mailx

MAILX(1)                         User Commands                        MAILX(1)



NAME
       mailx - send and receive Internet mail

SYNOPSIS
       mailx [-BDdEFintv~] [-s subject] [-a attachment ] [-c cc-addr] [-b bcc-
              addr] [-r from-addr] [-h hops] [-A account]
              [-S variable[=value]] to-addr . . .
       mailx [-BDdeEHiInNRv~] [-T name] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] -f
              [name]
       mailx [-BDdeEinNRv~] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] [-u user]

DESCRIPTION
       Mailx is an intelligent mail processing system, which has a command
       syntax reminiscent of ed(1) with lines replaced by messages.  It is
       based on Berkeley Mail 8.1, is intended to provide the functionality of
       the POSIX mailx command, and offers extensions for MIME, IMAP, POP3,
       SMTP, and S/MIME.  Mailx provides enhanced features for interactive
       use, such as caching and disconnected operation for IMAP, message
       threading, scoring, and filtering.  It is also usable as a mail batch
       language, both for sending and receiving mail.

       The following options are accepted:

       -A name
              Executes an account command (see below) for name after the
              startup files have been read.

       -a file
              Attach the given file to the message.

       -B     Make standard input and standard output line-buffered.

       -b address
              Send blind carbon copies to list.  List should be a comma-
              separated list of names.

       -c address
              Send carbon copies to list of users.

       -D     Start in disconnected mode; see the description for the
              disconnected variable option.

       -d     Enables debugging messages and disables the actual delivery of
              messages.  Unlike -v, this option is intended for mailx
              development only.

       -e     Just check if mail is present in the system mailbox.  If yes,
              return an exit status of zero, else, a non-zero value.

       -E     If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or
              only message part, do not send it but discard it silently,
              effectively setting the skipemptybody variable at program
              startup.  This is useful for sending messages from scripts
              started by cron(8).

       -f [file]
              Read in the contents of the user's mbox (or the specified file)
              for processing; when mailx is quit, it writes undeleted messages
              back to this file.  The string file is handled as described for
              the folder command below.

       -F     Save the message to send in a file named after the local part of
              the first recipient's address.

       -H     Print header summaries for all messages and exit.

       -h hops
              Invoke sendmail with the specified hop count.  This option has
              no effect when SMTP is used for sending mail.

       -i     Ignore tty interrupt signals.  This is particularly useful when
              using mailx on noisy phone lines.

       -I     Shows the `Newsgroup:' or `Article-Id:' fields in the header
              summary.  Only applicable in combination with -f.

       -n     Inhibits reading /etc/mail.rc upon startup.  This option should
              be activated for mailx scripts that are invoked on more than one
              machine, because the contents of that file may differ between
              them.

       -N     Inhibits the initial display of message headers when reading
              mail or editing a mail folder.

       -q file
              Start the message with the contents of the specified file.  May
              be given in send mode only.

       -r address
              Sets the From address. Overrides any from variable specified in
              environment or startup files.  Tilde escapes are disabled.  The
              -r address options are passed to the mail transfer agent unless
              SMTP is used.  This option exists for compatibility only; it is
              recommended to set the from variable directly instead.

       -R     Opens any folders read-only.

       -s subject
              Specify subject on command line (only the first argument after
              the -s flag is used as a subject; be careful to quote subjects
              containing spaces).

       -S variable[=value]
              Sets the internal option variable and, in case of a string
              option, assigns value to it.

       -T name
              Writes the `Message-Id:' and `Article-Id:' header fields of each
              message read in the file name.  Implies -I.  Compressed files
              are handled as described for the folder command below.

       -t     The message to be sent is expected to contain a message header
              with `To:', `Cc:', or `Bcc:' fields giving its recipients.
              Recipients specified on the command line are ignored.

       -u user
              Reads the mailbox of the given user name.

       -v     Verbose mode.  The details of delivery are displayed on the
              user's terminal.

       -V     Print mailx's version and exit.

       -~     Enable tilde escapes even if not in interactive mode.

   Sending mail
       To send a message to one or more people, mailx can be invoked with
       arguments which are the names of people to whom the mail will be sent.
       The user is then expected to type in his message, followed by an
       `control-D' at the beginning of a line.  The section below Replying to
       or originating mail, describes some features of mailx available to help
       when composing letters.

   Reading mail
       In normal usage mailx is given no arguments and checks the user's mail
       out of the post office, then prints out a one line header of each
       message found.  The current message is initially the first message
       (numbered 1) and can be printed using the print command which can be
       abbreviated `p').  The user can move among the messages much as he
       moves between lines in ed(1), with the commands `+' and `-' moving
       backwards and forwards, and simple numbers.

   Disposing of mail
       After examining a message the user can delete `d') the message or reply
       `r') to it.  Deletion causes the mailx program to forget about the
       message.  This is not irreversible; the message can be undeleted `u')
       by giving its number, or the mailx session can be aborted by giving the
       exit `x') command.  Deleted messages will, however, usually disappear
       never to be seen again.

   Specifying messages
       Commands such as print and delete can be given a list of message
       numbers as arguments to apply to a number of messages at once.  Thus
       `delete 1 2' deletes messages 1 and 2, while `delete 1-5' deletes
       messages 1 through 5.  In sorted or threaded mode (see the sort and
       thread commands), `delete 1-5' deletes the messages that are located
       between (and including) messages 1 through 5 in the sorted/threaded
       order, as shown in the header summary.  The following special message
       names exist:

       :n     All new messages.

       :o     All old messages (any not in state read or new).

       :u     All unread messages.

       :d     All deleted messages (for the undelete command).

       :r     All read messages.

       :f     All `flagged' messages.

       :a     All answered messages (cf. the markanswered variable).

       :t     All messages marked as draft.

       :k     All `killed' messages.

       :j     All messages classified as junk.

       .      The current message.

       ;      The message that was previously the current message.

       ,      The parent message of the current message, that is the message
              with the Message-ID given in the `In-Reply-To:' field or the
              last entry of the `References:' field of the current message.

       -      The next previous undeleted message, or the next previous
              deleted message for the undelete command.  In sorted/threaded
              mode, the next previous such message in the sorted/threaded
              order.

       +      The next undeleted message, or the next deleted message for the
              undelete command.  In sorted/threaded mode, the next such
              message in the sorted/threaded order.

       ^      The first undeleted message, or the first deleted message for
              the undelete command.  In sorted/threaded mode, the first such
              message in the sorted/threaded order.

       $      The last message.  In sorted/threaded mode, the last message in
              the sorted/threaded order.

       &x     In threaded mode, selects the message addressed with x, where x
              is any other message specification, and all messages from the
              thread that begins at it.  Otherwise, it is identical to x.  If
              x is omitted, the thread beginning with the current message is
              selected.

       *      All messages.

       `      All messages that were included in the message list for the
              previous command.

       /string
              All messages that contain string in the subject field (case
              ignored).  See also the searchheaders variable.  If string is
              empty, the string from the previous specification of that type
              is used again.

       address
              All messages from address.  By default, this is a case-sensitive
              search for the complete email address.  If the allnet variable
              is set, only the local part of the addresses is evaluated for
              the comparison.  Otherwise if the showname variable is set, a
              case-sensitive search for the complete real name of a sender is
              performed.  The IMAP-style (from address) expression can be used
              instead if substring matches are desired.

       (criterion)
              All messages that satisfy the given IMAP-style SEARCH criterion.
              This addressing mode is available with all types of folders; for
              folders not located on IMAP servers, or for servers unable to
              execute the SEARCH command, mailx will perform the search
              locally.  Strings must be enclosed by double quotes `"' in their
              entirety if they contain white space or parentheses; within the
              quotes, only backslash `\' is recognized as an escape character.
              All string searches are case-insensitive.  When the description
              indicates that the `envelope' representation of an address field
              is used, this means that the search string is checked against
              both a list constructed as

              ("real name" "source-route" "local-part" "domain-part")

              for each address, and the addresses without real names from the
              respective header field.  Criteria can be nested using
              parentheses.

       (criterion1 criterion2 ... criterionN)
              All messages that satisfy all of the given criteria.

       (or criterion1 criterion2)
              All messages that satisfy either criterion1 or criterion2, or
              both.  To connect more than two criteria using `or', (or)
              specifications have to be nested using additional parentheses,
              as with `(or a (or b c))'; `(or a b c)' means ((a or b) and c).
              For a simple `or' operation of independent criteria on the
              lowest nesting level, it is possible to achieve similar effects
              by using three separate criteria, as with `(a) (b) (c)'.

       (not criterion)
              All messages that do not satisfy criterion.

       (bcc string)
              All messages that contain string in the `envelope'
              representation of the Bcc: field.

       (cc string)
              All messages that contain string in the `envelope'
              representation of the Cc: field.

       (from string)
              All messages that contain string in the `envelope'
              representation of the From: field.

       (subject string)
              All messages that contain string in the Subject: field.

       (to string)
              All messages that contain string in the `envelope'
              representation of the To: field.

       (header name string)
              All messages that contain string in the specified Name: field.

       (body string)
              All messages that contain string in their body.

       (text string)
              All messages that contain string in their header or body.

       (larger size)
              All messages that are larger than size (in bytes).

       (smaller size)
              All messages that are smaller than size (in bytes).

       (before date)
              All messages that were received before date; date must be in the
              form d[d]-mon-yyyy, where d[d] is the day of the month as one or
              two digits, mon is the name of the month—one of `Jan', `Feb',
              `Mar', `Apr', `May', `Jun', `Jul', `Aug', `Sep', `Oct', `Nov',
              or `Dec', and yyyy is the year as four digits; e.g.
              "30-Aug-2004".

       (on date)
              All messages that were received on the specified date.

       (since date)
              All messages that were received since the specified date.

       (sentbefore date)
              All messages that were sent on the specified date.

       (senton date)
              All messages that were sent on the specified date.

       (sentsince date)
              All messages that were sent since the specified date.

       ()     The same criterion as for the previous search.  This
              specification cannot be used as part of another criterion.  If
              the previous command line contained more than one independent
              criterion, the last of those criteria is used.

       A practical method to read a set of messages is to issue a from command
       with the search criteria first to check for appropriate messages, and
       to read each single message then by typing ``' repeatedly.

   Replying to or originating mail
       The reply command can be used to set up a response to a message,
       sending it back to the person who it was from.  Text the user types in
       then, up to an end-of-file, defines the contents of the message.  While
       the user is composing a message, mailx treats lines beginning with the
       character `~' specially.  For instance, typing `~m' (alone on a line)
       will place a copy of the current message into the response right
       shifting it by a tabstop (see indentprefix variable, below).  Other
       escapes will set up subject fields, add and delete recipients to the
       message, attach files to it and allow the user to escape to an editor
       to revise the message or to a shell to run some commands.  (These
       options are given in the summary below.)

   Ending a mail processing session
       The user can end a mailx session with the quit (`q') command.  Messages
       which have been examined go to the user's mbox file unless they have
       been deleted in which case they are discarded.  Unexamined messages go
       back to the post office.  (See the -f option above).

   Personal and systemwide distribution lists
       It is also possible to create a personal distribution lists so that,
       for instance, the user can send mail to `cohorts' and have it go to a
       group of people.  Such lists can be defined by placing a line like

               alias cohorts bill ozalp jkf mark kridle@ucbcory

       in the file .mailrc in the user's home directory.  The current list of
       such aliases can be displayed with the alias command in mailx.  System
       wide distribution lists can be created by editing /etc/aliases, see
       aliases(5) and sendmail(8); these are kept in a different syntax.  In
       mail the user sends, personal aliases will be expanded in mail sent to
       others so that they will be able to reply to the recipients.  System
       wide aliases are not expanded when the mail is sent, but any reply
       returned to the machine will have the system wide alias expanded as all
       mail goes through sendmail.

   Recipient address specifications
       When an address is used to name a recipient (in any of To, Cc, or Bcc),
       names of local mail folders and pipes to external commands can also be
       specified; the message text is then written to them.  The rules are:
       Any name which starts with a `|' character specifies a pipe, the
       command string following the `|' is executed and the message is sent to
       its standard input; any other name which contains a `@' character is
       treated as a mail address; any other name which starts with a `+'
       character specifies a folder name; any other name which contains a `/'
       character but no `!'  or `%' character before also specifies a folder
       name; what remains is treated as a mail address.  Compressed folders
       are handled as described for the folder command below.

   Network mail (Internet / ARPA, UUCP, Berknet)
       See mailaddr(7) for a description of network addresses.  Mailx has a
       number of options which can be set in the .mailrc file to alter its
       behavior; thus `set askcc' enables the askcc feature.  (These options
       are summarized below).

   MIME types
       For any outgoing attachment, mailx tries to determine the content type.
       It does this by reading MIME type files whose lines have the following
       syntax:

               type/subtype      extension [extension . . .]

       where type/subtype are strings describing the file contents, and
       extension is the part of a filename starting after the last dot.  Any
       line not immediately beginning with an ASCII alphabetical character is
       ignored by mailx.  If there is a match with the extension of the file
       to attach, the given type/subtype pair is used.  Otherwise, or if the
       filename has no extension, the content types text/plain or
       application/octet-stream are used, the first for text or international
       text files, the second for any file that contains formatting characters
       other than newlines and horizontal tabulators.

