lcov

lcov(1)                           User Manuals                           lcov(1)



NAME
       lcov - a graphical GCOV front-end

SYNOPSIS
       lcov -c|--capture
            [-d|--directory directory] [-k|--kernel-directory directory]
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [-t|--test-name testname]
            [-b|--base-directory directory] [-i|--initial] [--gcov-tool tool]
            [--checksum] [--no-checksum] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [--compat-libtool] [--no-compat-libtool] [--ignore-errors errors]
            [--to-package package] [--from-package package] [-q|--quiet]
            [--no-markers] [--external] [--no-external]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]
            [--compat mode=on|off|auto]
            [--include pattern] [--exclude pattern]

       lcov -z|--zerocounters
            [-d|--directory directory] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov -l|--list tracefile
            [-q|--quiet] [--list-full-path] [--no-list-full-path]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -a|--add-tracefile tracefile
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -e|--extract tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -r|--remove tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --diff tracefile diff
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [--convert-filenames] [--strip depth] [--path path] [-q|--quiet]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --summary tracefile
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov [-h|--help] [-v|--version]


DESCRIPTION
       lcov is a graphical front-end for GCC's coverage testing tool gcov. It
       collects line, function and branch coverage data for multiple source
       files and creates HTML pages containing the source code annotated with
       coverage information.  It also adds overview pages for easy navigation
       within the file structure.

       Use lcov to collect coverage data and genhtml to create HTML pages.
       Coverage data can either be collected from the currently running Linux
       kernel or from a user space application. To do this, you have to complete
       the following preparation steps:

       For Linux kernel coverage:
              Follow the setup instructions for the gcov-kernel infrastructure:
              http://ltp.sourceforge.net/coverage/gcov.php


       For user space application coverage:
              Compile the application with GCC using the options
              "-fprofile-arcs" and "-ftest-coverage".

       Please note that this man page refers to the output format of lcov as
       ".info file" or "tracefile" and that the output of GCOV is called ".da
       file".

       Also note that when printing percentages, 0% and 100% are only printed
       when the values are exactly 0% and 100% respectively. Other values which
       would conventionally be rounded to 0% or 100% are instead printed as
       nearest non-boundary value. This behavior is in accordance with that of
       the gcov(1) tool.


OPTIONS
       -a tracefile
       --add-tracefile tracefile
              Add contents of tracefile.

              Specify several tracefiles using the -a switch to combine the
              coverage data contained in these files by adding up execution
              counts for matching test and filename combinations.

              The result of the add operation will be written to stdout or the
              tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.


       -b directory
       --base-directory directory
              Use directory as base directory for relative paths.

              Use this option to specify the base directory of a
              build-environment when lcov produces error messages like:

                     ERROR: could not read source file
                     /home/user/project/subdir1/subdir2/subdir1/subdir2/file.c

              In this example, use /home/user/project as base directory.

              This option is required when using lcov on projects built with
              libtool or similar build environments that work with a base
              directory, i.e. environments, where the current working directory
              when invoking the compiler is not the same directory in which the
              source code file is located.

              Note that this option will not work in environments where multiple
              base directories are used. In that case use configuration file
              setting geninfo_auto_base=1 (see lcovrc(5)).

       -c
       --capture
              Capture coverage data.

              By default captures the current kernel execution counts and writes
              the resulting coverage data to the standard output. Use the
              --directory option to capture counts for a user space program.

              The result of the capture operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       --checksum
       --no-checksum
              Specify whether to generate checksum data when writing tracefiles.

              Use --checksum to enable checksum generation or --no-checksum to
              disable it. Checksum generation is disabled by default.

              When checksum generation is enabled, a checksum will be generated
              for each source code line and stored along with the coverage data.
              This checksum will be used to prevent attempts to combine coverage
              data from different source code versions.

              If you don't work with different source code versions, disable
              this option to speed up coverage data processing and to reduce the
              size of tracefiles.

       --compat mode=value[,mode=value,...]
              Set compatibility mode.

              Use --compat to specify that lcov should enable one or more
              compatibility modes when capturing coverage data. You can provide
              a comma-separated list of mode=value pairs to specify the values
              for multiple modes.

              Valid values are:

              on
                     Enable compatibility mode.
              off
                     Disable compatibility mode.
              auto
                     Apply auto-detection to determine if compatibility mode is
                     required. Note that auto-detection is not available for all
                     compatibility modes.

              If no value is specified, 'on' is assumed as default value.

              Valid modes are:

              libtool
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using the libtool mechanism. See
                     also --compat-libtool.

