lilo.conf

LILO.CONF(5)                  File Formats Manual                 LILO.CONF(5)



NAME
       lilo.conf - configuration file for lilo

DESCRIPTION
       This file, by default /etc/lilo.conf, is read by the boot loader
       installer 'lilo' (see lilo(8)).

       It might look as follows:

              # /etc/lilo.conf
              #
              #  global options:
              boot=/dev/hda
              prompt
              timeout=150
              lba32
              compact
              vga=normal
              root=/dev/hda1
              read-only
              menu-title=" John's Computer "
              #
              ### bootable kernel images ###
              image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.29-1-i386
                   label=try
                   initrd=/boot/initrd.img-2.6.29-1-i386
              image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.33-1-i386
                   label=2.4.33
              image=/tamu/vmlinuz
                   label=tamu
                   initrd=/tamu/initrd.img
                   root=/dev/hdb2
                   vga=ask
              #
              ### other operating systems ###
              other=/dev/hda3
                   label=PCDOS
                   boot-as=0x80    # must be C:
              other=/dev/hdb1
                   label=WinXP
                   boot-as=0x80    # must be C:
              other=/dev/hdb5
                   label=oldDOS
                   loader=chain
                   table=/dev/hdb5

       This configuration file specifies that lilo uses the Master Boot Record
       on /dev/hda. (For a discussion of the various ways to use lilo, and the
       interaction with other operating systems, see user.tex from the lilo
       documentation.)

       When booting, the boot loader will issue its boot: prompt and wait for
       you to enter the label of the kernel (and any options) which you wish
       to boot. At any time you may hit [Tab] to see a list of kernel/other
       labels.  Alternately, if the menu boot loader is installed, a menu of
       boot options will be presented for your selection.  The title of this
       menu is overridden with the menu title specification in this
       configuration file.  If you enter nothing, then the default kernel
       image, the first mentioned, (/boot/zImage-1.5.99) will be booted after
       a timeout of 15 seconds (150 deciseconds).  There may be at least 16
       images mentioned in lilo.conf. (The exact number depends upon
       compilation options.)

       As can be seen above, a configuration file starts with a number of
       global options (the top 9 lines in the example), followed by
       descriptions of the options for the various images.  An option in an
       image description will override a global option.

       Comment lines may appear anywhere, and begin with the "#" character.


GLOBAL OPTIONS
       There are many possible keywords. The description below is almost
       literally from user.tex (just slightly abbreviated).

       backup=<backup-file>
              Specifies the location where a copy of any modified boot sector
              will be saved in a file. 'backup=' may specify this location in
              one of three ways: a directory where the default backup file
              'boot.NNNN' will be created; a file pathname template to which
              the '.NNNN' suffix will be added; or the full file pathname,
              which must include the correct '.NNNN' suffix.  All RAID
              installations should use only the first two alternatives, as
              multiple backups may be created.  The '.NNNN' suffix is the
              hexadecimal representation of the major and minor device numbers
              of the device or partition. If this option is not specified, the
              default name of boot sector backups is '/boot/boot.NNNN'. If a
              backup already exists, it will be preserved, rather than
              overwritten.  C.f., force-backup= below.

       bios-passes-dl=<option>
              The option is indicated as yes, no, or unknown.  If not
              specified, a value of "unknown" is assumed, unless additional
              information is available to the boot installer. When "no" is
              specified, it indicates that the BIOS is known not to pass the
              current boot device code to the boot loader in the DL register.
              Its only function at this point is experimental, as certain RAID
              installations may benefit from knowing that the BIOS is 100%
              reliable.  Its use should be considered experimental.

              N.B.:  This option may not be retained in releases beyond
              22.5.1, and may be specified on the command line with the '-Z'
              switch:  yes=1, no=0.

       bitmap=<bitmap-file>
              Specifies use of a 640x480x16 (VGA BIOS) or 640x480x256
              (VGA/VESA BIOS) bitmap file as the background on which a boot
              menu is displayed.  May not be used if 'message=' is specified.
              Use of this option will select a bitmap-capable boot loader,
              unless overridden with "install=" (see below).

              When a bitmap file is specified as a background screen during
              the boot process, the color selection and layout of the text
              which overlays the graphic image must be specified in one of two
              ways.