   Character sets
       Mailx normally detects the character set of the terminal using the
       LC_CTYPE locale setting.  If the locale cannot be used appropriately,
       the ttycharset variable should be set to provide an explicit value.
       When reading messages, their text is converted to the terminal
       character set if possible.  Unprintable characters and illegal byte
       sequences are detected and replaced by Unicode substitute characters or
       question marks unless the print-all-chars is set at initialization
       time.

       The character set for outgoing messages is not necessarily the same as
       the one used on the terminal.  If an outgoing text message contains
       characters not representable in US-ASCII, the character set being used
       must be declared within its header.  Permissible values can be declared
       using the sendcharsets variable, separated by commas; mailx tries each
       of the values in order and uses the first appropriate one.  If the
       message contains characters that cannot be represented in any of the
       given character sets, the message will not be sent, and its text will
       be saved to the `dead.letter' file.  Messages that contain NUL bytes
       are not converted.

       Outgoing attachments are converted if they are plain text.  If the
       sendcharsets variable contains more than one character set name, the ~@
       tilde escape will ask for the character sets for individual attachments
       if it is invoked without arguments.

       Best results are usually achieved when mailx is run in a UTF-8 locale
       on a UTF-8 capable terminal.  In this setup, characters from various
       countries can be displayed, while it is still possible to use more
       simple character sets for sending to retain maximum compatibility with
       older mail clients.

   Commands
       Each command is typed on a line by itself, and may take arguments
       following the command word.  The command need not be typed in its
       entirety – the first command which matches the typed prefix is used.
       For commands which take message lists as arguments, if no message list
       is given, then the next message forward which satisfies the command's
       requirements is used.  If there are no messages forward of the current
       message, the search proceeds backwards, and if there are no good
       messages at all, mailx types `applicable messages' and aborts the
       command.  If the command begins with a # sign, the line is ignored.

       The arguments to commands can be quoted, using the following methods:

       ·      An argument can be enclosed between paired double-quotes "" or
              single-quotes ''; any white space, shell word expansion, or
              backslash characters within the quotes are treated literally as
              part of the argument.  A double-quote will be treated literally
              within single-quotes and vice versa. These special properties of
              the quote marks occur only when they are paired at the beginning
              and end of the argument.

       ·      A backslash outside of the enclosing quotes is discarded and the
              following character is treated literally as part of the
              argument.

       ·      An unquoted backslash at the end of a command line is discarded
              and the next line continues the command.

       Filenames, where expected, are subjected to the following
       transformations, in sequence:

       ·      If the filename begins with an unquoted plus sign, and the
              folder variable is defined, the plus sign will be replaced by
              the value of the folder variable followed by a slash. If the
              folder variable is unset or is set to null, the filename will be
              unchanged.

       ·      Shell word expansions are applied to the filename.  If more than
              a single pathname results from this expansion and the command is
              expecting one file, an error results.

       The following commands are provided:

       -      Print out the preceding message.  If given a numeric argument n,
              goes to the n'th previous message and prints it.

       ?      Prints a brief summary of commands.

       !      Executes the shell (see sh(1) and csh(1)) command which follows.

       |      A synonym for the pipe command.

       account
              (ac) Creates, selects or lists an email account.  An account is
              formed by a group of commands, primarily of those to set
              variables.  With two arguments, of which the second is a `{',
              the first argument gives an account name, and the following
              lines create a group of commands for that account until a line
              containing a single `}' appears.  With one argument, the
              previously created group of commands for the account name is
              executed, and a folder command is executed for the system
              mailbox or inbox of that account.  Without arguments, the list
              of accounts and their contents are printed.  As an example,

                  account myisp {
                      set folder=imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example
                      set record=+Sent
                      set from="myname@myisp.example (My Name)"
                      set smtp=smtp.myisp.example
                  }

              creates an account named `myisp' which can later be selected by
              specifying `account myisp'.

       alias  (a) With no arguments, prints out all currently-defined aliases.
              With one argument, prints out that alias.  With more than one
              argument, creates a new alias or changes an old one.

       alternates
              (alt) The alternates command is useful if the user has accounts
              on several machines.  It can be used to inform mailx that the
              listed addresses all belong to the invoking user.  When he
              replies to messages, mailx will not send a copy of the message
              to any of the addresses listed on the alternates list.  If the
              alternates command is given with no argument, the current set of
              alternate names is displayed.

       answered
              (ans) Takes a message list and marks each message as a having
              been answered.  This mark has no technical meaning in the mail
              system; it just causes messages to be marked in the header
              summary, and makes them specially addressable.

       cache  Only applicable to cached IMAP mailboxes; takes a message list
              and reads the specified messages into the IMAP cache.

       call   Calls a macro (see the define command).

       cd     Same as chdir.

       certsave
              Only applicable to S/MIME signed messages.  Takes a message list
              and a file name and saves the certificates contained within the
              message signatures to the named file in both human-readable and
              PEM format.  The certificates can later be used to send
              encrypted messages to the messages' originators by setting the
              smime-encrypt-user@host variable.

       chdir  (ch) Changes the user's working directory to that specified, if
              given.  If no directory is given, then changes to the user's
              login directory.

       classify
              (cl) Takes a list of messages and examines their contents for
              characteristics of junk mail using Bayesian filtering.  Messages
              considered to be junk are then marked as such.  The junk mail
              database is not changed.

       collapse
              (coll) Only applicable to threaded mode.  Takes a message list
              and makes all replies to these messages invisible in header
              summaries, unless they are in state `new'.

       connect
              (conn) If operating in disconnected mode on an IMAP mailbox,
              switch to online mode and connect to the mail server while
              retaining the mailbox status.  See the description of the
              disconnected variable for more information.

       copy   (c) The copy command does the same thing that save does, except
              that it does not mark the messages it is used on for deletion
              when the user quits.  Compressed files and IMAP mailboxes are
              handled as described for the folder command.

       Copy   (C) Similar to copy, but saves the messages in a file named
              after the local part of the sender address of the first message.

       decrypt
              (dec) For unencrypted messages, this command is identical to
              copy.  Encrypted messages are first decrypted, if possible, and
              then copied.

       Decrypt
              (Dec) Similar to decrypt, but saves the messages in a file named
              after the local part of the sender address of the first message.

       define (def) Defines a macro.  A macro definition is a sequence of
              commands in the following form:

                  define name {
                      command1
                      command2
                      ...
                      commandN
                  }

              Once defined, a macro can be explicitly invoked using the call
              command, or can be implicitly invoked by setting the folder-hook
              or folder-hook-fullname variables.

       defines
              Prints the currently defined macros including their contents.

       delete (d) Takes a list of messages as argument and marks them all as
              deleted.  Deleted messages will not be saved in mbox, nor will
              they be available for most other commands.

       discard
              Same as ignore.

       disconnect
              (disco) If operating in online mode on an IMAP mailbox, switch
              to disconnected mode while retaining the mailbox status.  See
              the description of the disconnected variable for more
              information.  A list of messages may optionally be given as
              argument; the respective messages are then read into the cache
              before the connection is closed.  Thus `disco *' makes the
              entire current mailbox available for disconnected use.

       dp or dt
              Deletes the current message and prints the next message.  If
              there is no next message, mailx says `at EOF'.

       draft  Takes a message list and marks each message as a draft.  This
              mark has no technical meaning in the mail system; it just causes
              messages to be marked in the header summary, and makes them
              specially addressable.

       echo   Echoes its arguments, resolving special names as documented for
              the folder command.  The escape sequences `\a', `\b', `\c',
              `\f', `\n', `\r', `\t', `\v', `\\', and `\0num' are interpreted
              as with the echo(1) command.

       edit   (e) Takes a list of messages and points the text editor at each
              one in turn.  Modified contents are discarded unless the
              writebackedited variable is set.

       else   Marks the end of the then-part of an if statement and the
              beginning of the part to take effect if the condition of the if
              statement is false.

       endif  Marks the end of an if statement.

       exit   (ex or x) Effects an immediate return to the Shell without
              modifying the user's system mailbox, his mbox file, or his edit
              file in -f.

       file   (fi) The same as folder.

       flag   (fl) Takes a message list and marks the messages as `flagged'
              for urgent/special attention.  This mark has no technical
              meaning in the mail system; it just causes messages to be
              highlighted in the header summary, and makes them specially
              addressable.

       folders
              With no arguments, list the names of the folders in the folder
              directory.  With an existing folder as an argument, lists then
              names of folders below the named folder; e.g. the command
              `folders @' lists the folders on the base level of the current
              IMAP server.  See also the imap-list-depth variable.

       folder (fold) The folder command switches to a new mail file or folder.
              With no arguments, it tells the user which file he is currently
              reading.  If an argument is given, it will write out changes
              (such as deletions) the user has made in the current file and
              read in the new file.  Some special conventions are recognized
              for the name.  # means the previous file, % means the invoking
              user's system mailbox, %user means user's system mailbox, &
              means the invoking user's mbox file, and +file means a file in
              the folder directory.  %:filespec expands to the same value as
              filespec, but the file is handled as a system mailbox e. g. by
              the mbox and save commands.  If the name matches one of the
              strings defined with the shortcut command, it is replaced by its
              long form and expanded.  If the name ends with .gz or .bz2, it
              is treated as compressed with gzip(1) or bzip2(1), respectively.
              Likewise, if name does not exist, but either name.gz or name.bz2
              exists, the compressed file is used.  If name refers to a
              directory with the subdirectories `tmp', `new', and `cur', it is
              treated as a folder in maildir format.  A name of the form

                     protocol://[user@]host[:port][/file]

              is taken as an Internet mailbox specification.  The supported
              protocols are currently imap (IMAP v4r1), imaps (IMAP with
              SSL/TLS encryption), pop3 (POP3), and pop3s (POP3 with SSL/TLS
              encryption).  If user contains special characters, in particular
              `/' or `%', they must be escaped in URL notation, as `%2F' or
              `%25'.  The optional file part applies to IMAP only; if it is
              omitted, the default `INBOX' is used.  If mailx is connected to
              an IMAP server, a name of the form @mailbox refers to the
              mailbox on that server.  If the `folder' variable refers to an
              IMAP account, the special name `%' selects the `INBOX' on that
              account.

       Followup
              (F) Similar to Respond, but saves the message in a file named
              after the local part of the first recipient's address.

       followup
              (fo) Similar to respond, but saves the message in a file named
              after the local part of the first recipient's address.

       followupall
              Similar to followup, but responds to all recipients regardless
              of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       followupsender
              Similar to Followup, but responds to the sender only regardless
              of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       forward
              (fwd) Takes a message and the address of a recipient and
              forwards the message to him.  The text of the original message
              is included in the new one, with the value of the fwdheading
              variable printed before.  The fwdignore and fwdretain commands
              specify which header fields are included in the new message.
              Only the first part of a multipart message is included unless
              the forward-as-attachment option is set.

       Forward
              (Fwd) Similar to forward, but saves the message in a file named
              after the local part of the recipient's address.

       from   (f) Takes a list of messages and prints their message headers,
              piped through the pager if the output does not fit on the
              screen.

       fwdignore
              Specifies which header fields are to be ignored with the forward
              command.  This command has no effect when the forward-as-
              attachment option is set.

       fwdretain
              Specifies which header fields are to be retained with the
              forward command.  fwdretain overrides fwdignore.  This command
              has no effect when the forward-as-attachment option is set.

       good   (go) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as not being
              junk mail.  Data from these messages is then inserted into the
              junk mail database for future classification.

       headers
              (h) Lists the current range of headers, which is an 18-message
              group.  If a `+' argument is given, then the next 18-message
              group is printed, and if a `-' argument is given, the previous
              18-message group is printed.

       help   A synonym for ?.

       hold   (ho, also preserve) Takes a message list and marks each message
              therein to be saved in the user's system mailbox instead of in
              mbox.  Does not override the delete command.  mailx deviates
              from the POSIX standard with this command, as a `next' command
              issued after `hold' will display the following message, not the
              current one.

       if     Commands in mailx's startup files can be executed conditionally
              depending on whether the user is sending or receiving mail with
              the if command.  For example:

                      if receive
                              commands . . .
                      endif

              An else form is also available:

                      if receive
                              commands . . .
                      else
                              commands . . .
                      endif

              Note that the only allowed conditions are receive, send, and
              term (execute command if standard input is a tty).

       ignore Add the list of header fields named to the ignored list.  Header
              fields in the ignore list are not printed on the terminal when a
              message is printed.  This command is very handy for suppression
              of certain machine-generated header fields.  The Type and Print
              commands can be used to print a message in its entirety,
              including ignored fields.  If ignore is executed with no
              arguments, it lists the current set of ignored fields.

       imap   Sends command strings directly to the current IMAP server.
              Mailx operates always in IMAP selected state on the current
              mailbox; commands that change this will produce undesirable
              results and should be avoided.  Useful IMAP commands are:

              create Takes the name of an IMAP mailbox as an argument and
                     creates it.

              getquotaroot
                     Takes the name of an IMAP mailbox as an argument and
                     prints the quotas that apply to the mailbox.  Not all
                     IMAP servers support this command.

              namespace
                     Takes no arguments and prints the Personal Namespaces,
                     the Other User's Namespaces, and the Shared Namespaces.
                     Each namespace type is printed in parentheses; if there
                     are multiple namespaces of the same type, inner
                     parentheses separate them.  For each namespace, a
                     namespace prefix and a hierarchy separator is listed.
                     Not all IMAP servers support this command.

       inc    Same as newmail.

       junk   (j) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as junk mail.
              Data from these messages is then inserted into the junk mail
              database for future classification.

       kill   (k) Takes a list of messages and `kills' them.  Killed messages
              are not printed in header summaries, and are ignored by the next
              command.  The kill command also sets the score of the messages
              to negative infinity, so that subsequent score commands will not
              unkill them again.  Killing is only effective for the current
              session on a folder; when it is quit, all messages are
              automatically unkilled.

       list   Prints the names of all available commands.

