              change any of the values of any of the variables that were
              previously established, as well as any default options. More
              than one initialisation file can be read in this way.

              Same as setting: $NOFORK = 1; When set this disables a feature
              in the early part of the processing whereby some memory-
              intensive operations are performed by `forked' child processes.
              Some single-task operating systems, such as DOS, do not support
              this feature. Having $NOFORK set then ensures that unnecessary
              file-handles that are needed with the forked processes, are not
              consumed unnecessarily, perhaps resulting in a fatal Perl error.

       -iso_language <type>
              This enables you to specify a different language type than 'EN'
              to be used in the DTD entries of the HTML document, e.g.
              'EN.US'.  [change_end] 98.1

              Same as setting: $SHORT_INDEX = 1; Creates shorter Index
              listings, using codified links; this is fully compatible with
              the makeidx package.

              Same as setting: $NO_FOOTNODE = 1; Suppresses use of a separate
              file for footnotes; instead these are placed at the bottom of
              the HTML pages where the references occur.  When this option is
              used, it is frequently desirable to change the style of the
              marker used to indicate the presence of a footnote. This is done
              as in LaTeX, using code such as follows.
              \renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\arabic{footnote}} All the styles
              \arabic, \alph, \roman, \Alph and \Roman are available.

              Same as setting: $NUMBERED_FOOTNOTES = 1; If this is set you
              will get every footnote applied with a subsequent number, to
              ease readability.  [change_end] 98.1

       -address <author-address>
              Same as setting: $ADDRESS = <author-address> ; Sign each page
              with this address.  See latex2html.config for an example using
              Perl code to automatically include the date.  A user-defined
              Perl subroutine called &custom_address can be used instead, if
              defined; it takes the value of $ADDRESS as a parameter, which
              may be used or ignored as desired. At the time when this
              subroutine will be called, variables named $depth, $title, $file
              hold the sectioning-level, title and filename of the HTML page
              being produced; $FILE holds the name of the filename for the
              title-page of the whole document.

       -info <string>
              Same as setting: $INFO = <string> ; Generate a new section
              ``About this document'' containing information about the
              document being translated. The default is to generate such a
              section with information on the original document, the date, the
              user and the translator. An empty string (or the value `0')
              disables the creation of this extra section.  If a non-empty
              string is given, it will be placed as the contents of the
              ``About this document'' page instead of the default information.

Switches controlling Image Generation
       These switches affect whether images are created at all, whether old
       images are reused on subsequent runs or new ones created afresh, and
       whether anti-aliasing effects are used within the images themselves.

              Same as setting: $ASCII_MODE = $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use only
              ASCII characters and do not include any images in the final
              output. With -ascii_mode the output of the translator can be
              used on character-based browsers, such as lynx, which do not
              support inlined images (via the <IMG> tag).

              Same as setting: $NOLATEX = 1; Disable the mechanism for passing
              unknown environments to LaTeX for processing. This can be
              thought of as ``draft mode'' which allows faster translation of
              the basic document structure and text, without fancy figures,
              equations or tables.  (This option has been superseded by the
              -no_images option, see below.)

              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Instead of including any
              generated images inside the document, leave them outside the
              document and provide hypertext links to them.

              Same as setting: $PS_IMAGES = $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use links to
              external PostScript files rather than inlined images in the
              chosen graphics format.

              Same as setting: $DISCARD_PS = 1; The temporary PostScript files
              are discarded immediately after they have been used to create
              the image in the desired graphics format.

              Same as setting: $NO_IMAGES = 1; Do not attempt to produce any
              inlined images. The missing images can be generated ``off-line''
              by restarting LaTeX2HTML with the option -images_only .

              Same as setting: $IMAGES_ONLY = 1; Try to convert any inlined
              images that were left over from previous runs of LaTeX2HTML.