              One way is the use of header information in the bitmap image
              (*.bmp) file: From a text file with all the information about
              'bmp-colors', 'bmp-table' and 'bmp-timer' options together with
              the 'bitmap' option are stored in the special LILO  header of
              the bitmap image file by the lilo -E +command. Another way works
              without these special header information: All +the information
              about 'bmp-colors', 'bmp-table' and 'bmp-timer' options
              +together with the 'bitmap' option are stored in the
              configuration file.  +Any use of the 'bmp-' options within the
              configuration file overrides +the options stored in the bitmap
              file header. If lilo cannot find any of +the 'bmp-' options,
              then default values are used.

       bmp-colors=<fg>,<bg>,<sh>,<hfg>,<hbg>,<hsh>
              Specifies the decimal values of the colors to be used for the
              menu display on a 'bitmap=' background.  The list consists of 6
              entries, 3 for normal text followed by 3 for highlighted text.
              The order of each triple is: foreground color, background color,
              shadow color.  If background color is not specified,
              "transparent" is assumed.  If shadow color is not specified,
              then "none" is assumed.  The list entries are separated by
              commas, with no spaces.

       bmp-retain
              Option applies to all 'image=' and 'other=' sections.  (See
              COMMON OPTIONS, below.)

       bmp-table=<x>,<y>,<ncol>,<nrow>,<xsep>,<spill>
              Specifies the location and layout of the menu table.  <x>,<y>
              specify the starting x- and y-position of the upper left corner
              of the table in character coordinates: x in [1..80], y in
              [1..30]. <ncol> is the number of columns in the menu (1..5); and
              <nrow> is the number of rows (entries) in each column.  If more
              than one column is specified, then <xsep> is the number of
              character columns between the leftmost characters in each
              column: (18..40), and <spill> is the number of entries in one
              column which must be filled before entries spill into the next
              column. <spill> must be .le. <nrow>. If pixel addressing is
              used, instead of character addressing, then any of <x>, <y>, or
              <xsep> may be specified with a 'p' suffix on the decimal value.

       bmp-timer=<x>,<y>,<fg>,<bg>,<sh>
              Optional specification of the 'timeout=' countdown timer.
              <x>,<y> specifies the character (or pixel) coordinate of the
              location of the timer the same as 'bmp-table=' above; and the
              color triple specifies the character color attributes the same
              as 'bmp-colors=' above, with the exception that the background
              color must be specified.  If used to override the timer
              specification in a bitmap file, then the form 'bmp-timer = none'
              is acceptable.  This will disable the timer display entirely.

       boot=<boot-device>
              Sets the name of the device (e.g. a hard disk partition) that
              contains the boot sector. If this keyword is omitted, the boot
              sector is read from (and possibly written to) the device that is
              currently mounted as root.

              A raid installation is initiated by specifying a RAID1 device as
              the boot device; e.g., "boot=/dev/md0".  Note that LILO version
              22.0 and later operate differently from earlier versions with
              respect to the actual location of the boot records.

              On newer systems you need an unique ID for the boot device. If
              the boot sector should write to a partition you can use its UUID
              in the same manner is for the root options.

              If your boot device is a hard disk you need a special ID, which
              is supported by udev. You find the right ID in the directory
              /dev/disks/by-id, i. e.:

                  boot = /dev/disk/by-id/ata-SAMSUNG_SV1604N_S01FJ10X999999

       change-rules
              Defines boot-time changes to partition type numbers (`hiding').

              change-rules
                 reset
                 type=DOS12
                    normal=1
                    hidden=0x11
                 type=DOS16_small
                    normal=4
                    hidden=0x14
                 type=DOS16_big
                    normal=0x06
                    hidden=0x16

              The above excerpt from a configuration file specifies that all
              default change-rules are removed ("reset"), and the change-rules
              for three partition types are specified.  Without the reset, the
              three types specified would have been added to the existing
              default change-rules.  Normally, the default rules are
              sufficient.  The strings which define the partition types are
              used in a change section (see below), with the suffixes
              "_normal" or "_hidden" appended.  See section "Partition type
              change rules" of user.tex for more details.

       compact
              Tries to merge read requests for adjacent sectors into a single
              read request. This drastically reduces load time and keeps the
              map file smaller. Using `compact' is especially recommended when
              booting using a map file on a floppy disk.

       default=<name>
              Uses the specified image as the default boot image. If `default'
              is omitted, the image appearing first in the configuration file
              is used. See also, vmdefault below.

       delay=<tsecs>
              Specifies the number of tenths of a second the boot loader
              should wait before automatically booting a locked command line,
              a command line pre-stored by "lilo -R", or the default `image='
              or `other='.  When `delay' is non-zero, the boot loader will
              wait for an interrupt for the specified interval. If an
              interrupt is received, or is already waiting, the boot: prompt
              will be be issued, and no automatic boot will take place. The
              setting of CAPS LOCK or SCROLL LOCK, or any of the keys ALT,
              CTRL, or SHIFT, when held down, are taken as interrupts.