       Mail   (M) Similar to mail, but saves the message in a file named after
              the local part of the first recipient's address.

       mail   (m) Takes as argument login names and distribution group names
              and sends mail to those people.

       mbox   Indicate that a list of messages be sent to mbox in the user's
              home directory when mailx is quit.  This is the default action
              for messages if unless the hold option is set.  mailx deviates
              from the POSIX standard with this command, as a `next' command
              issued after `mbox' will display the following message, not the
              current one.

       move   (mv) Acts like copy, but marks the messages for deletion if they
              were transferred successfully.

       Move   (Mv) Similar to move, but moves the messages to a file named
              after the local part of the sender address of the first message.

       newmail
              Checks for new mail in the current folder without committing any
              changes before.  If new mail is present, a message is printed.
              If the header variable is set, the headers of each new message
              are also printed.

       next   (n) like + or CR) Goes to the next message in sequence and types
              it.  With an argument list, types the next matching message.

       New    Same as unread.

       new    Same as unread.

       online Same as connect.

       noop   If the current folder is located on an IMAP or POP3 server, a
              NOOP command is sent.  Otherwise, no operation is performed.

       Pipe   (Pi) Like pipe but also pipes ignored header fields and all
              parts of MIME multipart/alternative messages.

       pipe   (pi) Takes a message list and a shell command and pipes the
              messages through the command.  Without an argument, the current
              message is piped through the command given by the cmd variable.
              If the  page variable is set, every message is followed by a
              formfeed character.

       preserve
              (pre) A synonym for hold.

       Print  (P) Like print but also prints out ignored header fields and all
              parts of MIME multipart/alternative messages.  See also print,
              ignore, and retain.

       print  (p) Takes a message list and types out each message on the
              user's terminal.  If the message is a MIME multipart message,
              all parts with a content type of `text' or `message' are shown,
              the other are hidden except for their headers.  Messages are
              decrypted and converted to the terminal character set if
              necessary.

       probability
              (prob) For each word given as argument, the contents of its junk
              mail database entry are printed.

       quit   (q) Terminates the session, saving all undeleted, unsaved
              messages in the user's mbox file in his login directory,
              preserving all messages marked with hold or preserve or never
              referenced in his system mailbox, and removing all other
              messages from his system mailbox.  If new mail has arrived
              during the session, the message `You have new mail' is given.
              If given while editing a mailbox file with the -f flag, then the
              edit file is rewritten.  A return to the Shell is effected,
              unless the rewrite of edit file fails, in which case the user
              can escape with the exit command.

       redirect
              (red) Same as resend.

       Redirect
              (Red) Same as Resend.

       remove (rem) Removes the named folders.  The user is asked for
              confirmation in interactive mode.

       rename (ren) Takes the name of an existing folder and the name for the
              new folder and renames the first to the second one.  Both
              folders must be of the same type and must be located on the
              current server for IMAP.

       Reply  (R) Reply to originator.  Does not reply to other recipients of
              the original message.

       reply  (r) Takes a message list and sends mail to the sender and all
              recipients of the specified message.  The default message must
              not be deleted.

       replyall
              Similar to reply, but responds to all recipients regardless of
              the flipr and Replyall variables.

       replysender
              Similar to Reply, but responds to the sender only regardless of
              the flipr and Replyall variables.

       Resend Like resend, but does not add any header lines.  This is not a
              way to hide the sender's identity, but useful for sending a
              message again to the same recipients.

       resend Takes a list of messages and a user name and sends each message
              to the named user.  `Resent-From:' and related header fields are
              prepended to the new copy of the message.

       Respond
              Same as Reply.

       respond
              Same as reply.

       respondall
              Same as replyall.

       respondsender
              Same as replysender.

       retain Add the list of header fields named to the retained list.  Only
              the header fields in the retain list are shown on the terminal
              when a message is printed.  All other header fields are
              suppressed.  The Type and Print commands can be used to print a
              message in its entirety.  If retain is executed with no
              arguments, it lists the current set of retained fields.

       Save   (S) Similar to save, but saves the messages in a file named
              after the local part of the sender of the first message instead
              of taking a filename argument.

       save   (s) Takes a message list and a filename and appends each message
              in turn to the end of the file.  If no filename is given, the
              mbox file is used.  The filename in quotes, followed by the line
              count and character count is echoed on the user's terminal.  If
              editing a system mailbox, the messages are marked for deletion.
              Compressed files and IMAP mailboxes are handled as described for
              the -f command line option above.

       savediscard
              Same as saveignore.

       saveignore
              Saveignore is to save what ignore is to print and type.  Header
              fields thus marked are filtered out when saving a message by
              save or when automatically saving to mbox.  This command should
              only be applied to header fields that do not contain information
              needed to decode the message, as MIME content fields do.  If
              saving messages on an IMAP account, ignoring fields makes it
              impossible to copy the data directly on the server, thus
              operation usually becomes much slower.

       saveretain
              Saveretain is to save what retain is to print and type.  Header
              fields thus marked are the only ones saved with a message when
              saving by save or when automatically saving to mbox.  Saveretain
              overrides saveignore.  The use of this command is strongly
              discouraged since it may strip header fields that are needed to
              decode the message correctly.

       score  (sc) Takes a message list and a floating point number and adds
              the number to the score of each given message.  All messages
              start at score 0 when a folder is opened.  When the score of a
              message becomes negative, it is `killed' with the effects
              described for the kill command; otherwise if it was negative
              before and becomes positive, it is `unkilled'.  Scores only
              refer to the currently opened instance of a folder.

       set    (se) With no arguments, prints all variable values, piped
              through the pager if the output does not fit on the screen.
              Otherwise, sets option.  Arguments are of the form option=value
              (no space before or after =) or option.  Quotation marks may be
              placed around any part of the assignment statement to quote
              blanks or tabs, i.e. `set indentprefix="->"'.  If an argument
              begins with no, as in `set nosave', the effect is the same as
              invoking the unset command with the remaining part of the
              variable (`unset save').

       seen   Takes a message list and marks all messages as having been read.

       shell  (sh) Invokes an interactive version of the shell.

       shortcut
              Defines a shortcut name and its string for expansion, as
              described for the folder command.  With no arguments, a list of
              defined shortcuts is printed.

       show   (Sh) Like print, but performs neither MIME decoding nor
              decryption so that the raw message text is shown.

       size   Takes a message list and prints out the size in characters of
              each message.

       sort   Create a sorted representation of the current folder, and change
              the next command and the addressing modes such that they refer
              to messages in the sorted order.  Message numbers are the same
              as in regular mode.  If the header variable is set, a header
              summary in the new order is also printed.  Possible sorting
              criteria are:

              date   Sort the messages by their `Date:' field, that is by the
                     time they were sent.

              from   Sort messages by the value of their `From:' field, that
                     is by the address of the sender.  If the showname
                     variable is set, the sender's real name (if any) is used.

              size   Sort the messages by their size.

              score  Sort the messages by their score.

              status Sort the messages by their message status (new, read,
                     old, etc.).

              subject
                     Sort the messages by their subject.

              thread Create a threaded order, as with the thread command.

              to     Sort messages by the value of their `To:' field, that is
                     by the address of the recipient.  If the showname
                     variable is set, the recipient's real name (if any) is
                     used.

              If no argument is given, the current sorting criterion is
              printed.

       source The source command reads commands from a file.

       thread (th) Create a threaded representation of the current folder,
              i.e. indent messages that are replies to other messages in the
              header display, and change the next command and the addressing
              modes such that they refer to messages in the threaded order.
              Message numbers are the same as in unthreaded mode.  If the
              header variable is set, a header summary in threaded order is
              also printed.

       top    Takes a message list and prints the top few lines of each.  The
              number of lines printed is controlled by the variable toplines
              and defaults to five.

       touch  Takes a message list and marks the messages for saving in the
              mbox file.  mailx deviates from the POSIX standard with this
              command, as a `next' command issued after `mbox' will display
              the following message, not the current one.

       Type   (T) Identical to the Print command.

       type   (t) A synonym for print.

       unalias
              Takes a list of names defined by alias commands and discards the
              remembered groups of users.  The group names no longer have any
              significance.

       unanswered
              Takes a message list and marks each message as not having been
              answered.

       uncollapse
              (unc) Only applicable to threaded mode.  Takes a message list
              and makes the message and all replies to it visible in header
              summaries again.  When a message becomes the current message, it
              is automatically made visible.  Also when a message with
              collapsed replies is printed, all of these are automatically
              uncollapsed.

       undef  Undefines each of the named macros.  It is not an error to use a
              name that does not belong to one of the currently defined
              macros.

       undelete
              (u) Takes a message list and marks each message as not being
              deleted.

       undraft
              Takes a message list and marks each message as a draft.

       unflag Takes a message list and marks each message as not being
              `flagged'.

       unfwdignore
              Removes the header field names from the list of ignored fields
              for the forward command.

       unfwdretain
              Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields
              for the forward command.

       ungood Takes a message list and undoes the effect of a good command
              that was previously applied on exactly these messages.

       unignore
              Removes the header field names from the list of ignored fields.

       unjunk Takes a message list and undoes the effect of a junk command
              that was previously applied on exactly these messages.

       unkill Takes a message list and `unkills' each message.  Also sets the
              score of the messages to 0.

       Unread Same as unread.

       unread (U) Takes a message list and marks each message as not having
              been read.

       unretain
              Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields.

       unsaveignore
              Removes the header field names from the list of ignored fields
              for saving.

       unsaveretain
              Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields
              for saving.

       unset  Takes a list of option names and discards their remembered
              values; the inverse of set.

       unshortcut
              Deletes the shortcut names given as arguments.

       unsort Disable sorted or threaded mode (see the sort and thread
              commands), return to normal message order and, if the header
              variable is set, print a header summary.

       unthread
              (unth) Same as unsort.

       verify (verif) Takes a message list and verifies each message.  If a
              message is not an S/MIME signed message, verification will fail
              for it.  The verification process checks if the message was
              signed using a valid certificate, if the message sender's email
              address matches one of those contained within the certificate,
              and if the message content has been altered.

       visual (v) Takes a message list and invokes the display editor on each
              message.  Modified contents are discarded unless the
              writebackedited variable is set.

       write  (w) For conventional messages, the body without all headers is
              written.  The output is decrypted and converted to its native
              format, if necessary.  If the output file exists, the text is
              appended.—If a message is in MIME multipart format, its first
              part is written to the specified file as for conventional
              messages, and the user is asked for a filename to save each
              other part; if the contents of the first part are not to be
              saved, `write /dev/null' can be used.  For the second and
              subsequent parts, if the filename given starts with a `|'
              character, the part is piped through the remainder of the
              filename interpreted as a shell command.  In non-interactive
              mode, only the parts of the multipart message that have a
              filename given in the part header are written, the other are
              discarded.  The original message is never marked for deletion in
              the originating mail folder.  For attachments, the contents of
              the destination file are overwritten if the file previously
              existed.  No special handling of compressed files is performed.

       xit    (x) A synonym for exit.

       z      Mailx presents message headers in windowfuls as described under
              the headers command.  The z command scrolls to the next window
              of messages.  If an argument is given, it specifies the window
              to use.  A number prefixed by `+' or `-' indicates that the
              window is calculated in relation to the current position.  A
              number without a prefix specifies an absolute window number, and
              a `$' lets mailx scroll to the last window of messages.

       Z      Similar to z, but scrolls to the next or previous window that
              contains at least one new or `flagged' message.

   Tilde escapes
       Here is a summary of the tilde escapes, which are used when composing
       messages to perform special functions.  Tilde escapes are only
       recognized at the beginning of lines.  The name `tilde escape' is
       somewhat of a misnomer since the actual escape character can be set by
       the option escape.

       ~!command
              Execute the indicated shell command, then return to the message.

       ~.     Same effect as typing the end-of-file character.

       ~<filename
              Identical to ~r.