       -reuse <reuse_option>
              Same as setting: $REUSE = <reuse_option>; This switch specifies
              the extent to which image files are to be shared or recycled.
              There are three valid options: [*] 0 Do not ever share or
              recycle image files.  This choice also invokes an interactive
              session prompting the user about what to do about a pre-existing
              HTML directory, if it exists.  [*] 1 Recycle image files from a
              previous run if they are available, but do not share identical
              images that must be created in this run.  [*] 2 Recycle image
              files from a previous run and share identical images from this
              run.  This is the default.  A later section provides additional
              information about image-reuse.

              Same as setting: $REUSE = 0; Do not share or recycle images
              generated during previous translations.  This is equivalent to
              -reuse 0 . (This will enable the initial interactive session
              during which the user is asked whether to reuse the old
              directory, delete its contents or quit.)

              Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS = 1; (Default is 0.)  Generated
              images of figure environments and external PostScript files
              should use anti-aliasing. By default anti-aliasing is not used
              with these images, since this may interfere with the contents of
              the images themselves.

              Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 1; (Default is 1.)
              Generated images of typeset material such as text, mathematical
              formulas, tables and the content of makeimage environments,
              should use anti-aliasing effects.  The default is normally to
              use anti-aliasing for text, since the resulting images are much
              clearer on-screen. However the default may have been changed

              Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS = 0; (Default is 0.)  Generated
              images of figure environments and external PostScript files
              should not use anti-aliasing with images, though the local
              default may have been changed to use it.

              Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 0; (Default is 1.)
              Generated images of typeset material should not use anti-
              aliasing effects. Although on-screen images of text are
              definitely improved using anti-aliasing, printed images can be
              badly blurred, even at 300dpi. Higher resolution printers do a
              much better job with the resulting grey-scale images.

       -white Same as setting: $WHITE_BACKGROUND = 1; (Default is 1.)  Ensures
              that images of figure environments have a white background.
              Otherwise transparency effects may not work correctly.

              Same as setting: $WHITE_BACKGROUND = ''; (Default is 1.)
              Cancels the requirement that figure environments have a white

       -ldump Same as setting: $LATEX_DUMP = 1; (Default is 0.)  Use this if
              you want to speed up image processing during the 2nd and
              subsequent runs of LaTeX2HTML on the same document. The
              translator now produces a LaTeX format-dump of the preamble to
              images.tex which is used on subsequent runs. This significantly
              reduces the startup time when LaTeX reads the images.tex file
              for image-generation.  This process actually consumes additional
              time on the first run, since LaTeX is called twice -- once to
              create the format-dump, then again to load and use it. The pay-
              off comes with the faster loading on subsequent runs.
              Approximately 1 Meg of disk space is consumed by the dump file.
              [change_end] 98.1

Switches controlling Navigation Panels
       The following switches govern whether to include one or more navigation
       panels on each HTML page, also which buttons to include within such a

              Same as setting: $NO_NAVIGATION = 1; Disable the mechanism for
              putting navigation links in each page.  This overrides any
              settings of the $TOP_NAVIGATION, $BOTTOM_NAVIGATION and
              $AUTO_NAVIGATION variables.

              Same as setting: $TOP_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at
              the top of each page.

              Same as setting: $BOTTOM_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at
              the bottom of each page as well as the top.

              Same as setting: $AUTO_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at
              the top of each page. Also put one at the bottom of the page, if
              the page exceeds $WORDS_IN_PAGE number of words (default = 450).

              Same as setting: $NEXT_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the
              next logical page in the navigation panel.

              Same as setting: $PREVIOUS_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to
              the previous logical page in the navigation panel.

              Same as setting: $CONTENTS_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the
              table-of-contents in the navigation panel if there is one.

              Same as setting: $INDEX_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the
              index-page in the navigation panel if there is an index.