              This action is modified by specifying `prompt' (see below).

       disk=<device-name>
              Defines non-standard parameters for the specified disk.  See
              section "Disk geometry" of user.tex for details.  For versions
              of LILO prior to 22.5, the `bios=' parameter is quite useful for
              specifying how the BIOS has assigned device codes to your disks.
              For example,

                     disk=/dev/sda
                          bios=0x80
                     disk=/dev/hda
                          bios=0x81
                     disk=/dev/sdb
                          inaccessible

              would say that your SCSI disk is the first BIOS disk (0x80),
              that your (primary master) IDE disk is the second BIOS disk
              (0x81), and that your second SCSI disk (perhaps a USB device)
              receives no device code, and is therefore inaccessible at boot
              time.

              NOTE: Use of the 'bios=' option is largely obsolete beginning
              with LILO version 22.5, as the boot loader now identifies disks
              by 32-bit Volume-ID, and defers BIOS device code determination
              until boot time.

              Other options include the specification of disk geometry; e.g.,

                     disk=/dev/fd0
                          sectors=18
                          heads=2
                          cylinders=80

              probably only useful for floppy disks and loopback devices,
              because for hard disks the lba32 disk addressing option ignores
              disk geometry.

              Developers who have implemented a disk driver for a new block
              storage device will have to indicate to LILO the maximum number
              of partitions on the device.  This is in addition to making all
              of the necessary entries for the device in the "/dev" directory
              (with 'mknod').  The maximum number of partitions must be one of
              63 (like an IDE disk), 31 (uncommon), 15 (like SCSI disks --
              most common value), or 7 (like one array controller). An example
              specification would be:

                   disk=/dev/userd0
                        max-partitions=15

              In cases where there is no kernel partition information
              available, such as on loopback devices, the 'disk='
              specification may include paritition start information; viz.,

                     disk=/dev/loop0
                          bios=0x80              # use this BIOS code
                          max-partitions=7       # declare partitionable
                          paritition=/dev/loop1
                               start=63          # offset from sector 0
                          paritition=/dev/loop2
                               start=102400      # offset from sector 0


       disktab=<disktab-file>
              Specifies the name of the disk parameter table.  The map
              installer looks for /etc/disktab if `disktab' is omitted. The
              use of disktabs is discouraged.

       el-torito-bootable-CD
              Flag second stage loader to terminate disk emulation when
              booting from an El Torito Bootable CD. This option is used by
              the mkrescue utility when the "--iso" switch is specified.

       fix-table
              This allows lilo to adjust 3D addresses in partition tables.
              Each partition entry contains a 3D (cylinder/head/sector) and a
              linear address of the first and the last sector of the
              partition. If a partition is not track-aligned and if certain
              other operating systems (e.g. PC/MS-DOS) are using the same
              disk, they may change the 3D address. lilo can store its boot
              sector only on partitions where both address types correspond.
              lilo re-adjusts incorrect 3D start addresses if `fix-table' is
              set.

              WARNING: This does not guarantee that other operating systems
              may not attempt to reset the address later. It is also possible
              that this change has other, unexpected side-effects. The correct
              fix is to re-partition the drive with a program that does align
              partitions to tracks. Also, with some disks (e.g. some large
              EIDE disks with address translation enabled), under some
              circumstances, it may even be unavoidable to have conflicting
              partition table entries.

       force-backup=<backup-file>
              Operation is identical to backup= above, except an existing
              backup file is unconditionally overwritten if it exists.

       geometric
              Force disk addressing which is compatible with older versions of
              LILO.  Geometric addressing uses cylinder/head/sector addresses,
              and is limited to disk cylinders up to 1023.  If inaccessible
              cylinders are referenced, diagnostics will be issued at boot-
              install time, rather than boot-time.  With a newer BIOS, use of
              'lba32' is recommended.

       ignore-table
              tells lilo to ignore corrupt partition tables.

       install=<user-interface>
              Selects the user interface which will be seen at boot time.  One
              of the following three options may be specified:  text, menu, or
              bmp. The traditional LILO interface is `text'; but `menu' is now
              the default, unless the configuration file contains the
              `bitmap=' specification.  The text interface is strictly a
              command-line interface as though the console were a dumb
              terminal.  The menu interface is a text-based screen of the boot
              choices, with the option to enter additional command line
              parameters.  And the bmp interface is a menu presented against a
              graphic screen, specified as a 640x480 BitMaP file of 16 or 256
              colors.  (See the 'lilo -E' switch for editing options).

              (Prior to LILO version 22.3, `install=' specified the user
              interface as a file in the `/boot' directory.)

       large-memory
              Normally any initial ramdisk (initrd) loaded with a kernel is
              loaded as high in memory as possible, but never above 15Mb.
              This is due to a BIOS limitation on older systems.  On newer
              systems, this option enables using memory above 15Mb (up to a
              kernel imposed limit, around 768Mb) for passing the initrd to
              the kernel.  The presence of this option merely indicates that
              your system does not have the old BIOS limitation.