       ~<!command
              Command is executed using the shell.  Its standard output is
              inserted into the message.

       ~@ [filename . . . ]
              With no arguments, edit the attachment list.  First, the user
              can edit all existing attachment data.  If an attachment's file
              name is left empty, that attachment is deleted from the list.
              When the end of the attachment list is reached, mailx will ask
              for further attachments, until an empty file name is given.  If
              filename arguments are specified, all of them are appended to
              the end of the attachment list.  Filenames which contain white
              space can only be specified with the first method (no filename
              arguments).

       ~A     Inserts the string contained in the Sign variable (same as `~i
              Sign').  The escape sequences `\t' (tabulator) and `\n'
              (newline) are understood.

       ~a     Inserts the string contained in the sign variable (same as `~i
              sign').  The escape sequences `\t' (tabulator) and `\n'
              (newline) are understood.

       ~bname . . .
              Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients but do
              not make the names visible in the Cc: line (`blind' carbon
              copy).

       ~cname . . .
              Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients.

       ~d     Read the file `dead.letter' from the user's home directory into
              the message.

       ~e     Invoke the text editor on the message collected so far.  After
              the editing session is finished, the user may continue appending
              text to the message.

       ~fmessages
              Read the named messages into the message being sent.  If no
              messages are specified, read in the current message.  Message
              headers currently being ignored (by the ignore or retain
              command) are not included.  For MIME multipart messages, only
              the first printable part is included.

       ~Fmessages
              Identical to ~f, except all message headers and all MIME parts
              are included.

       ~h     Edit the message header fields `To:', `Cc:', `Bcc:', and
              `Subject:' by typing each one in turn and allowing the user to
              append text to the end or modify the field by using the current
              terminal erase and kill characters.

       ~H     Edit the message header fields `From:', `Reply-To:', `Sender:',
              and `Organization:' in the same manner as described for ~h.  The
              default values for these fields originate from the from,
              replyto, and ORGANIZATION variables.  If this tilde command has
              been used, changing the variables has no effect on the current
              message anymore.

       ~ivariable
              Insert the value of the specified variable into the message
              adding a newline character at the end.  If the variable is unset
              or empty, the message remains unaltered.  The escape sequences
              `\t' (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are understood.

       ~mmessages
              Read the named messages into the message being sent, indented by
              a tab or by the value of indentprefix.  If no messages are
              specified, read the current message.  Message headers currently
              being ignored (by the ignore or retain command) are not
              included.  For MIME multipart messages, only the first printable
              part is included.

       ~Mmessages
              Identical to ~m, except all message headers and all MIME parts
              are included.

       ~p     Print out the message collected so far, prefaced by the message
              header fields and followed by the attachment list, if any.  If
              the message text is longer than the screen size, it is piped
              through the pager.

       ~q     Abort the message being sent, copying the message to
              `dead.letter' in the user's home directory if save is set.

       ~rfilename
              Read the named file into the message.

       ~sstring
              Cause the named string to become the current subject field.

       ~tname . . .
              Add the given names to the direct recipient list.

       ~v     Invoke an alternate editor (defined by the VISUAL option) on the
              message collected so far.  Usually, the alternate editor will be
              a screen editor.  After the editor is quit, the user may resume
              appending text to the end of the message.

       ~wfilename
              Write the message onto the named file.  If the file exists, the
              message is appended to it.

       ~x     Same as ~q, except that the message is not saved to the
              `dead.letter' file.

       ~|command
              Pipe the message through the command as a filter.  If the
              command gives no output or terminates abnormally, retain the
              original text of the message.  The command fmt(1) is often used
              as command to rejustify the message.

       ~:mailx-command
              Execute the given mailx command.  Not all commands, however, are
              allowed.

       ~_mailx-command
              Identical to ~:.

       ~~string
              Insert the string of text in the message prefaced by a single ~.
              If the escape character has been changed, that character must be
              doubled in order to send it at the beginning of a line.

   Variable options
       Options are controlled via set and unset commands, see their entries
       for a syntax description.  An option is also set if it is passed to
       mailx as part of the environment (this is not restricted to specific
       variables as in the POSIX standard).  A value given in a startup file
       overrides a value imported from the environment.  Options may be either
       binary, in which case it is only significant to see whether they are
       set or not; or string, in which case the actual value is of interest.

   Binary options
       The binary options include the following:

       allnet Causes only the local part to be evaluated when comparing
              addresses.

       append Causes messages saved in mbox to be appended to the end rather
              than prepended.  This should always be set.

       ask or asksub
              Causes mailx to prompt for the subject of each message sent.  If
              the user responds with simply a newline, no subject field will
              be sent.

       askatend
              Causes the prompts for `Cc:' and `Bcc:' lists to appear after
              the message has been edited.

       askattach
              If set, mailx asks for files to attach at the end of each
              message.  Responding with a newline indicates not to include an
              attachment.

       askcc  Causes the user to be prompted for additional carbon copy
              recipients (at the end of each message if askatend or bsdcompat
              is set).  Responding with a newline indicates the user's
              satisfaction with the current list.

       askbcc Causes the user to be prompted for additional blind carbon copy
              recipients (at the end of each message if askatend or bsdcompat
              is set).  Responding with a newline indicates the user's
              satisfaction with the current list.

       asksign
              Causes the user to be prompted if the message is to be signed at
              the end of each message.  The smime-sign variable is ignored
              when this variable is set.

       autocollapse
              Causes threads to be collapsed automatically when threaded mode
              is entered (see the collapse command).

       autoinc
              Same as newmail.

       autoprint
              Causes the delete command to behave like dp - thus, after
              deleting a message, the next one will be typed automatically.

       autothread
              Causes threaded mode (see the thread command) to be entered
              automatically when a folder is opened.

       bang   Enables the substitution of `!'  by the contents of the last
              command line in shell escapes.

       bsdannounce
              Causes automatic display of a header summary after executing a
              folder command.

       bsdcompat
              Sets some cosmetical features to traditional BSD style; has the
              same affect as setting `askatend' and all other variables
              prefixed with `bsd', setting prompt to `& ', and changing the
              default pager to more.

       bsdflags
              Changes the letters printed in the first column of a header
              summary to traditional BSD style.

       bsdheadline
              Changes the display of columns in a header summary to
              traditional BSD style.

       bsdmsgs
              Changes some informational messages to traditional BSD style.

       bsdorder
              Causes the `Subject:' field to appear immediately after the
              `To:' field in message headers and with the ~h tilde command.

       bsdset Changes the output format of the set command to traditional BSD
              style.

       chained-junk-tokens
              Normally, the Bayesian junk mail filter bases its
              classifications on single word tokens extracted from messages.
              If this option is set, adjacent words are combined to pairs,
              which are then used as additional tokens.  This usually improves
              the accuracy of the filter, but also increases the junk mail
              database five- to tenfold.

       datefield
              The date in a header summary is normally the date of the mailbox
              `From ' line of the message.  If this variable is set, the date
              as given in the `Date:' header field is used, converted to local
              time.

       debug  Prints debugging messages and disables the actual delivery of
              messages.  Unlike verbose, this option is intended for mailx
              development only.

       disconnected
              When an IMAP mailbox is selected and this variable is set, no
              connection to the server is initiated.  Instead, data is
              obtained from the local cache (see imap-cache).  Mailboxes that
              are not present in the cache and messages that have not yet
              entirely been fetched from the server are not available; to
              fetch all messages in a mailbox at once, the command `copy *
              /dev/null' can be used while still in online mode.  Changes that
              are made to IMAP mailboxes in disconnected mode are queued and
              committed later when a connection to that server is opened in
              online mode.  This procedure is not completely reliable since it
              cannot be guaranteed that the IMAP unique identifiers (UIDs) on
              the server still match the ones in the cache at that time.  Data
              is saved to `dead.letter' when this problem occurs.

       disconnected-user@host
              The specified account is handled as described for the
              disconnected variable above, but other accounts are not
              affected.

       dot    The binary option dot causes mailx to interpret a period alone
              on a line as the terminator of a message the user is sending.

       editheaders
              When a message is edited while being composed, its header is
              included in the editable text.  `To:', `Cc:', `Bcc:',
              `Subject:', `From:', `Reply-To:', `Sender:', and 'Organization:'
              fields are accepted within the header, other fields are ignored.

       emptybox
              If set, an empty mailbox file is not removed.  This may improve
              the interoperability with other mail user agents when using a
              common folder directory.

       emptystart
              If the mailbox is empty, mailx normally prints `No mail for
              user' and exits immediately.  If this option is set, mailx
              starts even with an empty mailbox.

       flipr  Exchanges the Respond with the respond commands and vice-versa.

       forward-as-attachment
              Original messages are normally sent as inline text with the
              forward command, and only the first part of a multipart message
              is included.  With this option, messages are sent as MIME
              message/rfc822 attachments, and all of their parts are included.
              The fwdignore and fwdretain options are ignored when the
              forward-as-attachment option is set.

       fullnames
              When replying to a message, mailx normally removes the comment
              parts of email addresses, which by convention contain the full
              names of the recipients.  If this variable is set, such
              stripping is not performed, and comments are retained.

       header Causes the header summary to be written at startup and after
              commands that affect the number of messages or the order of
              messages in the current folder; enabled by default.

       hold   This option is used to hold messages in the system mailbox by
              default.

       ignore Causes interrupt signals from the terminal to be ignored and
              echoed as @'s.

       ignoreeof
              An option related to dot is ignoreeof which makes mailx refuse
              to accept a control-d as the end of a message.  Ignoreeof also
              applies to mailx command mode.

       imap-use-starttls
              Causes mailx to issue a STARTTLS command to make an unencrypted
              IMAP session SSL/TLS encrypted.  This functionality is not
              supported by all servers, and is not used if the session is
              already encrypted by the IMAPS method.

       imap-use-starttls-user@host
              Activates imap-use-starttls for a specific account.

       keep   This option causes mailx to truncate the user's system mailbox
              instead of deleting it when it is empty.  This should always be
              set, since it prevents malicious users from creating fake mail
              folders in a world-writable spool directory.

       keepsave
              When a message is saved, it is usually discarded from the
              originating folder when mailx is quit.  Setting this option
              causes all saved message to be retained.

       markanswered
              When a message is replied to and this variable is set, it is
              marked as having been answered.  This mark has no technical
              meaning in the mail system; it just causes messages to be marked
              in the header summary, and makes them specially addressable.

       metoo  Usually, when a group is expanded that contains the sender, the
              sender is removed from the expansion.  Setting this option
              causes the sender to be included in the group.

       newmail
              Checks for new mail in the current folder each time the prompt
              is printed.  For IMAP mailboxes, the server is then polled for
              new mail, which may result in delayed operation if the
              connection to the server is slow.  A maildir folder must be re-
              scanned to determine if new mail has arrived.

              If this variable is set to the special value nopoll, an IMAP
              server is not actively asked for new mail, but new mail may
              still be detected and announced with any other IMAP command that
              is sent to the server.  A maildir folder is not scanned then.

              In any case, the IMAP server may send notifications about
              messages that have been deleted on the server by another process
              or client.  In this case, `Expunged n messages' is printed
              regardless of this variable, and message numbers may have
              changed.

       noheader
              Setting the option noheader is the same as giving the -N flag on
              the command line.

       outfolder
              Causes the filename given in the record variable and the sender-
              based filenames for the Copy and Save commands to be interpreted
              relative to the directory given in the folder variable rather
              than to the current directory unless it is an absolute pathname.

       page   If set, each message the pipe command prints out is followed by
              a formfeed character.

       piperaw
              Send messages to the pipe command without performing MIME and
              character set conversions.

       pop3-use-apop
              If this variable is set, the APOP authentication method is used
              when a connection to a POP3 server is initiated.  The advantage
              of this method over the usual USER/PASS authentication is that
              the password is not sent over the network in clear text.  The
              connection fails if the server does not support the APOP
              command.

       pop3-use-apop-user@host
              Enables pop3-use-apop for a specific account.

       pop3-use-starttls
              Causes mailx to issue a STLS command to make an unencrypted POP3
              session SSL/TLS encrypted.  This functionality is not supported
              by all servers, and is not used if the session is already
              encrypted by the POP3S method.

       pop3-use-starttls-user@host
              Activates pop3-use-starttls for a specific account.

       print-all-chars
              This option causes all characters to be considered printable.
              It is only effective if given in a startup file.  With this
              option set, some character sequences in messages may put the
              user's terminal in an undefined state when printed; it should
              only be used as a last resort if no working system locale can be
              found.

       print-alternatives
              When a MIME message part of type multipart/alternative is
              displayed and it contains a subpart of type text/plain, other
              parts are normally discarded.  Setting this variable causes all
              subparts to be displayed, just as if the surrounding part was of
              type multipart/mixed.

       quiet  Suppresses the printing of the version when first invoked.

       record-resent
              If both this variable and the record variable are set, the
              resend and Resend commands save messages to the record folder as
              it is normally only done for newly composed messages.

       reply-in-same-charset
              If this variable is set, mailx first tries to use the same
              character set of the original message for replies.  If this
              fails, the sendcharsets variable is evaluated as usual.

