lcov

lcov(1)                          User Manuals                          lcov(1)



NAME
       lcov - a graphical GCOV front-end

SYNOPSIS
       lcov -c|--capture
            [-d|--directory directory] [-k|--kernel-directory directory]
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [-t|--test-name testname]
            [-b|--base-directory directory] [-i|--initial] [--gcov-tool tool]
            [--checksum] [--no-checksum] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [--compat-libtool] [--no-compat-libtool] [--ignore-errors errors]
            [--to-package package] [--from-package package] [-q|--quiet]
            [--no-markers] [--external] [--no-external]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]
            [--compat mode=on|off|auto]

       lcov -z|--zerocounters
            [-d|--directory directory] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov -l|--list tracefile
            [-q|--quiet] [--list-full-path] [--no-list-full-path]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -a|--add-tracefile tracefile
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -e|--extract tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -r|--remove tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --diff tracefile diff
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [--convert-filenames] [--strip depth] [--path path] [-q|--quiet]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --summary tracefile
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov [-h|--help] [-v|--version]


DESCRIPTION
       lcov is a graphical front-end for GCC's coverage testing tool gcov. It
       collects line, function and branch coverage data for multiple source
       files and creates HTML pages containing the source code annotated with
       coverage information.  It also adds overview pages for easy navigation
       within the file structure.

       Use lcov to collect coverage data and genhtml to create HTML pages.
       Coverage data can either be collected from the currently running Linux
       kernel or from a user space application. To do this, you have to
       complete the following preparation steps:

       For Linux kernel coverage:
              Follow the setup instructions for the gcov-kernel
              infrastructure: http://ltp.sourceforge.net/coverage/gcov.php


       For user space application coverage:
              Compile the application with GCC using the options
              "-fprofile-arcs" and "-ftest-coverage".

       Please note that this man page refers to the output format of lcov as
       ".info file" or "tracefile" and that the output of GCOV is called ".da
       file".

       Also note that when printing percentages, 0% and 100% are only printed
       when the values are exactly 0% and 100% respectively. Other values
       which would conventionally be rounded to 0% or 100% are instead printed
       as nearest non-boundary value. This behavior is in accordance with that
       of the gcov(1) tool.


OPTIONS
       -a tracefile
       --add-tracefile tracefile
              Add contents of tracefile.

              Specify several tracefiles using the -a switch to combine the
              coverage data contained in these files by adding up execution
              counts for matching test and filename combinations.

              The result of the add operation will be written to stdout or the
              tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.


       -b directory
       --base-directory directory
              Use directory as base directory for relative paths.

              Use this option to specify the base directory of a
              build-environment when lcov produces error messages like:

                     ERROR: could not read source file
                     /home/user/project/subdir1/subdir2/subdir1/subdir2/file.c

              In this example, use /home/user/project as base directory.

              This option is required when using lcov on projects built with
              libtool or similar build environments that work with a base
              directory, i.e. environments, where the current working
              directory when invoking the compiler is not the same directory
              in which the source code file is located.

              Note that this option will not work in environments where
              multiple base directories are used. In that case use
              configuration file setting geninfo_auto_base=1 (see lcovrc(5)).

       -c
       --capture
              Capture coverage data.

              By default captures the current kernel execution counts and
              writes the resulting coverage data to the standard output. Use
              the --directory option to capture counts for a user space
              program.

              The result of the capture operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       --checksum
       --no-checksum
              Specify whether to generate checksum data when writing
              tracefiles.

              Use --checksum to enable checksum generation or --no-checksum to
              disable it. Checksum generation is disabled by default.

              When checksum generation is enabled, a checksum will be
              generated for each source code line and stored along with the
              coverage data. This checksum will be used to prevent attempts to
              combine coverage data from different source code versions.

              If you don't work with different source code versions, disable
              this option to speed up coverage data processing and to reduce
              the size of tracefiles.

       --compat mode=value[,mode=value,...]
              Set compatibility mode.

              Use --compat to specify that lcov should enable one or more
              compatibility modes when capturing coverage data. You can
              provide a comma-separated list of mode=value pairs to specify
              the values for multiple modes.

              Valid values are:

              on
                     Enable compatibility mode.
              off
                     Disable compatibility mode.
              auto
                     Apply auto-detection to determine if compatibility mode
                     is required. Note that auto-detection is not available
                     for all compatibility modes.