Switches for Linking to other documents
       When processing a single stand-alone document, the switches described
       in this section should not be needed at all, since the automatically
       generated navigation panels, described on the previous page should
       generate all the required navigation links. However if a document is to
       be regarded as part of a much larger document, then links from its
       first and final pages, to locations in other parts of the larger
       (virtual) document, need to be provided explicitly for some of the
       buttons in the navigation panel.  The following switches allow for such
       links to other documents, by providing the title and URL for navigation
       panel hyperlinks. In particular, the ``Document Segmentation'' feature
       necessarily makes great use of these switches. It is usual for the text
       and targets of these navigation hyperlinks to be recorded in a
       Makefile, to avoid tedious typing of long command-lines having many

       -up_url <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_UP_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies a
              universal resource locator (URL) to associate with the ``UP''
              button in the navigation panel(s).

       -up_title <string>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_UP_TITLE = <string> ; Specifies a
              title associated with this URL.

       -prev_url <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_PREV_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies a URL
              to associate with the ``PREVIOUS'' button in the navigation

       -prev_title <string>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_PREV_TITLE = <string> ; Specifies a
              title associated with this URL.

       -down_url <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_DOWN_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies a URL
              for the ``NEXT'' button in the navigation panel(s).

       -down_title <string>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_DOWN_TITLE = <string> ; Specifies a
              title associated with this URL.

       -contents <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_CONTENTS = <URL> ; Specifies a URL
              for the ``CONTENTS'' button, for document segments that would
              not otherwise have one.

       -index <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_INDEX = <URL> ; Specifies a URL for
              the ``INDEX'' button, for document segments that otherwise would
              not have an index.

       -biblio <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_BIBLIO = <URL> ; Specifies the URL
              for the bibliography page to be used, when not explicitly part
              of the document itself.  Warning: On some systems it is
              difficult to give text-strings <string> containing space
              characters, on the command-line or via a Makefile. One way to
              overcome this is to use the corresponding variable. Another way
              is to replace the spaces with underscores (_).

Switches for Help and Tracing
       The first two of the following switches are self-explanatory. When
       problems arise in processing a document, the switches -debug and
       -verbosity will each cause LaTeX2HTML to generate more output to the
       screen. These extra messages should help to locate the cause of the

       -tmp <path>
              Define a temporary directory to use for image generation. If
              <path> is 0, the standard temporary directory /tmp is used.

              Print out the list of all command-line options.

       -v     Print the current version of LaTeX2HTML.

       -debug Same as setting: $DEBUG = 1; Run in debug-mode, displaying
              messages and/or diagnostic information about files read, and
              utilities called by LaTeX2HTML.  Shows any messages produced by
              these calls.  More extensive diagnostics, from the Perl
              debugger, can be obtained by appending the string `-w-' to the
              1st line of the latex2html (and other) Perl script(s).

       -verbosity <num>
              Same as setting: $VERBOSITY = <num>; Display messages revealing
              certain aspects of the processing performed by LaTeX2HTML on the
              provided input file(s). The <num> parameter can be an integer in
              the range 0 to 8. Each higher value adds to the messages

       0.     No special tracing; as for versions of LaTeX2HTML prior to

       1.     (This is the default.) Show section-headings and the
              corresponding HTML file names, and indicators that major stages
              in the processing have been completed.

       2.     Print environment names and identifier numbers, and new theorem-
              types. Show warnings as they occur, and indicators for more
              stages of processing. Print names of files for storing auxiliary
              data arrays.

       3.     Print command names as they are encountered and processed; also
              any unknown commands encountered while pre-processing. Show
              names of new commands, environments, theorems, counters and
              counter-dependencies, for each document partition.

       4.     Indicate command-substitution the pre-process of math-
              environments. Print the contents of unknown environments for
              processing in LaTeX, both before and after reverting to LaTeX
              source. Show all operations affecting the values of counters.
              Also show links, labels and sectioning keys, at the stages of

       5.     Detail the processing in the document preamble. Show
              substitutions of new environments. Show the contents of all
              recognised environments, both before and after processing. Show
              the cached/encoded information for the image keys, allowing two
              images to be tested for equality.