       Replyall
              Reverses the sense of reply and Reply commands.

       save   When the user aborts a message with two RUBOUT (interrupt
              characters) mailx copies the partial letter to the file
              `dead.letter' in the home directory.  This option is set by
              default.

       searchheaders
              If this option is set, then a message-list specifier in the form
              `/x:y' will expand to all messages containing the substring `y'
              in the header field `x'.  The string search is case insensitive.

       sendwait
              When sending a message, wait until the mail transfer agent exits
              before accepting further commands.  If the mail transfer agent
              returns a non-zero exit status, the exit status of mailx will
              also be non-zero.

       showlast
              Setting this option causes mailx to start at the last message
              instead of the first one when opening a mail folder.

       showname
              Causes mailx to use the sender's real name instead of the plain
              address in the header field summary and in message
              specifications.

       showto Causes the recipient of the message to be shown in the header
              summary if the message was sent by the user.

       skipemptybody
              If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or
              only message part, do not send it but discard it silently (see
              also the -E option).

       smime-force-encryption
              Causes mailx to refuse sending unencrypted messages.

       smime-sign
              If this variable is set, outgoing messages are S/MIME signed
              with the user's private key.  Signing a message enables a
              recipient to verify that the sender used a valid certificate,
              that the email addresses in the certificate match those in the
              message header, and that the message content has not been
              altered.  It does not change the message text, and people will
              be able to read the message as usual.

       smime-no-default-ca
              Do not load the default CA locations when verifying S/MIME
              signed messages.  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built
              using OpenSSL.

       smtp-use-starttls
              Causes mailx to issue a STARTTLS command to make an SMTP session
              SSL/TLS encrypted.  Not all servers support this command;
              because of common implementation defects, it cannot be
              automatically determined whether a server supports it or not.

       ssl-no-default-ca
              Do not load the default CA locations to verify SSL/TLS server
              certificates.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using
              OpenSSL.

       ssl-v2-allow
              Accept SSLv2 connections.  These are normally not allowed
              because this protocol version is insecure.

       stealthmua
              Inhibits the generation of the `Message-Id:' and `User-Agent:'
              header fields that include obvious references to mailx.  There
              are two pitfalls associated with this: First, the message id of
              outgoing messages is not known anymore.  Second, an expert may
              still use the remaining information in the header to track down
              the originating mail user agent.

       verbose
              Setting the option verbose is the same as using the -v flag on
              the command line.  When mailx runs in verbose mode, details of
              the actual message delivery and protocol conversations for IMAP,
              POP3, and SMTP, as well as of other internal processes, are
              displayed on the user's terminal, This is sometimes useful to
              debug problems.  Mailx prints all data that is sent to remote
              servers in clear texts, including passwords, so care should be
              taken that no unauthorized option can view the screen if this
              option is enabled.

       writebackedited
              If this variable is set, messages modified using the edit or
              visual commands are written back to the current folder when it
              is quit.  This is only possible for writable folders in mbox
              format.  Setting this variable also disables MIME decoding and
              decryption for the editing commands.

   String Options
       The string options include the following:

       attrlist
              A sequence of characters to print in the `attribute' column of a
              header summary, each for one type of messages in the following
              order: new, unread but old, new but read, read and old, saved,
              preserved, mboxed, flagged, answered, draft, killed, start of a
              collapsed thread, collapsed, classified as junk.  The default is
              `NUROSPMFATK+-J', or `NU  *HMFATK+-J' if bsdflags or the SYSV3
              environment variable are set.

       autobcc
              Specifies a list of recipients to which a blind carbon copy of
              each outgoing message will be sent automatically.

       autocc Specifies a list of recipients to which a carbon copy of each
              outgoing message will be sent automatically.

       autosort
              Causes sorted mode (see the sort command) to be entered
              automatically with the value of this option as sorting method
              when a folder is opened.

       cmd    The default value for the pipe command.

       crt    The valued option crt is used as a threshold to determine how
              long a message must be before PAGER is used to read it.  If crt
              is set without a value, then the height of the terminal screen
              stored in the system is used to compute the threshold (see
              stty(1)).

       DEAD   The name of the file to use for saving aborted messages.  This
              defaults to `dead.letter' in the user's home directory.

       EDITOR Pathname of the text editor to use in the edit command and ~e
              escape.  If not defined, then a default editor is used.

       encoding
              The default MIME encoding to use in outgoing text messages and
              message parts.  Valid values are 8bit or quoted-printable.  The
              default is 8bit.  In case the mail transfer system is not ESMTP
              compliant, quoted-printable should be used instead.  If there is
              no need to encode a message, 7bit transfer mode is used, without
              regard to the value of this variable.  Binary data is always
              encoded in base64 mode.

       escape If defined, the first character of this option gives the
              character to use in the place of ~ to denote escapes.

       folder The name of the directory to use for storing folders of
              messages.  All folder names that begin with `+' refer to files
              below that directory.  If the directory name begins with a `/',
              mailx considers it to be an absolute pathname; otherwise, the
              folder directory is found relative to the user's home directory.

              The directory name may also refer to an IMAP account; any names
              that begin with `+' then refer to IMAP mailboxes on that
              account.  An IMAP folder is normally given in the form

                  imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example

              In this case, the `+' and `@' prefixes for folder names have the
              same effect (see the folder command).

              Some IMAP servers do not accept the creation of mailboxes in the
              hierarchy base; they require that they are created as subfolders
              of `INBOX'.  With such servers, a folder name of the form

                  imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example/INBOX.

              should be used (the last character is the server's hierarchy
              delimiter).  Folder names prefixed by `+' will then refer to
              folders below `INBOX', while folder names prefixed by `@' refer
              to folders below the hierarchy base.  See the imap namespace
              command for a method to detect the appropriate prefix and
              delimiter.

       folder-hook
              When a folder is opened and this variable is set, the macro
              corresponding to the value of this variable is executed.  The
              macro is also invoked when new mail arrives, but message lists
              for commands executed from the macro only include newly arrived
              messages then.

       folder-hook-fullname
              When a folder named fullname is opened, the macro corresponding
              to the value of this variable is executed.  Unlike other folder
              specifications, the fully expanded name of a folder, without
              metacharacters, is used to avoid ambiguities.  The macro
              specified with folder-hook is not executed if this variable is
              effective for a folder (unless it is explicitly invoked within
              the called macro).

       from   The address (or a list of addresses) to put into the `From:'
              field of the message header.  If replying to a message, these
              addresses are handled as if they were in the alternates list.
              If the machine's hostname is not valid at the Internet (for
              example at a dialup machine), either this variable or hostname
              have to be set to get correct Message-ID header fields.  If from
              contains more than one address, the sender variable must also be
              set.

       fwdheading
              The string to print before the text of a message with the
              forward command (unless the forward-as-attachment variable is
              set).  Defaults to ``-------- Original Message --------'' if
              unset.  If it is set to the empty string, no heading is printed.

       headline
              A format string to use for the header summary, similar to printf
              formats.  A `%' character introduces a format specifier.  It may
              be followed by a number indicating the field width.  If the
              field is a number, the width may be negative, which indicates
              that it is to be left-aligned.  Valid format specifiers are:


                  %a    Message attributes.
                  %c    The score of the message.
                  %d    The date when the message was received.
                  %e    The indenting level in threaded mode.
                  %f    The address of the message sender.
                  %i    The message thread structure.
                  %l    The number of lines of the message.
                  %m    Message number.
                  %o    The number of octets (bytes) in the message.
                  %s    Message subject (if any).
                  %S    Message subject (if any) in double quotes.
                  %t    The position in threaded/sorted order.
                  %>    A `>' for the current message, otherwise ` '.
                  %<    A `<' for the current message, otherwise ` '.
                  %%    A `%' character.

              The default is `%>%a%m %18f %16d %4l/%-5o %i%s', or
              `%>%a%m %20f  %16d %3l/%-5o %i%S' if bsdcompat is set.

       hostname
              Use this string as hostname when expanding local addresses
              instead of the value obtained from uname(2) and getaddrinfo(3).

       imap-auth
              Sets the IMAP authentication method.  Valid values are `login'
              for the usual password-based authentication (the default),
              `cram-md5', which is a password-based authentication that does
              not send the password over the network in clear text, and
              `gssapi' for GSSAPI-based authentication.

       imap-auth-user@host
              Sets the IMAP authentication method for a specific account.

       imap-cache
              Enables caching of IMAP mailboxes.  The value of this variable
              must point to a directory that is either existent or can be
              created by mailx.  All contents of the cache can be deleted by
              mailx at any time; it is not safe to make assumptions about
              them.

       imap-keepalive
              IMAP servers may close the connection after a period of
              inactivity; the standard requires this to be at least 30
              minutes, but practical experience may vary.  Setting this
              variable to a numeric value greater than 0 causes a NOOP command
              to be sent each value seconds if no other operation is
              performed.

       imap-list-depth
              When retrieving the list of folders on an IMAP server, the
              folders command stops after it has reached a certain depth to
              avoid possible infinite loops.  The value of this variable sets
              the maximum depth allowed.  The default is 2.  If the folder
              separator on the current IMAP server is a slash `/', this
              variable has no effect, and the folders command does not descend
              to subfolders.

       indentprefix
              String used by the `~m' and `~M' tilde escapes and by the quote
              option for indenting messages, in place of the normal tab
              character (^I).  Be sure to quote the value if it contains
              spaces or tabs.

       junkdb The location of the junk mail database.  The string is treated
              like a folder name, as described for the folder command.

              The files in the junk mail database are normally stored in
              compress(1) format for saving space.  If processing time is
              considered more important, uncompress(1) can be used to store
              them in plain form.  Mailx will then work using the uncompressed
              files.

       LISTER Pathname of the directory lister to use in the folders command
              when operating on local mailboxes.  Default is /bin/ls.

       MAIL   Is used as the user's mailbox, if set.  Otherwise, a system-
              dependent default is used.  Can be a protocol:// string (see the
              folder command for more information).

       MAILX_HEAD
              A string to put at the beginning of each new message.  The
              escape sequences `\t' (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are
              understood.

       MAILX_TAIL
              A string to put at the end of each new message.  The escape
              sequences `\t' (tabulator) and `\n' (newline) are understood.

       maximum-unencoded-line-length
              Messages that contain lines longer than the value of this
              variable are encoded in quoted-printable even if they contain
              only ASCII characters.  The maximum effective value is 950.  If
              set to 0, all ASCII text messages are encoded in quoted-
              printable.  S/MIME signed messages are always encoded in quoted-
              printable regardless of the value of this variable.

       MBOX   The name of the mbox file.  It can be the name of a folder.  The
              default is `mbox' in the user's home directory.

       NAIL_EXTRA_RC
              The name of an optional startup file to be read after ~/.mailrc.
              This variable is ignored if it is imported from the environment;
              it has an effect only if it is set in /etc/mail.rc or ~/.mailrc
              to allow bypassing the configuration with e. g.
              `MAILRC=/dev/null'.  Use this file for commands that are not
              understood by other mailx implementations.

       newfolders
              If this variable has the value maildir, newly created local
              folders will be in maildir format.

       nss-config-dir
              A directory that contains the files certN.db to retrieve
              certificates, keyN.db to retrieve private keys, and secmod.db,
              where N is a digit.  These are usually taken from Mozilla
              installations, so an appropriate value might be
              `~/.mozilla/firefox/default.clm'.  Mailx opens these files read-
              only and does not modify them.  However, if the files are
              modified by Mozilla while mailx is running, it will print a `Bad
              database' message.  It may be necessary to create copies of
              these files that are exclusively used by mailx then.  Only
              applicable if S/MIME and SSL/TLS support is built using Network
              Security Services (NSS).

       ORGANIZATION
              The value to put into the `Organization:' field of the message
              header.