              This switch (or its absence) is not passed to the kernel, and
              does not in any way affect the amount of physical memory which
              it will use.  (See the kernel documentation for the kernel
              command line parameter "mem=" for limiting the memory used by
              the kernel.)

       lba32  Generate 32-bit Logical Block Addresses instead of
              cylinder/head/sector addresses. If the BIOS supports packet
              addressing, then packet calls will be used to access the disk.
              This allows booting from any partition on disks with more than
              1024 cylinders.  If the BIOS does not support packet addressing,
              then 'lba32' addresses are translated to cylinder/head/sector
              ('geometric'), just as for 'linear'.  All floppy disk references
              are retained in C:H:S form.  Use of 'lba32' is recommended on
              all post-1998 systems.  Beginning with LILO version 22, 'lba32'
              is the default disk addressing scheme.

       linear Generate 24-bit linear sector addresses instead of
              cylinder/head/sector (geometric) addresses. Linear addresses are
              translated at run time to geometric addresses, and are limited
              to cylinders <= 1023. When using `linear' with large disks,
              /sbin/lilo may generate references to inaccessible disk
              cylinders. 'lba32' avoids many of these pitfalls with its use of
              packet addressing, but requires a recent BIOS (post-1998).  The
              'linear' option is considered obsolete, and its use is strongly
              discouraged.

       lock   Enables automatic recording of boot command lines as the
              defaults for the following boots. This way, lilo "locks" on a
              choice until it is manually overridden.

       mandatory
              The per-image password option `mandatory' (see below) applies to
              all images.

       map=<map-file>
              Specifies the location of the map file. If `map' is omitted, the
              file /boot/map is used.

              On machines with a pre-1998 BIOS, the EDD bios extensions which
              are required to support "lba32" disk sector addressing may not
              be present. In this case, the boot-loader will fall back
              automatically to "geometric" addressing; this fall back
              situation, or the specific use of "geometric" or "linear"
              addressing, will require the map file to be located within the
              first 1024 cylinders of the disk drive. This BIOS limitation is
              not present on post-1998 systems, most of which support the
              newer EDD disk BIOS calls.

       menu-title=<title-string>
              Specifies the title line (up to 37 characters) for the boot
              menu. This title replaces the default "LILO Boot Menu" title
              string. If menu is not installed as the boot loader (see
              install= option), then this line has no effect.

       menu-scheme=<color-scheme>
              The default color scheme of the boot menu may be overridden on
              VGA displays using this option. (The color scheme of MDA
              displays is fixed.)  The general color-scheme string is of the
              form:

                   <text>:<highlight>:<border>:<title>

              where each entry is two characters which specify a foreground
              color and a background color. Only the first entry is required.
              The default highlight is the reverse of the text color; and the
              default border and title colors are the text color.  Colors are
              specified using the characters kbgcrmyw, for blacK, Blue, Green,
              Cyan, Red, Magenta, Yellow, and White: upper case for intense
              (fg only), lower case for dim.  Legal color-scheme strings would
              be

                  menu-scheme=Wm     intense white on magenta
                  menu-scheme=wr:bw:wr:Yr    the LILO default
                  menu-scheme=Yk:kw    bright yellow on black

              If menu is not installed as the boot loader, then this line has
              no effect.

       message=<message-file>
              specifies a file containing a message that is displayed before
              the boot prompt. No message is displayed while waiting for a
              shifting key after printing "LILO ". In the message, the FF
              character ([Ctrl L]) clears the local screen. This is
              undesirable when the menu boot loader is installed.  The size of
              the message file is limited to 65535 bytes. The map file has to
              be rebuilt if the message file is changed or moved.  'message='
              and 'bitmap=' are mutually exclusive.

       nodevcache
              (22.8) Disables pre-loading of the internal device cache. May be
              needed for Linux distributions which use non-standard device
              naming conventions; e.g., when the first IDE disk is not
              `/dev/hda'.

       nokbdefault=<name>
              (22.7.2) The named descriptor is taken to be the default boot
              image if no IBM-PC keyboard is present. If no serial interface
              ("serial=") is in use, then any "prompt" keyword and "timeout"
              value are bypassed, and default booting occurs as specified by
              "delay=".  The keyboard detection codes cannot detect the
              presence or absence of a newer USB keyboard.

       noraid Disables the automatic marking of disk volumes which are
              components of RAID arrays as inaccessible.  This allows the user
              to edit the disk= / inaccessible declarations into the
              configuration file himself.  Without such declarations,
              duplicate Volume IDs will be overwritten, leading to confusing
              situations at boot-time, and possible failure to boot.  The use
              of this keyword is generally not necessary.