                     The default value for this setting is 'on'.

              hammer
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using a version of GCC 3.3 that
                     contains a modification (hammer patch) of later GCC
                     versions. You can identify a modified GCC 3.3 by checking
                     the build directory of your project for files ending in the
                     extension '.bbg'. Unmodified versions of GCC 3.3 name these
                     files '.bb'.

                     The default value for this setting is 'auto'.

              split_crc
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using a version of GCC 4.6 that
                     contains a modification (split function checksums) of later
                     GCC versions. Typical error messages when running lcov on
                     coverage data produced by such GCC versions are ┬┤out of
                     memory' and 'reached unexpected end of file'.

                     The default value for this setting is 'auto'


       --compat-libtool
       --no-compat-libtool
              Specify whether to enable libtool compatibility mode.

              Use --compat-libtool to enable libtool compatibility mode or
              --no-compat-libtool to disable it. The libtool compatibility mode
              is enabled by default.

              When libtool compatibility mode is enabled, lcov will assume that
              the source code relating to a .da file located in a directory
              named ".libs" can be found in its parent directory.

              If you have directories named ".libs" in your build environment
              but don't use libtool, disable this option to prevent problems
              when capturing coverage data.

       --config-file config-file
              Specify a configuration file to use.

              When this option is specified, neither the system-wide
              configuration file /etc/lcovrc, nor the per-user configuration
              file ~/.lcovrc is read.

              This option may be useful when there is a need to run several
              instances of lcov with different configuration file options in
              parallel.

       --convert-filenames
              Convert filenames when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to rename the file names of
              processed data sets according to the data provided by the diff.

       --diff tracefile difffile
              Convert coverage data in tracefile using source code diff file
              difffile.

              Use this option if you want to merge coverage data from different
              source code levels of a program, e.g. when you have data taken
              from an older version and want to combine it with data from a more
              current version.  lcov will try to map source code lines between
              those versions and adjust the coverage data respectively.
              difffile needs to be in unified format, i.e. it has to be created
              using the "-u" option of the diff tool.

              Note that lines which are not present in the old version will not
              be counted as instrumented, therefore tracefiles resulting from
              this operation should not be interpreted individually but together
              with other tracefiles taken from the newer version. Also keep in
              mind that converted coverage data should only be used for overview
              purposes as the process itself introduces a loss of accuracy.

              The result of the diff operation will be written to stdout or the
              tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -d directory
       --directory directory
              Use .da files in directory instead of kernel.

              If you want to work on coverage data for a user space program, use
              this option to specify the location where the program was compiled
              (that's where the counter files ending with .da will be stored).

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

       --exclude pattern
              Exclude source files matching pattern.

              Use this switch if you want to exclude coverage data for a
              particular set of source files matching any of the given patterns.
              Multiple patterns can be specified by using multiple --exclude
              command line switches. The patterns will be interpreted as shell
              wildcard patterns (note that they may need to be escaped
              accordingly to prevent the shell from expanding them first).

              Can be combined with the --include command line switch. If a given
              file matches both the include pattern and the exclude pattern, the
              exclude pattern will take precedence.

       --external
       --no-external
              Specify whether to capture coverage data for external source
              files.

              External source files are files which are not located in one of
              the directories specified by --directory or --base-directory. Use
              --external to include external source files while capturing
              coverage data or --no-external to ignore this data.

              Data for external source files is included by default.

       -e tracefile pattern
       --extract tracefile pattern
              Extract data from tracefile.

              Use this switch if you want to extract coverage data for only a
              particular set of files from a tracefile. Additional command line
              parameters will be interpreted as shell wildcard patterns (note
              that they may need to be escaped accordingly to prevent the shell
              from expanding them first).  Every file entry in tracefile which
              matches at least one of those patterns will be extracted.

              The result of the extract operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -f
       --follow
              Follow links when searching for .da files.

       --from-package package
              Use .da files in package instead of kernel or directory.

              Use this option if you have separate machines for build and test
              and want to perform the .info file creation on the build machine.
              See --to-package for more information.

       --gcov-tool tool
              Specify the location of the gcov tool.

       -h
       --help
              Print a short help text, then exit.

       --include pattern
              Include source files matching pattern.

              Use this switch if you want to include coverage data for only a
              particular set of source files matching any of the given patterns.
              Multiple patterns can be specified by using multiple --include
              command line switches. The patterns will be interpreted as shell
              wildcard patterns (note that they may need to be escaped
              accordingly to prevent the shell from expanding them first).

       --ignore-errors errors
              Specify a list of errors after which to continue processing.

              Use this option to specify a list of one or more classes of errors
              after which lcov should continue processing instead of aborting.

              errors can be a comma-separated list of the following keywords:

              gcov: the gcov tool returned with a non-zero return code.

              source: the source code file for a data set could not be found.

              graph: the graph file could not be found or is corrupted.