       PAGER  Pathname of the program to use in the more command or when crt
              variable is set.  The default paginator pg(1) or, in BSD
              compatibility mode, more(1) is used if this option is not
              defined.

       password-user@host
              Set the password for user when connecting to host.  If no such
              variable is defined for a host, the user will be asked for a
              password on standard input.  Specifying passwords in a startup
              file is generally a security risk, the file should be readable
              by the invoking user only.

       pipe-content/subcontent
              When a MIME message part of content/subcontent type is displayed
              or it is replied to, its text is filtered through the value of
              this variable interpreted as a shell command.  Special care must
              be taken when using such commands as mail viruses may be
              distributed by this method; if messages of type application/x-sh
              were filtered through the shell, for example, a message sender
              could easily execute arbitrary code on the system mailx is
              running on.

       pop3-keepalive
              POP3 servers may close the connection after a period of
              inactivity; the standard requires this to be at least 10
              minutes, but practical experience may vary.  Setting this
              variable to a numeric value greater than 0 causes a NOOP command
              to be sent each value seconds if no other operation is
              performed.

       prompt The string printed when a command is accepted.  Defaults to
              `? ', or to `& ' if the bsdcompat variable is set.

       quote  If set, mailx starts a replying message with the original
              message prefixed by the value of the variable indentprefix.
              Normally, a heading consisting of `Fromheaderfield wrote:' is
              printed before the quotation.  If the string noheading is
              assigned to the quote variable, this heading is omitted.  If the
              string headers is assigned, the headers selected by the
              ignore/retain commands are printed above the message body, thus
              quote acts like an automatic ~m command then.  If the string
              allheaders is assigned, all headers are printed above the
              message body, and all MIME parts are included, thus quote acts
              like an automatic ~M command then.

       record If defined, gives the pathname of the folder used to record all
              outgoing mail.  If not defined, then outgoing mail is not so
              saved.  When saving to this folder fails, the message is not
              sent but saved to the `dead.letter' file instead.

       replyto
              A list of addresses to put into the `Reply-To:' field of the
              message header.  If replying to a message, such addresses are
              handled as if they were in the alternates list.

       screen When mailx initially prints the message headers, it determines
              the number to print by looking at the speed of the terminal.
              The faster the terminal, the more it prints.  This option
              overrides this calculation and specifies how many message
              headers are printed.  This number is also used for scrolling
              with the z command.

       sendcharsets
              A comma-separated list of character set names that can be used
              in Internet mail.  When a message that contains characters not
              representable in US-ASCII is prepared for sending, mailx tries
              to convert its text to each of the given character sets in order
              and uses the first appropriate one.  The default is `utf-8'.

              Character sets assigned to this variable should be ordered in
              ascending complexity.  That is, the list should start with e.g.
              `iso-8859-1' for compatibility with older mail clients, might
              contain some other language-specific character sets, and should
              end with `utf-8' to handle messages that combine texts in
              multiple languages.

       sender An address that is put into the `Sender:' field of outgoing
              messages.  This field needs not normally be present.  It is,
              however, required if the `From:' field contains more than one
              address.  It can also be used to indicate that a message was
              sent on behalf of somebody other; in this case, `From:' should
              contain the address of the person that took responsibility for
              the message, and `Sender:' should contain the address of the
              person that actually sent the message.  The sender address is
              handled as if it were in the alternates list.

       sendmail
              To use an alternate mail delivery system, set this option to the
              full pathname of the program to use.  This should be used with
              care.

       SHELL  Pathname of the shell to use in the ! command and the ~! escape.
              A default shell is used if this option is not defined.


       Sign   A string for use with the ~A command.

       sign   A string for use with the ~a command.

       signature
              Must correspond to the name of a readable file if set.  The
              file's content is then appended to each singlepart message and
              to the first part of each multipart message.  Be warned that
              there is no possibility to edit the signature for an individual
              message.

       smime-ca-dir
              Specifies a directory with CA certificates for verification of
              S/MIME signed messages.  The format is the same as described in
              SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).  Only applicable if S/MIME
              support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-ca-file
              Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of S/MIME
              signed messages.  The format is the same as described in
              SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).  Only applicable if S/MIME
              support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-cipher-user@host
              Specifies a cipher to use when generating S/MIME encrypted
              messages for user@host.  Valid ciphers are rc2-40 (RC2 with 40
              bits), rc2-64 (RC2 with 64 bits), des (DES, 56 bits) and des-
              ede3 (3DES, 112/168 bits).  The default is 3DES.  It is not
              recommended to use the other ciphers unless a recipient's client
              is actually unable to handle 3DES since they are comparatively
              weak; but even so, the recipient should upgrade his software in
              preference.

       smime-crl-file
              Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format to use when
              verifying S/MIME messages.  Only applicable if S/MIME support is
              built using OpenSSL.

       smime-crl-dir
              Specifies a directory that contains files with CRLs in PEM
              format to use when verifying S/MIME messages.  Only applicable
              if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-encrypt-user@host
              If this variable is set, messages to user@host are encrypted
              before sending.  If S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL, the
              value of the variable must be set to the name of a file that
              contains a certificate in PEM format.  If S/MIME support is
              built using NSS, the value of this variable is ignored, but if
              multiple certificates for user@host are available, the smime-
              nickname-user@host variable should be set.  Otherwise a
              certificate for the recipient is automatically retrieved from
              the certificate database, if possible.

              If a message is sent to multiple recipients, each of them for
              whom a corresponding variable is set will receive an
              individually encrypted message; other recipients will continue
              to receive the message in plain text unless the smime-force-
              encryption variable is set.  It is recommended to sign encrypted
              messages, i.e. to also set the smime-sign variable.

       smime-nickname-user@host
              Specifies the nickname of a certificate to be used when
              encrypting messages for user@host .  Only applicable if S/MIME
              support is built using NSS.

       smime-sign-cert
              Points to a file in PEM format that contains the user's private
              key as well as his certificate.  Both are used with S/MIME for
              signing and decrypting messages.  Only applicable if S/MIME
              support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-cert-user@host
              Overrides smime-sign-cert for the specific addresses.  When
              signing messages and the value of the from variable is set to
              user@host, the specific file is used.  When decrypting messages,
              their recipient fields (To: and Cc:) are searched for addresses
              for which such a variable is set.  Mailx always uses the first
              address that matches, so if the same message is sent to more
              than one of the user's addresses using different encryption
              keys, decryption might fail.  Only applicable if S/MIME support
              is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-nickname
              Specifies that the named certificate be used for signing mail.
              If this variable is not set, but a single certificate matching
              the current from address is found in the database, that one is
              used automatically.  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built
              using NSS.

       smime-sign-nickname-user@host
              Overrides smime-sign-nickname for a specific address.  Only
              applicable if S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smtp   Normally, mailx invokes sendmail(8) directly to transfer
              messages.  If the smtp variable is set, a SMTP connection to the
              server specified by the value of this variable is used instead.
              If the SMTP server does not use the standard port, a value of
              server:port can be given, with port as a name or as a number.

              There are two possible methods to get SSL/TLS encrypted SMTP
              sessions: First, the STARTTLS command can be used to encrypt a
              session after it has been initiated, but before any user-related
              data has been sent; see smtp-use-starttls above.  Second, some
              servers accept sessions that are encrypted from their beginning
              on. This mode is configured by assigning smtps://server[:port]
              to the smtp variable.

              The SMTP transfer is executed in a child process; unless either
              the sendwait or the verbose variable is set, this process runs
              asynchronously.  If it receives a TERM signal, it will abort and
              save the message to the `dead.letter' file.

       smtp-auth
              Sets the SMTP authentication method.  If set to `login', or if
              unset and smtp-auth-user is set, AUTH LOGIN is used.  If set to
              `cram-md5', AUTH CRAM-MD5 is used; if set to `plain', AUTH PLAIN
              is used.  Otherwise, no SMTP authentication is performed.

       smtp-auth-user@host
              Overrides smtp-auth for specific values of sender addresses,
              depending on the from variable.

       smtp-auth-password
              Sets the global password for SMTP AUTH.  Both user and password
              have to be given for AUTH LOGIN and AUTH CRAM-MD5.

       smtp-auth-password-user@host
              Overrides smtp-auth-password for specific values of sender
              addresses, depending on the from variable.

       smtp-auth-user
              Sets the global user name for SMTP AUTH.  Both user and password
              have to be given for AUTH LOGIN and AUTH CRAM-MD5.

              If this variable is set but neither smtp-auth-password or a
              matching smtp-auth-password-user@host can be found, mailx will
              as for a password on the user's terminal.

       smtp-auth-user-user@host
              Overrides smtp-auth-user for specific values of sender
              addresses, depending on the from variable.

       ssl-ca-dir
              Specifies a directory with CA certificates for verification of
              SSL/TLS server certificates.  See
              SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3) for more information.  Only
              applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-ca-file
              Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of
              SSL/TLS server certificates.  See
              SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3) for more information.  Only
              applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cert
              Sets the file name for a SSL/TLS client certificate required by
              some servers.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using
              OpenSSL.

       ssl-cert-user@host
              Sets an account-specific file name for a SSL/TLS client
              certificate required by some servers.  Overrides ssl-cert for
              the specified account.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is
              built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cipher-list
              Specifies a list of ciphers for SSL/TLS connections.  See
              ciphers(1) for more information.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS
              support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-crl-file
              Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format to use when
              verifying SSL/TLS server certificates.  Only applicable if
              SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-crl-dir
              Specifies a directory that contains files with CRLs in PEM
              format to use when verifying SSL/TLS server certificates.  Only
              applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-key
              Sets the file name for the private key of a SSL/TLS client
              certificate.  If unset, the name of the certificate file is
              used.  The file is expected to be in PEM format.  Only
              applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-key-user@host
              Sets an account-specific file name for the private key of a
              SSL/TLS client certificate.  Overrides ssl-key for the specified
              account.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using
              OpenSSL.

       ssl-method
              Selects a SSL/TLS protocol version; valid values are `ssl2',
              `ssl3', and `tls1'.  If unset, the method is selected
              automatically, if possible.

       ssl-method-user@host
              Overrides ssl-method for a specific account.

       ssl-rand-egd
              Gives the pathname to an entropy daemon socket, see RAND_egd(3).

       ssl-rand-file
              Gives the pathname to a file with entropy data, see
              RAND_load_file(3).  If the file is a regular file writable by
              the invoking user, new data is written to it after it has been
              loaded.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using
              OpenSSL.

       ssl-verify
              Sets the action to be performed if an error occurs during
              SSL/TLS server certificate validation.  Valid values are
              `strict' (fail and close connection immediately), `ask' (ask
              whether to continue on standard input), `warn' (print a warning
              and continue), `ignore' (do not perform validation).  The
              default is `ask'.

       ssl-verify-user@host
              Overrides ssl-verify for a specific account.

       toplines
              If defined, gives the number of lines of a message to be printed
              out with the top command; normally, the first five lines are
              printed.

       ttycharset
              The character set of the terminal mailx operates on.  There is
              normally no need to set this variable since mailx can determine
              this automatically by looking at the LC_CTYPE locale setting; if
              this succeeds, the value is assigned at startup and will be
              displayed by the set command.  Note that this is not necessarily
              a character set name that can be used in Internet messages.

       VISUAL Pathname of the text editor to use in the visual command and ~v
              escape.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Besides the variables described above, mailx uses the following
       environment strings:

       HOME   The user's home directory.

       LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES
              See locale(7).

       MAILRC Is used as startup file instead of ~/.mailrc if set.  When mailx
              scripts are invoked on behalf of other users, this variable
              should be set to `/dev/null' to avoid side-effects from reading
              their configuration files.

       NAILRC If this variable is set and MAILRC is not set, it is read as
              startup file.

       SYSV3  Changes the letters printed in the first column of a header
              summary.

       TMPDIR Used as directory for temporary files instead of /tmp, if set.

FILES
       ~/.mailrc
              File giving initial commands.

       /etc/mail.rc
              System wide initialization file.

       ~/.mime.types
              Personal MIME types.

       /etc/mime.types
              System wide MIME types.

EXAMPLES
   Getting started
       The mailx command has two distinct usages, according to whether one
       wants to send or receive mail.  Sending mail is simple: to send a
       message to a user whose email address is, say, <bill@host.example>, use
       the shell command:

           $ mailx bill@host.example

       then type your message.  Mailx will prompt you for a message subject
       first; after that, lines typed by you form the body of the message.
       When you reach the end of the message, type an EOT (control-d) at the
       beginning of a line, which will cause mailx to echo `EOT' and return
       you to the shell.

       If, while you are composing the message you decide that you do not wish
       to send it after all, you can abort the letter with a RUBOUT.  Typing a
       single RUBOUT causes mailx to print `(Interrupt -- one more to kill
       letter)'.  Typing a second RUBOUT causes mailx to save your partial
       letter on the file `dead.letter' in your home directory and abort the
       letter.  Once you have sent mail to someone, there is no way to undo
       the act, so be careful.

       If you want to send the same message to several other people, you can
       list their email addresses on the command line.  Thus,

           $ mailx sam@workstation.example bob@server.example
           Subject: Fees
           Tuition fees are due next Friday.  Don't forget!
           <Control-d>
           EOT
           $

       will send the reminder to <sam@workstation.example>.  and
       <bob@server.example>.

       To read your mail, simply type

           $ mailx

       Mailx will respond by typing its version number and date and then
       listing the messages you have waiting.  Then it will type a prompt and
       await your command.  The messages are assigned numbers starting with
       1—you refer to the messages with these numbers.  Mailx keeps track of
       which messages are new (have been sent since you last read your mail)
       and read (have been read by you).  New messages have an N next to them
       in the header listing and old, but unread messages have a U next to
       them.  Mailx keeps track of new/old and read/unread messages by putting
       a header field called Status into your messages.

       To look at a specific message, use the type command, which may be
       abbreviated to simply t .  For example, if you had the following
       messages:

           O 1 drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52  18/631 "Fees"
           O 2 sam@friends.example  Thu Sep  2 00:08  30/895

       you could examine the first message by giving the command:

           type 1

       which might cause mailx to respond with, for example:

           Message  1:
           From drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52:25 2004
           Subject: Fees
           Status: R

           Tuition fees are due next Wednesday.  Don't forget!