       nowarn Disables warnings about possible future dangers.

       optional
              The per-image option `optional' (see below) applies to all
              images.

       password=<password>
              The per-image option `password=...' (see below) applies to all
              images. This option may prevent unattended booting, if the
              default image is `password=' protected at the default level
              `mandatory', which is a level higher than `restricted'.

       prompt Automatic booting (see `delay' above) will not take place unless
              a locked or pre-stored ("lilo -R") command line is present.
              Instead, the boot loader will issue the boot: prompt and wait
              for user input before proceeding (see timeout below).
              Unattended default image reboots are impossible if `prompt' is
              set and `timeout' is not, or the default image is password
              protected at a higher level than `restricted'.

       raid-extra-boot=<option>
              This option only has meaning for RAID1 installations.  The
              <option> may be specified as none, auto, mbr, mbr-only, or a
              comma-separated list of devices; e.g., "/dev/hda,/dev/hdc6".
              Starting with LILO version 22.0, the boot record is normally
              written to the first sector of the RAID1 partition.  On PARALLEL
              raid sets, no other boot records are needed.  The default action
              is auto, meaning, automatically generate auxiliary boot records
              as needed on SKEWED raid sets.  none means suppress generation
              of all auxiliary boot records.  mbr-only suppresses generation
              of a boot record on the raid device, and forces compatibility
              with versions of LILO earlier than version 22.0 by writing boot
              records to all Master Boot Records (MBRs) of all disks which
              have partitions in the raid set. mbr is like mbr-only except the
              boot record on the RAID partition is not suppressed.  Use of an
              explicit list of devices, forces writing of auxiliary boot
              records only on those devices enumerated, in addition to the
              boot record on the RAID1 device. Since the version 22 RAID1
              codes will never automatically write a boot record on the MBR of
              device 0x80, if such a boot record is desired, this is one way
              to have it written. Use of mbr is the other way to force writing
              to the MBR of device 0x80.

       restricted
              The per-image password option `restricted' (see below) applies
              to all images.

       serial=<parameters>
              enables control from a serial line. The specified serial port is
              initialized and the boot loader is accepting input from it and
              from the PC's keyboard. Sending a break on the serial line
              corresponds to pressing a shift key on the console in order to
              get the boot loader's attention.  All boot images should be
              password-protected if the serial access is less secure than
              access to the console, e.g. if the line is connected to a modem.
              The parameter string has the following syntax:

                  <port>[,<bps>[<parity>[<bits>]]]

              <port>:  the number of the serial port, zero-based. 0
              corresponds to COM1 alias /dev/ttyS0, etc. All four ports can be
              used (if present).

              <bps>:  the baud rate of the serial port. The following baud
              rates are supported: 110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400(default),
              4800, 9600, plus the extended rates 19200, 38400, and
              57600(56000).  115200 is allowed, but may not work with all COMx
              port hardware.

              <parity>:  the parity used on the serial line. The boot loader
              ignores input parity and strips the 8th bit. The following
              (upper or lower case) characters are used to describe the
              parity:  "n" for no parity, "e" for even parity and "o" for odd
              parity.

              <bits>:  the number of bits in a character. Only 7 and 8 bits
              are supported. Default is 8 if parity is "none", 7 if parity is
              "even" or "odd".

              If `serial' is set, the value of `delay' is automatically raised
              to 20.

              Example: "serial=0,2400n8" initializes COM1 with the default
              parameters.

       single-key
              This option specifies that boot images or 'other's are to be
              selected and launched with a single keystroke.  Selection is
              based upon the first character of each name, which must be
              unique.  This option should not be used with the menu or bitmap
              user interface ("install=").

       static-BIOS-codes
              Causes the operation of the boot installer and boot loader to
              bypass the use of Volume-ID information, and to revert to a mode
              of operation of versions of LILO from 22.4 backward.  With
              Volume-ID booting (22.5 and later), the BIOS codes of disks are
              determined at boot time, not install time; hence they may be
              switched around, either by adding or removing disk(s) from the
              hardware configuration, or by using a BIOS menu to select the
              boot device.

              With the use of this option, BIOS codes of disks MUST be
              correctly specified at install time; either guessed correctly by
              LILO (which often fails on mixed IDE/SCSI systems), or
              explicitly specified with 'disk=/dev/XXX bios=0xYY' statements.
              The use of this option precludes any activity which may switch
              around the BIOS codes assigned to particular disk devices, as
              noted above.

              In general, this option should never be used, except as a bug
              workaround.

       suppress-boot-time-BIOS-data
              This global option suppresses the boot-time real mode collection
              of BIOS data on systems which hang on certain BIOS calls.  It is
              equivalent to using the boot-time switch 'nobd'.