       6.     Show replacements of new commands, accents and wrapped commands.

       7.     Trace the processing of commands in math mode; both before and

       8.     Trace the processing of all commands, both before and after.
              The command-line option sets an initial value only. During
              processing the value of $VERBOSITY can be set dynamically using
              the \htmltracing{...} command, whose argument is the desired
              value, or by using the more general \HTMLset command as follows:

Other Configuration Variables, without switches
       The configuration variables described here do not warrant having a
       command-line switch to assign values. Either they represent aspects of
       LaTeX2HTML that are specific to the local site, or they govern
       properties that should apply to all documents, rather than something
       that typically would change for the different documents within a
       particular sub-directory.  Normally these variables have their value
       set within the latex2html.config file. In the following listing the
       defaults are shown, as the lines of Perl code used to establish these
       values. If a different value is required, then these can be assigned
       from a local .latex2html-init initialisation file, without affecting
       the defaults for other users, or documents processed from other

       $dd    holds the string to be used in file-names to delimit
              directories; it is set internally to `/', unless the variable
              has already been given a value within latex2html.config .  Note:
              This value cannot be set within a .latex2html-init
              initialisation file, since its value needs to be known in order
              to find such a file.

              Read by the install-test script from latex2html.config, its
              value is inserted into the latex2html Perl script as part of the
              installation process.

              Read from the latex2html.config file by install-test, its value
              is checked to locate the styles/ directory.

              The value of this variable should be set within
              latex2html.config to specify the directory path where the
              version and extension files can be found.

              This may contain the (relative) directory path to a set of
              customised icons to be used in conjunction with the -local_icons

       $TEXEXPAND = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/texexpand ;
              Read by the install-test Perl script from latex2html.config, its
              value is used to locate the texexpand Perl script.

       $PSTOIMG = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/pstoimg ;
              Read by the install-test Perl script from latex2html.config, its
              value is used to locate the pstoimg Perl script.

       $IMAGE_TYPE = '<image-type>';
              Set in latex2html.config, the currently supported <image-type>s
              are: gif and png.

       $DVIPS = 'dvips';
              Read from latex2html.config by install-test, its value is
              checked to locate the dvips program or script.  There could be
              several reasons to change the value here:

                     add a switch -P<printer> to load a specific
                     configuration-file; e.g. to use a specific set of
                     PostScript fonts, for improved image-generation.

                     to prepend a path to a different version of dvips than
                     normally available as the system default (e.g. the
                     printing requirements are different).

                     to append debugging switches, in case of poor quality
                     images; one can see which paths are being searched for
                     fonts and other resources.

                     to prepend commands for setting path variables that dvips
                     may need in order to locate fonts or other resources.

              If automatic generation of fonts is required, using Metafont,
              the following configuration variables are important.

              $PK_GENERATION = 1;
                     This variable must be set, to initiate font-generation;
                     otherwise fonts will be scaled from existing resources on
                     the local system.  In particular this variable must not
                     be set, if one wishes to use PostScript fonts or other
                     scalable font resources (see the -scalable_fonts switch).

              $DVIPS_MODE = 'toshiba';
                     The mode given here must be available in the
                     file, located with the Metafont resource files, perhaps
                     in the misc/ subdirectory.

              $METAFONT_DPI = 180;
                     The required resolution, in dots-per-inch, should be
                     listed specifically within the MakeTeXPK script, called
                     by dvips to invoke Metafont with the correct parameters
                     for the required fonts.

       $LATEX = 'latex';
              Read from latex2html.config by install-test, its value is
              checked to locate the latex program or script.  If LaTeX is
              having trouble finding style-files and/or packages, then the
              default command can be prepended with other commands to set
              environment variables intended to resolve these difficulties;
              e.g.  $LATEX = 'setenv TEXINPUTS <path to search> ; latex' .
              There are several variables to help control exactly which files
              are read by LaTeX2HTML and by LaTeX when processing images:

                     This is normally set from the environment variable of the
                     same name. If difficulties occur so that styles and
                     packages are not being found, then extra paths can be
                     specified here, to resolve these difficulties.

                     This provides a list of filenames and extensions to not
                     include, even if requested to do so by an \input or
                     \include command.  (Consult latex2html.config for the
                     default list.)