       Many mailx commands that operate on messages take a message number as
       an argument like the type command.  For these commands, there is a
       notion of a current message.  When you enter the mailx program, the
       current message is initially the first (or the first recent) one.
       Thus, you can often omit the message number and use, for example,

           t

       to type the current message.  As a further shorthand, you can type a
       message by simply giving its message number.  Hence,

           1

       would type the first message.

       Frequently, it is useful to read the messages in your mailbox in order,
       one after another.  You can read the next message in mailx by simply
       typing a newline.  As a special case, you can type a newline as your
       first command to mailx to type the first message.

       If, after typing a message, you wish to immediately send a reply, you
       can do so with the reply command.  This command, like type, takes a
       message number as an argument.  mailx then begins a message addressed
       to the user who sent you the message.  You may then type in your letter
       in reply, followed by a <control-d> at the beginning of a line, as
       before.

       Note that mailx copies the subject header from the original message.
       This is useful in that correspondence about a particular matter will
       tend to retain the same subject heading, making it easy to recognize.
       If there are other header fields in the message, like `Cc:', the
       information found will also be used.

       Sometimes you will receive a message that has been sent to several
       people and wish to reply only to the person who sent it.  Reply with a
       capital R replies to a message, but sends a copy to the sender only.

       If you wish, while reading your mail, to send a message to someone, but
       not as a reply to one of your messages, you can send the message
       directly with the mail command, which takes as arguments the names of
       the recipients you wish to send to.  For example, to send a message to
       <frank@machine.example>, you would do:

           mail frank@machine.example

       To delete a message from the mail folder, you can use the delete
       command.  In addition to not saving deleted messages, mailx will not
       let you type them, either.  The effect is to make the message disappear
       altogether, along with its number.

       Many features of mailx can be tailored to your liking with the set
       command.  The set command has two forms, depending on whether you are
       setting a binary option or a valued option.  Binary options are either
       on or off.  For example, the askcc option informs mailx that each time
       you send a message, you want it to prompt you for a `Cc:' header, to be
       included in the message.  To set the askcc option, you would type

           set askcc

       Valued options are values which mailx uses to adapt to your tastes.
       For example, the record option tells mailx where to save messages sent
       by you, and is specified by

           set record=Sent

       for example.  Note that no spaces are allowed in set record=Sent .

       Mailx includes a simple facility for maintaining groups of messages
       together in folders.  To use the folder facility, you must tell mailx
       where you wish to keep your folders.  Each folder of messages will be a
       single file.  For convenience, all of your folders are kept in a single
       directory of your choosing.  To tell mailx where your folder directory
       is, put a line of the form

           set folder=letters

       in your .mailrc file.  If, as in the example above, your folder
       directory does not begin with a `/', mailx will assume that your folder
       directory is to be found starting from your home directory.

       Anywhere a file name is expected, you can use a folder name, preceded
       with `+'.  For example, to put a message into a folder with the save
       command, you can use:

           save +classwork

       to save the current message in the classwork folder.  If the classwork
       folder does not yet exist, it will be created.  Note that messages
       which are saved with the save command are automatically removed from
       your system mailbox.

       In order to make a copy of a message in a folder without causing that
       message to be removed from your system mailbox, use the copy command,
       which is identical in all other respects to the save command.

       The folder command can be used to direct mailx to the contents of a
       different folder.  For example,

           folder +classwork

       directs mailx to read the contents of the classwork folder.  All of the
       commands that you can use on your system mailbox are also applicable to
       folders, including type, delete, and reply.  To inquire which folder
       you are currently editing, use simply:

           folder

       To list your current set of folders, use the folders command.

       Finally, the help command is available to print out a brief summary of
       the most important mailx commands.

       While typing in a message to be sent to others, it is often useful to
       be able to invoke the text editor on the partial message, print the
       message, execute a shell command, or do some other auxiliary function.
       Mailx provides these capabilities through tilde escapes , which consist
       of a tilde (~) at the beginning of a line, followed by a single
       character which indicates the function to be performed.  For example,
       to print the text of the message so far, use:

           ~p

       which will print a line of dashes, the recipients of your message, and
       the text of the message so far.  A list of the most important tilde
       escapes is available with `~?'.

   IMAP or POP3 client setup
       First you need the following data from your ISP: the host name of the
       IMAP or POP3 server, user name and password for this server, and a
       notice whether the server uses SSL/TLS encryption.  Assuming the host
       name is `server.myisp.example' and your user name for that server is
       `mylogin', you can refer to this account using the folder command or -f
       command line option with

           imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example

       (This string is not necessarily the same as your Internet mail
       address.)  You can replace `imaps://' with `imap://' if the server does
       not support SSL/TLS.  (If SSL/TLS support is built using NSS, the nss-
       config-dir variable must be set before a connection can be initiated,
       see above).  Use `pop3s://' or `pop3://' if the server does not offer
       IMAP.  You should use IMAP if you can, though; first because it
       requires fewer network operations than POP3 to get the contents of the
       mailbox and is thus faster; and second because message attributes are
       maintained by the IMAP server, so you can easily distinguish new and
       old messages each time you connect.  Even if the server does not accept
       IMAPS or POP3S connections, it is possible that it supports the
       STARTTLS method to make a session SSL/TLS encrypted after the initial
       connection has been performed, but before authentication begins.  The
       only reliable method to see if this works is to try it; enter one of

           set imap-use-starttls
           set pop3-use-starttls

       before you initiate the connection.

       As you probably want messages to be deleted from this account after
       saving them, prefix it with `%:'.  The shortcut command can be used to
       avoid typing that many characters every time you want to connect:

           shortcut myisp %:imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example

       You might want to put this string into a startup file.  As the shortcut
       command is specific to this implementation of mailx and will confuse
       other implementations, it should not be used in ~/.mailrc, instead, put

           set NAIL_EXTRA_RC=~/.nailrc

       in ~/.mailrc and create a file ~/.nailrc containing the shortcut
       command above.  You can then access your remote mailbox by invoking
       `mailx -f myisp' on the command line, or by executing `fi myisp' within
       mailx.

       If you want to use more than one IMAP mailbox on a server, or if you
       want to use the IMAP server for mail storage too, the account command
       (which is also mailx-specific) is more appropriate than the shortcut
       command.  You can put the following in ~/.nailrc:

           account myisp {
               set folder=imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example
               set record=+Sent MBOX=+mbox outfolder
           }

       and can then access incoming mail for this account by invoking `mailx
       -A myisp' on the command line, or by executing `ac myisp' within mailx.
       After that, a command like `copy 1 +otherfolder' will refer to
       otherfolder on the IMAP server.  In particular, `fi &' will change to
       the mbox folder, and `fi +Sent' will show your recorded sent mail, with
       both folders located on the IMAP server.

       Mailx will ask you for a password string each time you connect to a
       remote account.  If you can reasonably trust the security of your
       workstation, you can give this password in the startup file as

           set password-mylogin@server.myisp.example="SECRET"

       You should change the permissions of this file to 0600, see chmod(1).

       Mailx supports different authentication methods for both IMAP and POP3.
       If Kerberos is used at your location, you can try to activate GSSAPI-
       based authentication by

           set imap-auth=gssapi

       The advantage of this method is that mailx does not need to know your
       password at all, nor needs to send sensitive data over the network.
       Otherwise, the options

           set imap-auth=cram-md5
           set pop3-use-apop

       for IMAP and POP3, respectively, offer authentication methods that
       avoid to send the password in clear text over the network, which is
       especially important if SSL/TLS cannot be used.  If the server does not
       offer any of these authentication methods, conventional user/password
       based authentication must be used.  It is sometimes helpful to set the
       verbose option when authentication problems occur.  Mailx will display
       all data sent to the server in clear text on the screen with this
       option, including passwords.  You should thus take care that no
       unauthorized person can look at your terminal when this option is set.

       If you regularly use the same workstation to access IMAP accounts, you
       can greatly enhance performance by enabling local caching of IMAP
       messages.  For any message that has been fully or partially fetched
       from the server, a local copy is made and is used when the message is
       accessed again, so most data is transferred over the network once only.
       To enable the IMAP cache, select a local directory name and put

           set imap-cache=~/localdirectory

       in the startup file.  All files within that directory can be
       overwritten or deleted by mailx at any time, so you should not use the
       directory to store other information.

       Once the cache contains some messages, it is not strictly necessary
       anymore to open a connection to the IMAP server to access them.  When
       mailx is invoked with the -D option, or when the disconnected variable
       is set, only cached data is used for any folder you open.  Messages
       that have not yet been completely cached are not available then, but
       all other messages can be handled as usual.  Changes made to IMAP
       mailboxes in disconnected mode are committed to the IMAP server next
       time it is used in online mode.  Synchronizing the local status with
       the status on the server is thus partially within your responsibility;
       if you forget to initiate a connection to the server again before you
       leave your location, changes made on one workstation are not available
       on others.  Also if you alter IMAP mailboxes from a workstation while
       uncommitted changes are still pending on another, the latter data may
       become invalid.  The same might also happen because of internal server
       status changes.  You should thus carefully evaluate this feature in
       your environment before you rely on it.

       Many servers will close the connection after a short period of
       inactivity. Use one of

           set pop3-keepalive=30
           set imap-keepalive=240

       to send a keepalive message each 30 seconds for POP3, or each 4 minutes
       for IMAP.

       If you encounter problems connecting to a SSL/TLS server, try the ssl-
       rand-egd and ssl-rand-file variables (see the OpenSSL FAQ for more
       information) or specify the protocol version with ssl-method.  Contact
       your ISP if you need a client certificate or if verification of the
       server certificate fails.  If the failed certificate is indeed valid,
       fetch its CA certificate by executing the shell command

           $ openssl s_client </dev/null -showcerts -connect \
                  server.myisp.example:imaps 2>&1 | tee log

       (see s_client(1)) and put it into the file specified with ssl-ca-file.
       The data you need is located at the end of the certificate chain within
       (and including) the `BEGIN CERTIFICATE' and `END CERTIFICATE' lines.
       (Note that it is possible to fetch a forged certificate by this method.
       You can only completely rely on the authenticity of the CA certificate
       if you fetch it in a way that is trusted by other means, such as by
       personally receiving the certificate on storage media.)

   Creating a score file or message filter
       The scoring commands are best separated from other configuration for
       clarity, and are mostly mailx specific.  It is thus recommended to put
       them in a separate file that is sourced from your NAIL_EXTRA_RC as
       follows:

           source ~/.scores

       The .scores file could then look as follows:

           define list {
               score (subject "important discussion") +10
               score (subject "annoying discussion") -10
               score (from "nicefellow@goodnet") +15
               score (from "badguy@poornet") -5
               move (header x-spam-flag "+++++") +junk
           }
           set folder-hook-imap://user@host/public.list=list

       In this scheme, you would see any mail from `nicefellow@goodnet', even
       if the surrounding discussion is annoying; but you normally would not
       see mail from `badguy@poornet', unless he participates in the important
       discussion.  Messages that are marked with five or more plus characters
       in their `X-Spam-Flag' field (inserted by some server-side filtering
       software) are moved to the folder `junk' in the folder directory.

       Be aware that all criteria in () lead to substring matches, so you
       would also score messages from e.g. `notsobadguy@poornetmakers'
       negative here.  It is possible to select addresses exactly using
       "address" message specifications, but these cannot be executed remotely
       and will thus cause all headers to be downloaded from IMAP servers
       while looking for matches.

       When searching messages on an IMAP server, best performance is usually
       achieved by sending as many criteria as possible in one large ()
       specification, because each single such specification will result in a
       separate network operation.

   Activating the Bayesian filter
       The Bayesian junk mail filter works by examining the words contained in
       messages.  You decide yourself what a good and what a bad message is.
       Thus the resulting filter is your very personal one; once it is
       correctly set up, it will filter only messages similar to those
       previously specified by you.

       To use the Bayesian filter, a location for the junk mail database must
       be defined first:

           set junkdb=~/.junkdb

       The junk mail database does not contain actual words extracted from
       messages, but hashed representations of them.  A foreign person who can
       read the database could only examine the frequency of previously known
       words in your mail.

       If you have sufficient disk space (several 10 MB) available, it is
       recommended that you set the chained-junk-tokens option.  The filter
       will then also consider two-word tokens, improving its accuracy.

       A set of good messages and junk messages must now be available; it is
       also possible to use the incoming new messages for this purpose,
       although it will of course take some time until the filter becomes
       useful then.  Do not underestimate the amount of statistical data
       needed; some hundred messages are typically necessary to get
       satisfactory results, and many thousand messages for best operation.
       You have to pass the good messages to the good command, and the junk
       messages to the junk command.  If you ever accidentally mark a good
       message as junk or vice-versa, call the ungood or unjunk command to
       correct this.