              This option defeats the disk volume recognition and BIOS device
              code detection features of LILO on systems with more than one
              disk. Thus the use of this option will produce a strong
              cautionary message, which cannot be suppressed.

       timeout=<tsecs>
              sets a timeout (in tenths of a second) for keyboard input at the
              boot: prompt.  "timeout" only has meaning if "prompt" is
              mentioned.  If no key is pressed for the specified time, the
              default image is automatically booted. The default timeout is
              infinite.

       unattended
              (22.6) Alters the operation of the "timeout" parameter in a
              manner which is useful on noisy serial lines.  Each typed (or
              noise) character restarts the "timeout" timer and a timeout will
              always boot the default descriptor, even if noise characters
              have appeared on the input line.

       verbose=<number>
              Turns on lots of progress reporting. Higher numbers give more
              verbose output. If  -v  is additionally specified on the lilo
              command line, the level is increased accordingly. The maximum
              verbosity level is 5.

       vmdefault=<name>
              The named boot image is used as the default boot if booting in
              "virtual" mode with a virtual monitor, such as VMware(tm).  Thus
              a real mode boot and a virtual mode boot can be made to have
              different default boot images.


       Additionally, the kernel configuration parameters append, ramdisk,
       read-only, read-write, root and vga can be set in the global options
       section. They are used as defaults if they aren't specified in the
       configuration sections of the respective kernel images.


PER-IMAGE SECTION
       A per-image section starts with either a line

           image=<pathname>

       to indicate a file or device containing the boot image of a Linux
       kernel, or a line

           other=<device>

       to indicate an arbitrary system to boot.

       In the former case, if an image line specifies booting from a device,
       then one has to indicate the range of sectors to be mapped using

           range=<start>-<end>
           range=<start>+<nsec>
           range=<sector>

       In the third case, 'nsec=1' is assumed.


KERNEL OPTIONS (image=)
       If the booted image is a Linux kernel, then one may pass command line
       parameters to this kernel.

       addappend=<string>
              (22.6) The kernel parameters from the specified string, are
              concatenated to the parameter(s) from an append= specification
              (see below).  The string must be enclosed within double quotes.
              Usually, the previous append= will specify parameters common to
              all kernels by appearing in the top, or global, section of the
              configuration file and addappend= will be used to add local
              parameter(s) to an individual image.  Addappend= may be used
              only once per "image=" section.

       append=<string>
              Appends the options specified to the parameter line passed to
              the kernel.  This is typically used to specify hardware
              parameters that can't be entirely auto-detected or for which
              probing may be dangerous. Multiple kernel parameters are
              separated by a blank space, and the string must be enclosed in
              double quotes.  A local append= appearing withing an image=
              section overrides any global append= appearing in the top
              section of the configuration file.  Append= may be used only
              once per "image=" section. To concatenate parameter strings, use
              "addappend=". Example:

                   append="mem=96M hd=576,64,32 console=ttyS1,9600"


       initrd=<name>
              Specifies the initial ramdisk image to be loaded with the
              kernel.  The image will contain modules needed at boot time,
              such as network and scsi drivers. See man pages for mkinitrd(8).

       literal=<string>
              Like `append', but removes all other options (e.g. setting of
              the root device). 'literal' overrides all 'append' and
              'addappend' options.  Because vital options can be removed
              unintentionally with `literal', this option cannot be set in the
              global options section.

       ramdisk=<size>
              This specifies the size (e.g., "4096k") of the optional RAM
              disk. A value of zero indicates that no RAM disk should be
              created. If this variable is omitted, the RAM disk size
              configured into the boot image is used.

       read-only
              This specifies that the root file system should be mounted read-
              only.  It may be specified as a global option.  Typically, the
              system startup procedure re-mounts the root file system read-
              write later (e.g. after fsck'ing it).

       read-write
              This specifies that the root file system should be mounted read-
              write.  It may be specified as a global option.

       root=<root-device>
              This specifies the device that should be mounted as root.  It
              may be specified as a global option.  If the special name
              current is used, the root device is set to the device on which
              the root file system is currently mounted. If the root has been
              changed with  -r , the respective device is used. If the
              variable `root' is omitted, the root device setting contained in
              the kernel image is used.  (And that is set at compile time
              using the ROOT_DEV variable in the kernel Makefile, and can
              later be changed with the rdev(8) program.)