              If no value is specified, 'on' is assumed as default value.

              Valid modes are:

              libtool
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using the libtool mechanism. See
                     also --compat-libtool.

                     The default value for this setting is 'on'.

              hammer
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using a version of GCC 3.3 that
                     contains a modification (hammer patch) of later GCC
                     versions. You can identify a modified GCC 3.3 by checking
                     the build directory of your project for files ending in
                     the extension '.bbg'. Unmodified versions of GCC 3.3 name
                     these files '.bb'.

                     The default value for this setting is 'auto'.

              split_crc
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using a version of GCC 4.6 that
                     contains a modification (split function checksums) of
                     later GCC versions. Typical error messages when running
                     lcov on coverage data produced by such GCC versions are
                     ┬┤out of memory' and 'reached unexpected end of file'.

                     The default value for this setting is 'auto'


       --compat-libtool
       --no-compat-libtool
              Specify whether to enable libtool compatibility mode.

              Use --compat-libtool to enable libtool compatibility mode or
              --no-compat-libtool to disable it. The libtool compatibility
              mode is enabled by default.

              When libtool compatibility mode is enabled, lcov will assume
              that the source code relating to a .da file located in a
              directory named ".libs" can be found in its parent directory.

              If you have directories named ".libs" in your build environment
              but don't use libtool, disable this option to prevent problems
              when capturing coverage data.

       --config-file config-file
              Specify a configuration file to use.

              When this option is specified, neither the system-wide
              configuration file /etc/lcovrc, nor the per-user configuration
              file ~/.lcovrc is read.

              This option may be useful when there is a need to run several
              instances of lcov with different configuration file options in
              parallel.

       --convert-filenames
              Convert filenames when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to rename the file names of
              processed data sets according to the data provided by the diff.

       --diff tracefile difffile
              Convert coverage data in tracefile using source code diff file
              difffile.

              Use this option if you want to merge coverage data from
              different source code levels of a program, e.g. when you have
              data taken from an older version and want to combine it with
              data from a more current version.  lcov will try to map source
              code lines between those versions and adjust the coverage data
              respectively.  difffile needs to be in unified format, i.e. it
              has to be created using the "-u" option of the diff tool.

              Note that lines which are not present in the old version will
              not be counted as instrumented, therefore tracefiles resulting
              from this operation should not be interpreted individually but
              together with other tracefiles taken from the newer version.
              Also keep in mind that converted coverage data should only be
              used for overview purposes as the process itself introduces a
              loss of accuracy.

              The result of the diff operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -d directory
       --directory directory
              Use .da files in directory instead of kernel.

              If you want to work on coverage data for a user space program,
              use this option to specify the location where the program was
              compiled (that's where the counter files ending with .da will be
              stored).

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

       --external
       --no-external
              Specify whether to capture coverage data for external source
              files.

              External source files are files which are not located in one of
              the directories specified by --directory or --base-directory.
              Use --external to include external source files while capturing
              coverage data or --no-external to ignore this data.

              Data for external source files is included by default.

       -e tracefile pattern
       --extract tracefile pattern
              Extract data from tracefile.

              Use this switch if you want to extract coverage data for only a
              particular set of files from a tracefile. Additional command
              line parameters will be interpreted as shell wildcard patterns
              (note that they may need to be escaped accordingly to prevent
              the shell from expanding them first).  Every file entry in
              tracefile which matches at least one of those patterns will be
              extracted.

              The result of the extract operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -f
       --follow
              Follow links when searching for .da files.

       --from-package package
              Use .da files in package instead of kernel or directory.

              Use this option if you have separate machines for build and test
              and want to perform the .info file creation on the build
              machine. See --to-package for more information.

       --gcov-tool tool
              Specify the location of the gcov tool.

       -h
       --help
              Print a short help text, then exit.

       --ignore-errors errors
              Specify a list of errors after which to continue processing.

              Use this option to specify a list of one or more classes of
              errors after which lcov should continue processing instead of
              aborting.

              errors can be a comma-separated list of the following keywords:

              gcov: the gcov tool returned with a non-zero return code.

              source: the source code file for a data set could not be found.

              graph: the graph file could not be found or is corrupted.

       -i
       --initial
              Capture initial zero coverage data.