       -i
       --initial
              Capture initial zero coverage data.

              Run lcov with -c and this option on the directories containing
              .bb, .bbg or .gcno files before running any test case. The result
              is a "baseline" coverage data file that contains zero coverage for
              every instrumented line.  Combine this data file (using lcov -a)
              with coverage data files captured after a test run to ensure that
              the percentage of total lines covered is correct even when not all
              source code files were loaded during the test.

              Recommended procedure when capturing data for a test case:

              1. create baseline coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -i -d appdir -o app_base.info

              2. perform test
                     # appdir/test

              3. create test coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -d appdir -o app_test.info

              4. combine baseline and test coverage data
                     # lcov -a app_base.info -a app_test.info -o app_total.info


       -k subdirectory
       --kernel-directory subdirectory
              Capture kernel coverage data only from subdirectory.

              Use this option if you don't want to get coverage data for all of
              the kernel, but only for specific subdirectories. This option may
              be specified more than once.

              Note that you may need to specify the full path to the kernel
              subdirectory depending on the version of the kernel gcov support.

       -l tracefile
       --list tracefile
              List the contents of the tracefile.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       --list-full-path
       --no-list-full-path
              Specify whether to show full paths during list operation.

              Use --list-full-path to show full paths during list operation or
              --no-list-full-path to show shortened paths. Paths are shortened
              by default.

       --no-markers
              Use this option if you want to get coverage data without regard to
              exclusion markers in the source code file. See geninfo (1) for
              details on exclusion markers.

       --no-recursion
              Use this option if you want to get coverage data for the specified
              directory only without processing subdirectories.

       -o tracefile
       --output-file tracefile
              Write data to tracefile instead of stdout.

              Specify "-" as a filename to use the standard output.

              By convention, lcov-generated coverage data files are called
              "tracefiles" and should have the filename extension ".info".

       --path path
              Strip path from filenames when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to tell lcov to disregard the
              specified initial path component when matching between tracefile
              and diff filenames.

       -q
       --quiet
              Do not print progress messages.

              This option is implied when no output filename is specified to
              prevent progress messages to mess with coverage data which is also
              printed to the standard output.

       --rc keyword=value
              Override a configuration directive.

              Use this option to specify a keyword=value statement which
              overrides the corresponding configuration statement in the lcovrc
              configuration file. You can specify this option more than once to
              override multiple configuration statements.  See lcovrc(5) for a
              list of available keywords and their meaning.

       -r tracefile pattern
       --remove tracefile pattern
              Remove data from tracefile.

              Use this switch if you want to remove coverage data for a
              particular set of files from a tracefile. Additional command line
              parameters will be interpreted as shell wildcard patterns (note
              that they may need to be escaped accordingly to prevent the shell
              from expanding them first).  Every file entry in tracefile which
              matches at least one of those patterns will be removed.

              The result of the remove operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       --strip depth
              Strip path components when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to tell lcov to disregard the
              specified number of initial directories when matching tracefile
              and diff filenames.

       --summary tracefile
              Show summary coverage information for the specified tracefile.

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -t testname
       --test-name testname
              Specify test name to be stored in the tracefile.

              This name identifies a coverage data set when more than one data
              set is merged into a combined tracefile (see option -a).

              Valid test names can consist of letters, decimal digits and the
              underscore character ("_").

       --to-package package
              Store .da files for later processing.

              Use this option if you have separate machines for build and test
              and want to perform the .info file creation on the build machine.
              To do this, follow these steps:

              On the test machine:
                     - run the test
                     - run lcov -c [-d directory] --to-package file
                     - copy file to the build machine

              On the build machine:
                     - run lcov -c --from-package file [-o and other options]

              This works for both kernel and user space coverage data. Note that
              you might have to specify the path to the build directory using -b
              with either --to-package or --from-package. Note also that the
              package data must be converted to a .info file before recompiling
              the program or it will become invalid.

       -v
       --version
              Print version number, then exit.

       -z
       --zerocounters
              Reset all execution counts to zero.

              By default tries to reset kernel execution counts. Use the
              --directory option to reset all counters of a user space program.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.


FILES
       /etc/lcovrc
              The system-wide configuration file.

       ~/.lcovrc
              The per-user configuration file.


AUTHOR
       Peter Oberparleiter <Peter.Oberparleiter@de.ibm.com>


SEE ALSO
       lcovrc(5), genhtml(1), geninfo(1), genpng(1), gendesc(1), gcov(1)



2020-01-29                          LCOV 1.14                            lcov(1)