              The root filesystem may also be specified by a LABEL= or UUID=
              directive, as in '/etc/fstab'.  In this case, the argument to
              root= must be enclosed in quotation marks, to avoid a syntax
              error on the second equal sign, e.g.:

                   root="LABEL=MyDisk"
                   root="UUID=5472fd8e-9089-4256-bcaa-ceab4f01a439"

              Note:  The command line root= parameter passed to the kernel
              will be: 'root=LABEL=MyDisk'; i.e., without the quotation marks.
              If the root= parameter is passed from the boot time boot:
              prompt, no quotes are used.  The quotes are only there to
              satisfy the requirements of the boot-installer parser, which
              treats an equal sign as an operator.  The kernel command line
              parser is very much simpler, and must not see any quotation
              marks.  Simply stated, only use the quotation marks within
              /etc/lilo.conf.

       vga=<mode>
              This specifies the VGA text mode that should be selected when
              booting.  It may be specified as a global option.  The following
              values are recognized (case is ignored):

              normal: select normal 80x25 text mode.

              extended (or ext): select 80x50 text mode.

              ask: stop and ask for user input (at boot time).

              <number>: use the corresponding text mode (can specify the
              number in decimal or in hex with the usual '0x' convention).  A
              list of available modes can be obtained by booting with vga=ask
              and pressing [Enter].

              If this variable is omitted, the VGA mode setting contained in
              the kernel image is used. (And that is set at compile time using
              the SVGA_MODE variable in the kernel Makefile, and can later be
              changed with the rdev(8) program.)


ALTERNATE SYSTEM (other=)
       Used to load systems other than Linux. The `other = <device>' specifies
       the boot sector of an alternate system contained on a device or disk
       partition; e.g., DOS on, say, `/dev/hda2', or a floppy on `/dev/fd0'.
       In the case of booting another system there are these options:

       loader=<chain-loader>
              This specifies the chain loader that should be used.  It may
              also be specified as a global option.  By default chain is used.
              This chain loader passes partition and drive information in the
              boot sector it loads only to DOS on FAT12 or FAT16, Windows on
              FAT16 or FAT32. (see also table=<letter> below).

       table=<device>
              This specifies the device that contains the partition table.
              The boot loader will pass default partition information to the
              booted operating system if this variable is omitted. (Some
              operating systems have other means to determine from which
              partition they have been booted.  E.g., MS-DOS usually stores
              the geometry of the boot disk or partition in its boot sector.)
              Note that /sbin/lilo must be re-run if a partition table mapped
              referenced with `table' is modified.

       table=<drive-letter>
              This option is obsolete. It were used in the special case with
              the obsolete os2_d chain loader.

       change This keyword starts a section which describes how primary
              partition IDs are changed, and how primary partitions are
              activated and deactivated.  If change is omitted, change rules
              are generated as though the automatic keyword were specified.
              The keyword change alone, without any rules following, will
              suppress automatic change-rules.  For example,

                 other=/dev/hda2
                    label=dos
                    table=/dev/hda
                    change
                      automatic
                      partition=/dev/hda1
                         set=DOS12_hidden
                         deactivate
                      partition=/dev/hda2
                         set=DOS16_big_normal
                         activate

              specifies that when primary partition /dev/hda2 is booted,
              automatic change-rules will be in effect; plus, partition 1, a
              DOS12 partition, will be set hidden, and deactivated.  In
              addition, partition 2, will be set normal, and activated.
              Activation sets the boot-flag in the partition table.  The
              automatic keyword may conflict with default change rules, so the
              set= lines above may be redundant.

       boot-as=<bios>
              This option (LILO version 22.5.1) indicates the BIOS device code
              which must be assigned to the specified drive in order for the
              "other=" operating system to boot.  If the chain loader detects
              that another BIOS device code is assigned to this disk, then it
              will dynamically swap the assigned device code with the
              specified device code.

              This option is easier to specify than "map-drive=" and more
              general than "master-boot" in that any device code may be
              specified.  Unlike "map-drive=", the determination whether to
              swap device codes is made at boot time, not install time.  This
              is advantageous on systems where the BIOS presents a boot menu
              of devices, and will map disks to devices in different ways,
              depending upon the BIOS boot selection.

              This option may be specified as a global option, in which case
              it applies to all "other=" sections unless overridden with a
              specific "master-boot" option.  If one of "boot-as=" or "master-
              boot" is specified as a global option, it is better to specify
              "master-boot" as the global option, as it will not interfere
              with floppy disk BIOS device codes; "boot-as=" is then used as a
              local option to override "master-boot" as necessary.

       master-boot
              This flag (LILO version 22.5) indicates a DOS/Windows or other
              system which will only boot from BIOS device 0x80, the "C:"
              drive, or BIOS device 0, the A: drive. When this flag is
              specified, if this drive is not assigned device code 0x80 or 0
              by the BIOS, then the chain loader will dynamically swap the
              device code actually assigned with device code 0x80 or 0 to make
              this drive appear to be the first hard or floppy drive, "C:" or
              "A:".

