ld86

ld86(1)                     General Commands Manual                    ld86(1)



NAME
       ld86 - Linker for as86(1)

SYNOPSIS
       ld86 [-03MNdimrstyz[-]] [-llib_extension] [-o outfile] [-Ccrtfile]
       [-Llibdir] [-Olibfile] [-Ttextaddr] [-Hheapsize] [-Ddataaddr] infile...


DESCRIPTION
       This linker understands only the object files produced by the as86
       assembler, it can link them into either an impure or a separate I&D
       executable.

       The linking defaults are everything off or none except for -0 and the
       output file is a.out.  There is not a standard library location defined
       in the linker.


OPTIONS
       -0     produce header with 16-bit magic

       -3     produce header with 32-bit magic

       -d     delete the header from the output file, used for MSDOS COM
              files. As a side effect this also includes -s as there's nowhere
              to put a symbol table.

       -Cx    add file libdir-from-search/crtx.o to list of files linked

       -D     data base address follows (in format suitable for strtoul)

       -H     the top of heap (initial stack) address (in format suitable for
              strtoul)

       -Lx    add dir name x to the head of the list of library dirs searched

       -M     print symbols linked on stdout

       -N     Create a native Linux OMAGIC output file. If the contents are
              i386 code the binary can be either linked by GCC or executed by
              linux. If the -z option is also included the linker can generate
              a QMAGIC executable.

       -Ox    add library or object file libdir-from-search/x to list of files
              linked

       -T     text base address follows (in format suitable for strtoul)

       -i     separate I&D output

       -lx    add library libdir-from-search/libx.a to list of files linked

       -m     print modules linked on stdout

       -o     output file name follows

       -s     strip symbols

       -r     Generate a relocatable object from one source object, if the
              linker is given the -N option also the output format will be the
              hosts native format if possible.

       -t     trace modules being looked at on stdout

       -y     Alter the symbol tables to add label 'extensions' so that labels
              with more than 8 characters can be stored in elks executables.

       -z     produce "unmapped zero page" or "QMAGIC" executables

       All the options not taking an argument may be turned off by following
       the option letter by a '-', as for cc1.

PREDEFINED LABELS
       The linker predefines several labels that can be imported into user
       programs.

       __etext
              Standard C variable for the end of the text segment.

       __edata
              Standard C variable for the end of the initilised data.

       __end  Standard C variable for the end of the bss area.

       __segoff
              The offset within the executable file between the start of the
              text segment and the start of the data segment in 16 byte
              'paragraphs'. Note this is zero for impure (tiny model)
              executables and is adjusted for executables that don't start at
              offset 0 within the segment.

       __segXDL
              The lowest address with data in segment 'X'. (eg __seg0DL is for
              segment zero or the text segment, __seg3DL is for the data
              segment) The value 'X' is a hex digit.

       __segXDH
              The top of segment 'X's data area.

       __segXCL
              The bottom of segment 'X's 'common data' or unitilised data
              area. Each segment has both an initilised and unitilised data
              area.

       __segXCH
              The top of segment 'X's common area.

       __segXSO
              This is the adjusted offset from segment 0 of the start of
              segment 'X' in 'paragraphs'.


HISTORY
       The 6809 version does not support -i.

       The previous versions of the linker could produce an 8086 executable
       with segments of a size >64k, now only i386 executables may have
       segments this large.


BUGS
       The linker cannot deal with reverse seeks caused by org instructions in
       the object file. Unlike previous versions the current one traps the
       error rather than trying to fill up the hard disk.

       The linker produces a broken a.out object file if given one input and
       the -r option this is so it is compatible with pre-dev86 versions.



                                   Apr, 1997                           ld86(1)