              $DO_INCLUDE = '';
                     List of exceptions within the $DONT_INCLUDE list. These
                     files are to be read if requested by an \input or
                     \include command.

       $ICONSERVER = '<URL>';
              This is used to specify a URL to find the standard icons, as
              used for the navigation buttons.  Names for the specific images
              size, as well as size information, can be found in
              latex2html.config. The icons themselves can be replaced by
              customised versions, provided this information is correctly
              updated and the location of the customised images specified as
              the value of $ICONSERVER.  When the -local_icons switch is used,
              so that a copy of the icons is placed with the HTML files and
              other generated images, the value of $ICONSERVER is not needed
              within the HTML files themselves. However it is needed to find
              the original icons to be copied to the local directory.

       $NAV_BORDER = <num>;
              The value given here results in a border, measured in points,
              around each icon.  A value of `0' is common, to maintain strict
              alignment of inactive and active buttons in the control panels.

       $LINKNAME = '"index.$EXTN"';
              This is used when the $NO_AUTO_LINK variable is empty, to allow
              a URL to the working directory to be sufficient to reach the
              main page of the completed document. It specifies the name of
              the HTML file which will be automatically linked to the
              directory name.  The value of $EXTN is .html unless $SHORTEXTN
              is set, in which case it is .htm .

       $LINKPOINT = '"$FILE$EXTN"';
              This specifies the name of the HTML file to be duplicated, or
              symbolically linked, with the name specified in $LINKNAME.  At
              the appropriate time the value of $FILE is the document name,
              which usually coincides with the name of the working directory.

       $CHARSET = 'iso_8859_1';
              This specifies the character set used within the HTML pages
              produced by LaTeX2HTML.  If no value is set in a configuration
              or initialisation file, the default value will be assumed. The
              lowercase form $charset is also recognised, but this is
              overridden by the uppercase form.

       $ACCENT_IMAGES = 'large';
              Accented characters that are not part of the ISO-Latin fonts can
              be generated by making an image using LaTeX.  This variable
              contains a (comma-separated) list of LaTeX commands for setting
              the style to be used when these images are made. If the value of
              this variable is empty then the accent is simply ignored, using
              an un-accented font character (not an image) instead.

       Within the color.perl package, the following two variables are used to
       identify the names of files containing specifications for named colors.
       Files having these names are provided, in the $LATEX2HTMLSTYLES
       directory, but they could be moved elsewhere, or replaced by
       alternative files having different names.  In such a case the values of
       these variables should be altered accordingly.

       $RGBCOLORFILE = 'rgb.txt';

       $CRAYOLAFILE = 'crayola.txt';

       The following variables may well be altered from the system defaults,
       but this is best done using a local .latex2html-init initialisation
       file, for overall consistency of style within documents located at the
       same site, or sites in close proximity.

       $default_language = 'english';
              This establishes which language code is to be placed within the
              <!DOCTYPE ... > tag that may appear at the beginning of the HTML
              pages produced. Loading a package for an alternative language
              can be expected to change the value of this variable.  See also
              the $TITLES_LANGUAGE variable, described next.

       $TITLES_LANGUAGE = 'english';
              This variable is used to specify the actual strings used for
              standard document sections, such as ``Contents'',
              ``References'', ``Table of Contents'', etc.  Support for French
              and German titles is available in corresponding packages.
              Loading such a package will normally alter the value of this
              variable, as well as the $default_language variable described

              Specifies how many words to use from section titles, within the
              textual hyperlinks which accompany the navigation buttons.

       $WORDS_IN_PAGE = 450;
              Specifies the minimum page length required before a navigation
              panel is placed at the bottom of a page, when the
              $AUTO_NAVIGATION variable is set.

       $CHILDLINE = "<BR><HR>\n";
              This gives the HTML code to be placed between the child-links
              table and the ordinary contents of the page on which it occurs.

       $NETSCAPE_HTML = 0;
              When set, this variable specifies that HTML code may be present
              which does not conform to any official standard. This restricts
              the contents of any <!DOCTYPE ... > tag which may be placed at
              the beginning of the HTML pages produced.