       Once a reasonable amount of statistics has been collected, new messages
       can be classified automatically.  The classify command marks all
       messages that the filter considers to be junk, but it does not perform
       any action on them by default.  It is recommended that you move these
       messages into a separate folder just for the case that false positives
       occur, or to pass them to the junk command later again to further
       improve the junk mail database.  To automatically move incoming junk
       messages every time the inbox is opened, put lines like the following
       into your .scores file (or whatever name you gave to the file in the
       last example):

           define junkfilter {
               classify (smaller 20000) :n
               move :j +junk
           }
           set folder-hook-imap://user@host/INBOX=junkfilter

       If you set the verbose option before running the classify command,
       mailx prints the words it uses for calculating the junk status along
       with their statistical probabilities.  This can help you to find out
       why some messages are not classified as you would like them to be.  To
       see the statistical probability of a given word, use the probability
       command.

       If a junk message was not recognized as such, use the junk command to
       correct this.  Also if you encounter a false positive (a good message
       that was wrongly classified as junk), pass it to the good command.

       Since the classify command must examine the entire text of all new
       messages in the respective folder, this will also cause all of them to
       be downloaded from the IMAP server.  You should thus restrict the size
       of messages for automatic filtering.  If server-based filtering is also
       available, you might try if that works for you first.

   Reading HTML mail
       You need either the w3m or lynx utility or another command-line web
       browser that can write plain text to standard output.

           set pipe-text/html="w3m -dump -T text/html"

       or

           set pipe-text/html="lynx -dump -force_html /dev/stdin"

       will then cause HTML message parts to be converted into a more friendly
       form.

   Viewing PDF attachments
       Most PDF viewers do not accept input directly from a pipe.  It is thus
       necessary to store the attachment in a temporary file, as with

           set pipe-application/pdf="cat >/tmp/mailx$$.pdf; \
                  acroread /tmp/mailx$$.pdf; rm /tmp/mailx$$.pdf"

       Note that security defects are discovered in PDF viewers from time to
       time.  Automatical command execution like this can compromise your
       system security, in particular if you stay not always informed about
       such issues.

   Signed and encrypted messages with S/MIME
       S/MIME provides two central mechanisms: message signing and message
       encryption.  A signed message contains some data in addition to the
       regular text.  The data can be used to verify that the message was sent
       using a valid certificate, that the sender's address in the message
       header matches that in the certificate, and that the message text has
       not been altered.  Signing a message does not change its regular text;
       it can be read regardless of whether the recipient's software is able
       to handle S/MIME.  It is thus usually possible to sign all outgoing
       messages if so desired.—Encryption, in contrast, makes the message text
       invisible for all people except those who have access to the secret
       decryption key.  To encrypt a message, the specific recipient's public
       encryption key must be known.  It is thus not possible to send
       encrypted mail to people unless their key has been retrieved from
       either previous communication or public key directories.  A message
       should always be signed before it is encrypted.  Otherwise, it is still
       possible that the encrypted message text is altered.

       A central concept to S/MIME is that of the certification authority
       (CA).  A CA is a trusted institution that issues certificates.  For
       each of these certificates, it can be verified that it really
       originates from the CA, provided that the CA's own certificate is
       previously known.  A set of CA certificates is usually delivered with
       OpenSSL and installed on your system.  If you trust the source of your
       OpenSSL software installation, this offers reasonable security for
       S/MIME on the Internet.  In general, a certificate cannot be more
       secure than the method its CA certificate has been retrieved with,
       though.  Thus if you download a CA certificate from the Internet, you
       can only trust the messages you verify using that certificate as much
       as you trust the download process.

       The first thing you need for participating in S/MIME message exchange
       is your personal certificate, including a private key.  The certificate
       contains public information, in particular your name and your email
       address, and the public key that is used by others to encrypt messages
       for you, and to verify signed messages they supposedly received from
       you.  The certificate is included in each signed message you send.  The
       private key must be kept secret.  It is used to decrypt messages that
       were previously encrypted with your public key, and to sign messages.

       For personal use, it is recommended that you get a S/MIME certificate
       from one of the major CAs on the Internet using your WWW browser.
       (Many CAs offer such certificates for free.)  You will usually receive
       a combined certificate and private key in PKCS#12 format which mailx
       does not directly accept if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.  To
       convert it to PEM format, use the following shell command:

           $ openssl pkcs12 -in cert.p12 -out cert.pem -clcerts \
               -nodes

       If you omit the -nodes parameter, you can specifiy an additional PEM
       pass phrase for protecting the private key.  Mailx will then ask you
       for that pass phrase each time it signs or decrypts a message.  You can
       then use

           set smime-sign-cert-myname@myisp.example=cert.pem

       to make this private key and certificate known to mailx.

       If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the PKCS#12 file must be
       installed using Mozilla (provided that nss-config-dir is set
       appropriately, see above), and no further action is necessary unless
       multiple user certificates for the same email address are installed.
       In this case, the smime-sign-nickname variable has to be set
       appropriately.

       You can now sign outgoing messages.  Just use

           set smime-sign

       to do so.

       From each signed message you send, the recipient can fetch your
       certificate and use it to send encrypted mail back to you.  Accordingly
       if somebody sends you a signed message, you can do the same.  First use
       the verify command to check the validity of the certificate.  After
       that, retrieve the certificate and tell mailx that it should use it for
       encryption:

           certsave filename
           set smime-encrypt-user@host=filename

       If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the saved certificate must be
       installed using Mozilla.  The value of the smime-encrypt-user@host is
       ignored then, but if multiple certificates for the recipient are
       available, the smime-nickname-user@host variable must be set.

       You should carefully consider if you prefer to store encrypted messages
       in decrypted form.  If you do, anybody who has access to your mail
       folders can read them, but if you do not, you might be unable to read
       them yourself later if you happen to lose your private key.  The
       decrypt command saves messages in decrypted form, while the save, copy,
       and move commands leave them encrypted.

       Note that neither S/MIME signing nor encryption applies to message
       subjects or other header fields.  Thus they may not contain sensitive
       information for encrypted messages, and cannot be trusted even if the
       message content has been verified.  When sending signed messages, it is
       recommended to repeat any important header information in the message
       text.

   Using CRLs with S/MIME or SSL/TLS
       Certification authorities (CAs) issue certificate revocation lists
       (CRLs) on a regular basis.  These lists contain the serial numbers of
       certificates that have been declared invalid after they have been
       issued.  Such usually happens because the private key for the
       certificate has been compromised, because the owner of the certificate
       has left the organization that is mentioned in the certificate, etc.
       To seriously use S/MIME or SSL/TLS verification, an up-to-date CRL is
       required for each trusted CA.  There is otherwise no method to
       distinguish between valid and invalidated certificates.  Mailx
       currently offers no mechanism to fetch CRLs, or to access them on the
       Internet, so you have to retrieve them by some external mechanism.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are built using OpenSSL, mailx accepts
       CRLs in PEM format only; CRLs in DER format must be converted, e.g.
       with the shell command

           $ openssl crl -inform DER -in crl.der -out crl.pem

       To tell mailx about the CRLs, a directory that contains all CRL files
       (and no other files) must be created.  The smime-crl-dir or ssl-crl-dir
       variables, respectively, must then be set to point to that directory.
       After that, mailx requires a CRL to be present for each CA that is used
       to verify a certificate.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are built using NSS, CRLs can be imported
       in Mozilla applications (provided that nss-config-dir is set
       appropriately).

   Sending mail from scripts
       If you want to send mail from scripts, you must be aware that mailx
       reads the user's configuration files by default.  So unless your script
       is only intended for your own personal use (as e.g. a cron job), you
       need to circumvent this by invoking mailx like

           MAILRC=/dev/null mailx -n

       You then need to create a configuration for mailx for your script.
       This can be done by either pointing the MAILRC variable to a custom
       configuration file, or by passing the configuration in environment
       variables.  Since many of the configuration options are not valid shell
       variables, the env command is useful in this situation.  An invocation
       could thus look like

           env MAILRC=/dev/null from=scriptreply@domain smtp=host \
                 smtp-auth-user=login smtp-auth-password=secret \
                 smtp-auth=login mailx -n -s "subject" \
                 -a attachment_file recipient@domain <content_file

SEE ALSO
       fmt(1), newaliases(1), openssl(1), pg(1), more(1), vacation(1), ssl(3),
       aliases(5), locale(7), mailaddr(7), sendmail(8)

NOTES
       Variables in the environment passed to mailx cannot be unset.

       The character set conversion relies on the iconv(3) function.  Its
       functionality differs widely between the various system environments
       mailx runs on.  If the message `Cannot convert from a to b' appears,
       either some characters within the message header or text are not
       appropriate for the currently selected terminal character set, or the
       needed conversion is not supported by the system.  In the first case,
       it is necessary to set an appropriate LC_CTYPE locale (e.g. en_US) or
       the ttycharset variable.  In the second case, the sendcharsets and
       ttycharset variables must be set to the same value to inhibit character
       set conversion.  If iconv() is not available at all, the value assigned
       to sendcharsets must match the character set that is used on the
       terminal.

       Mailx expects input text to be in Unix format, with lines separated by
       newline (^J, \n) characters only.  Non-Unix text files that use
       carriage return (^M, \r) characters in addition will be treated as
       binary data; to send such files as text, strip these characters e. g.
       by

              tr -d '\015' <input | mailx . . .

       or fix the tools that generate them.

       Limitations with IMAP mailboxes are: It is not possible to edit
       messages, but it is possible to append them.  Thus to edit a message,
       create a local copy of it, edit it, append it, and delete the original.
       The line count for the header display is only appropriate if the entire
       message has been downloaded from the server.  The marking of messages
       as `new' is performed by the IMAP server; use of the exit command
       instead of quit will not cause it to be reset, and if the
       autoinc/newmail variables are unset, messages that arrived during a
       session will not be in state `new' anymore when the folder is opened
       again.  Also if commands queued in disconnected mode are committed, the
       IMAP server will delete the `new' flag for all messages in the changed
       folder, and new messages will appear as unread when it is selected for
       viewing later.  The `flagged', `answered', and `draft' attributes are
       usually permanent, but some IMAP servers are known to drop them without
       notification.  Message numbers may change with IMAP every time before
       the prompt is printed if mailx is notified by the server that messages
       have been deleted by some other client or process.  In this case,
       `Expunged n messages' is printed, and message numbers may have changed.

       Limitations with POP3 mailboxes are: It is not possible to edit
       messages, they can only be copied and deleted.  The line count for the
       header display is only appropriate if the entire message has been
       downloaded from the server.  The status field of a message is
       maintained by the server between connections; some servers do not
       update it at all, and with a server that does, the `exit' command will
       not cause the message status to be reset.  The `newmail' command and
       the `newmail' variable have no effect.  It is not possible to rename or
       to remove POP3 mailboxes.

       If a RUBOUT (interrupt) is typed while an IMAP or POP3 operation is in
       progress, mailx will wait until the operation can be safely aborted,
       and will then return to the command loop and print the prompt again.
       When a second RUBOUT is typed while mailx is waiting for the operation
       to complete, the operation itself will be canceled.  In this case, data
       that has not been fetched yet will have to be fetched before the next
       command can be performed.  If the canceled operation was using an
       SSL/TLS encrypted channel, an error in the SSL transport will very
       likely result, and the connection is no longer usable.

       As mailx is a mail user agent, it provides only basic SMTP services.
       If it fails to contact its upstream SMTP server, it will not make
       further attempts to transfer the message at a later time, and it does
       not leave other information about this condition than an error message
       on the terminal and a `dead.letter' file.  This is usually not a
       problem if the SMTP server is located in the same local network as the
       computer on which mailx is run.  However, care should be taken when
       using a remote server of an ISP; it might be better to set up a local
       SMTP server then which just acts as a proxy.

       Mailx immediately contacts the SMTP server (or /usr/lib/sendmail) even
       when operating in disconnected mode.  It would not make much sense for
       mailx to defer outgoing mail since SMTP servers usually provide much
       more elaborated delay handling than mailx could perform as a client.
       Thus the recommended setup for sending mail in disconnected mode is to
       configure a local SMTP server such that it sends outgoing mail as soon
       as an external network connection is available again, i.e. to advise it
       to do that from a network startup script.

       The junk mail filter follows the concepts developed by Paul Graham in
       his articles, ``A Plan for Spam'', August 2002,
       <http://www.paulgraham.com/spam.html>, and ``Better Bayesian
       Filtering'', January 2003, <http://www.paulgraham.com/better.html>.
       Chained tokens are due to a paper by Jonathan A. Zdziarski, ``Advanced
       Language Classification using Chained Tokens'', February 2004,
       <http://www.nuclearelephant.com/papers/chained.html>.

       A mail command appeared in Version 1 AT&T Unix.  Berkeley Mail was
       written in 1978 by Kurt Shoens.  This man page is derived from from The
       Mail Reference Manual originally written by Kurt Shoens.  Heirloom
       Mailx enhancements are maintained and documented by Gunnar Ritter.

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       — Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 6, Copyright © 2001-2003 by the Institute of
       Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
       is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online
       at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .  Redistribution of this
       material is permitted so long as this notice remains intact.



Heirloom mailx 12.5                 10/9/10                           MAILX(1)