              Run lcov with -c and this option on the directories containing
              .bb, .bbg or .gcno files before running any test case. The
              result is a "baseline" coverage data file that contains zero
              coverage for every instrumented line.  Combine this data file
              (using lcov -a) with coverage data files captured after a test
              run to ensure that the percentage of total lines covered is
              correct even when not all source code files were loaded during
              the test.

              Recommended procedure when capturing data for a test case:

              1. create baseline coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -i -d appdir -o app_base.info

              2. perform test
                     # appdir/test

              3. create test coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -d appdir -o app_test.info

              4. combine baseline and test coverage data
                     # lcov -a app_base.info -a app_test.info -o
                     app_total.info


       -k subdirectory
       --kernel-directory subdirectory
              Capture kernel coverage data only from subdirectory.

              Use this option if you don't want to get coverage data for all
              of the kernel, but only for specific subdirectories. This option
              may be specified more than once.

              Note that you may need to specify the full path to the kernel
              subdirectory depending on the version of the kernel gcov
              support.

       -l tracefile
       --list tracefile
              List the contents of the tracefile.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       --list-full-path
       --no-list-full-path
              Specify whether to show full paths during list operation.

              Use --list-full-path to show full paths during list operation or
              --no-list-full-path to show shortened paths. Paths are shortened
              by default.

       --no-markers
              Use this option if you want to get coverage data without regard
              to exclusion markers in the source code file. See geninfo (1)
              for details on exclusion markers.

       --no-recursion
              Use this option if you want to get coverage data for the
              specified directory only without processing subdirectories.

       -o tracefile
       --output-file tracefile
              Write data to tracefile instead of stdout.

              Specify "-" as a filename to use the standard output.

              By convention, lcov-generated coverage data files are called
              "tracefiles" and should have the filename extension ".info".

       --path path
              Strip path from filenames when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to tell lcov to disregard
              the specified initial path component when matching between
              tracefile and diff filenames.

       -q
       --quiet
              Do not print progress messages.

              This option is implied when no output filename is specified to
              prevent progress messages to mess with coverage data which is
              also printed to the standard output.

       --rc keyword=value
              Override a configuration directive.

              Use this option to specify a keyword=value statement which
              overrides the corresponding configuration statement in the
              lcovrc configuration file. You can specify this option more than
              once to override multiple configuration statements.  See
              lcovrc(5) for a list of available keywords and their meaning.

       -r tracefile pattern
       --remove tracefile pattern
              Remove data from tracefile.

              Use this switch if you want to remove coverage data for a
              particular set of files from a tracefile. Additional command
              line parameters will be interpreted as shell wildcard patterns
              (note that they may need to be escaped accordingly to prevent
              the shell from expanding them first).  Every file entry in
              tracefile which matches at least one of those patterns will be
              removed.

              The result of the remove operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       --strip depth
              Strip path components when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to tell lcov to disregard
              the specified number of initial directories when matching
              tracefile and diff filenames.

       --summary tracefile
              Show summary coverage information for the specified tracefile.

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -t testname
       --test-name testname
              Specify test name to be stored in the tracefile.

              This name identifies a coverage data set when more than one data
              set is merged into a combined tracefile (see option -a).

              Valid test names can consist of letters, decimal digits and the
              underscore character ("_").

       --to-package package
              Store .da files for later processing.

              Use this option if you have separate machines for build and test
              and want to perform the .info file creation on the build
              machine. To do this, follow these steps:

              On the test machine:
                     - run the test
                     - run lcov -c [-d directory] --to-package file
                     - copy file to the build machine

              On the build machine:
                     - run lcov -c --from-package file [-o and other options]

              This works for both kernel and user space coverage data. Note
              that you might have to specify the path to the build directory
              using -b with either --to-package or --from-package. Note also
              that the package data must be converted to a .info file before
              recompiling the program or it will become invalid.

       -v
       --version
              Print version number, then exit.

       -z
       --zerocounters
              Reset all execution counts to zero.

              By default tries to reset kernel execution counts. Use the
              --directory option to reset all counters of a user space
              program.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.


FILES
       /etc/lcovrc
              The system-wide configuration file.

       ~/.lcovrc
              The per-user configuration file.


AUTHOR
       Peter Oberparleiter <Peter.Oberparleiter@de.ibm.com>


SEE ALSO
       lcovrc(5), genhtml(1), geninfo(1), genpng(1), gendesc(1), gcov(1)



2016-12-19                         LCOV 1.13                           lcov(1)