       $BODYTEXT = '';
              The value of this variable is used within the <BODY ... > tag;
              e.g. to set text and/or background colors.  It's value is
              overridden by the \bodytext command, and can be added-to or
              parts changed using the \htmlbody command or \color and
              \pagecolor from the color package.

       $INTERLACE = 1;
              When set, interlaced images should be produced.  This requires
              graphics utilities to be available to perform the interlacing

              When set, the background of images should be made transparent;
              otherwise it is white.  This requires graphics utilities to be
              available which can specify the color to be made transparent.

       $FIGURE_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6;
              Scale factor applied to all images of figure and other
              environments, when being made into an image.  Note that this
              does not apply to recognised mathematics environments, which
              instead use the contents of $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR and
              $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR to specify scaling.

       $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6;
              Scale factor applied to all images of mathematics, both inline
              and displayed. A value of 1.4 is a good alternative, with anti-
              aliased images.

       $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR = 1;
              Extra scale factor applied to images of displayed math
              environments.  When set, this value multiplies
              $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR to give the total scaling. A value of `1.2'
              is a good choice to accompany $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.4;.

              This may hold an extra scale factor that can be applied to all
              generated images.  When set, it specifies that a scaling of
              $EXTRA_IMAGE_SCALE be applied when images are created, but to
              have their height and width recorded as the un-scaled size. This
              is to coax browsers into scaling the (usually larger) images to
              fit the desired size; when printed a better quality can be
              obtained. Values of `1.5' and `2' give good print quality at

       $PAPERSIZE = 'a5';
              Specifies the size of a page for typesetting figures or
              displayed math, when an image is to be generated.  This affects
              the lengths of lines of text within images. Since images of text
              or mathematics should use larger sizes than when printed, else
              clarity is lost at screen resolutions, then a smaller paper-size
              is generally advisable. This is especially so if both the
              $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR and $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR scaling factors are
              being used, else some images may become excessively large,
              including a lot of blank space.

       $LINE_WIDTH = 500;
              Formerly specified the width of an image, when the contents were
              to be right- or center-justified. (No longer used.)

       The following variables are used to access the utilities required
       during image-generation. File and program locations on the local system
       are established by the configure-pstoimg Perl script and stored within
       $LATEX2HTMLDIR/ as Perl code, to be read by pstoimg when
       required.  After running the configure-pstoimg Perl script it should
       not be necessary to alter the values obtained. Those shown below are
       what happens on the author's system; they are for illustration only and
       do not represent default values.

        $GS_LIB = '/usr/local/share/ghostscript/4.02';
        $PNMCAT = '/usr/local/bin/pnmcat';
        $PPMQUANT = '/usr/local/bin/ppmquant';
        $PNMFLIP = '/usr/local/bin/pnmflip';
        $PPMTOGIF = '/usr/local/bin/ppmtogif';
        $HOWTO_TRANSPARENT_GIF = 'netpbm';
        $GS_DEVICE = 'pnmraw';
        $GS = '/usr/local/bin/gs';
        $PNMFILE = '/usr/local/bin/pnmfile';
        $HOWTO_INTERLACE_GIF = 'netpbm';
        $PBMMAKE = '/usr/local/bin/pbmmake';
        $PNMCROP = '/usr/local/bin/pnmcrop';
        $TMP = '/usr/var/tmp'; The following variables are no longer needed,
       having been replaced by the more specific information obtained using
       the Perl script configure-pstoimg.
        $USENETPBM = 1;
        $PBMPLUSDIR = '/usr/local/bin';


       Nikos Drakos,  Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds
       <>. Several people have contributed suggestions,
       ideas, solutions, support and encouragement.  The current maintainer is
       Ross Moore.  This manual page was written by Manoj Srivastava
       <>, for the Debian GNU/Linux system, based on the
       LaTeX documentation accompanying the program.

Debian                           March 1 2000                    LaTeX2HTML(1)