              This flag is easier to use than "map-drive=" (see below), and is
              preferred, if simple forcing of device code 0x80 is all that is
              required. It is also more general, in that the necessity to swap
              BIOS device codes is determined dynamically at boot-time, not at
              boot install-time, as with "map-drive=".  It is slightly more
              powerful than "boot-as=", in that the device code which is
              assigned, 0 or 0x80, is determined dynamically.

              This option may be specified as a global option, in which case
              it applies to all "other=" sections unless overridden with a
              specific "boot-as=" option.

       map-drive=<num>
              Maps BIOS calls for the specified drive to the device code
              specified on the next line as to=<num>.  This mapping is useful
              for booting operating systems, such as DOS, from the second hard
              drive.  The following, swaps the C: and D: drives,

                 map-drive=0x80
                    to=0x81
                 map-drive=0x81
                    to=0x80

              This option is largely rendered obsolete by "boot-as=",
              introduced with LILO version 22.5.

       unsafe Do not access the boot sector at map creation time. This
              disables some sanity checks, including a partition table check.
              If the boot sector is on a fixed-format floppy disk device,
              using UNSAFE avoids the need to put a readable disk into the
              drive when running the map installer. If the boot sector is on a
              hard drive, the BIOS device code of the drive will have to be
              specified explicitly with "disk=/dev/XXXX bios=0x8X
              inaccessible" in the configuration file.  `unsafe' and `table'
              (explicit or implicit) are mutually incompatible.


COMMON DESCRIPTOR OPTIONS (image= & other=)
       In both the image= and other= cases, the following options apply.

       bypass No password is required to boot this image. Used to indicate
              that the global password does not apply to this `image=' or
              `other='.  See 'password=' below.

       label=<name>
              The boot loader uses the main file name (without its path) of
              each image specification to identify that image.  A different
              name can be used by setting the variable `label'.

       alias=<name>
              A second name for the same entry can be used by specifying an
              alias.

       bmp-retain
              The bitmap graphic (install=bmp) is retained when control is
              passed to the loaded kernel image, or other= bootloader; i.e.,
              the screen is not blanked to alphanumeric mode before starting
              the kernel.  This feature is considered EXPERIMENTAL, for those
              users working with startup splash screens.

       fallback=<command-line>
              Specifies a string that is stored as the default command line if
              the current image is booted. This is useful when experimenting
              with kernels which may crash before allowing interaction with
              the system. If using the fallback option, the next reboot (e.g.
              triggered by a manual reset or by a watchdog timer) will load a
              different (supposedly stable) kernel. The command line stored by
              the fallback mechanism is cleared by removing or changing the
              default command line with the -R option, which should be a part
              of the boot startup scripts.

       lock   (See above.)

       optional
              Omit the image if it is not available at map creation time.  It
              may be specified as a global option.  This is useful to specify
              test kernels that are not always present.

       password=<password>
              Protect the `image=' or `other=' with a password (or
              passphrase).  It may be specified as a global option.  The
              interpretation of the `password=' setting is modified by the
              words `mandatory', `restricted', and `bypass' (see below).
              The password may be specified in the config-file (less secure)
              or entered at the time the boot loader is installed. To request
              interactive entry of the password, it should be specified:
              password="".  Passwords entered interactively are not required
              to be entered again if the boot installer is re-run. They are
              cached, in hashed form, in a companion file to the config-file,
              default name: /etc/lilo.conf.crc. If the config-file is updated,
              a warning message will be issued telling you to re-run lilo -p
              to force re-creation of the password cache file.

       mandatory
              A password is required to boot this image. This is the default.
              May be used on a single `image=' or `other=' to override a
              different global setting.

       nokbdisable
              (22.7.2) The specified descriptor is not bootable if the IBM-PC
              keyboard is not present.  This option is really only useful if
              the "serial=" boot terminal is in use.  With no keyboard (and no
              serial terminal) attached, selecting a boot descriptor other
              than the default is impossible.  See nokbdefault above.

       restricted
              A password is only required to boot the image if kernel
              parameters are specified on the command line (e.g. 'single').
              May be used on a single `image=' or `other=' to override a
              different global setting.

       vmwarn If booting under a virtual monitor such as VMware(tm), the image
              with this label will cause a cautionary warning to be issued at
              boot time, and user intervention will be required to continue or
              to abort the boot process.

       vmdisable
              If booting under a virtual monitor, the image with this label
              will not be displayed as a boot option.  The image is only
              bootable in real mode.  See vmdefault above.


SEE ALSO
       lilo(8), mkinitrd(8), mknod(1), mkrescue(8), rdev(8).




                                  April 2011                      LILO.CONF(5)