man2html

MAN2HTML(1)                  General Commands Manual                 MAN2HTML(1)



NAME
       man2html - convert UNIX nroff(1) manual pages to HTML format

SYNOPSIS
       man2html [-bare] [-belem name] [-botm lines] [-cgiurl string]
                [-cgiurlexp expr] [-compress] [-headmap mapfile] [-help] [-k]
                [-leftm chars] [-nodepage] [-noheads] [-pgsize lines] [-seealso]
                [-solaris] [-sun] [-title string] [-topm lines] [-uelem name]


       Typical Usage:

       man2html [-options]  < infile   > outfile

       man topic | man2html [-options]  > outfile

DESCRIPTION
       The man2html filter reads formatted nroff text from standard input
       (stdin) and writes a HTML document to standard output (stdout).

       The formatted nroff output is surrounded with <PRE> tags with the
       following exceptions/additions:

         • Section heads are wrapped in HTML header tags.  See the
           SECTION HEAD MAP FILE section below for additional information.  The
           -noheads option can be used to disable this feature.

         • Bold words designated by a "<char><bs><char>" sequences are wrapped
           in <B> tags (or the element specified via the -belem option).

         • Underlined words designated by a "_<bs><char>" sequences are wrapped
           in <I> tags (or the element specified via the -uelem option).

OPTIONS
       -bare
            This option will eliminate HTML <HEAD> and <BODY> tags from the
            output.  This is useful when you wish to incorporate the output into
            another HTML document.

       -belem name
            Use name as the name of the element to wrap overstriken characters.
            The default is B.

       -botm lines
            The lines argument specifies the number of lines representing the
            bottom margin of the formatted nroff input.  The line count includes
            any running footers.  The default value is 7.

       -cgiurl string
            The string argument specifies a template URL for creating links to
            other manpages.  See the LINKING TO OTHER MANPAGES section below for
            additional information.

       -cgiurlexp expr
            The expr argument specifies a Perl expression evaluting to a URL for
            creating links to other manpages.  See the LINKING TO OTHER MANPAGES
            section below for additional information.

       -compress
            Compress consecutive blank lines into a single line.

       -headmap mapfile
            The mapfile argument is read to determine which HTML header tags are
            to be used for various section heading in the manpage.  See the
            SECTION HEAD MAP FILE section below for information on the format of
            the map file.

       -help
            Print out a short usage message and then exit immediately.

       -k   Process input resulting from a manpage keyword search (man -k).  See
            the KEYWORD SEARCH section below for additional information.

       -leftm chars
            The chars argument specifies the width of the number of characters
            making up the left margin of the formatted nroff input.  The default
            value is 0.

       -nodepage
            By default, man2html merges multi-page formatted nroff into a single
            page.  This option may be used to disable depagination, causing
            running headers and footers in the formatted nroff input to be
            carried over into the HTML output.

       -noheads
            By default, man2html wraps section heads in HTML header tags.  See
            the SECTION HEAD MAP FILE section below for additional information.
            This option may be specified to disabled this feature.

       -pgsize lines
            The lines argument specifies the number of lines making up the page
            size (length) of the formatted nroff input.  The default value is
            66.

       -seealso
            If the -cgiurl option has been specified, then this option restricts
            the creation of links to other manual pages to the SEE ALSO section
            only.

       -solaris
            If the -k option has been specified, then this option modifies its
            operation to process the alternate manual page keyword search format
            produced by the man(1) utility on systems running Solaris.  See the
            KEYWORD SEARCH section below for additional information.

       -sun Do not require a section head to have bold overstriking in the
            formatted nroff input.  The option is called sun because it was on a
            Sun workstation that section heads in manpages were found to not be
            overstruck.

       -title string
            By default, man2html does not generate a HTML title (<TITLE>).  This
            option sets the title of the HTML output to the specified string.

       -topm lines
            The lines argument specifies number number of lines representing the
            top margin of the formatted nroff input.  The line count includes
            any running headers.  The default value is 7.

       -uelem name
            Use name as the name of the element to wrap underscored characters.
            The default is I.

SECTION HEAD MAP FILE
       The -headmap option may be used to customize which HTML header tags, <H1>
       ... <H6>, are used in manpage section headings.  Normally, man2html
       treats lines that are flush to the left margin (-leftm), and contain
       overstriking (overstrike check is canceled with the -sun option), as
       section heads.  However, you can augment/override what HTML header tags
       are used for any given section head.

       In order to write a section head map file, you will need to know about
       perl(1) associative arrays.  You do not need to be an expert in perl to
       write a map file, however, having knowledge of perl allows you to be more
       clever.

   Augmenting the Default Map
       To add to the default mapping defined by man2html, your map file will
       contain lines with the following syntax:

       $SectionHead{'<section head text>'} = '<html header tag>';

       where

       <section head text>
              is the text of the manpage section head.  For example: SYNOPSIS or
              DESCRIPTION.

       <html header tag>
              is the HTML header tag to wrap the section head in.  Legal values
              are: <H1>, <H2>, <H3>, <H4>, <H5>, <H6>.

   Overriding the Default Map
       To override the default mapping with your own, then your map file will
       have the following syntax:

           %SectionHead = (
                    '<section head text>', '<html header tag>',
                    '<section head text>', '<html header tag>',
                    # ... More section head/tag pairs
                    '<section head text>', '<html header tag>',
           );

   The Default Map
       As of this writing, this is the default map used by man2html:

           %SectionHead = (
               '\S.*OPTIONS.*'             => '<H2>',
               'AUTHORS?'                  => '<H2>',
               'BUGS'                      => '<H2>',
               'COMPATIBILITY'             => '<H2>',
               'DEPENDENCIES'              => '<H2>',
               'DESCRIPTION'               => '<H2>',
               'DIAGNOSTICS'               => '<H2>',
               'ENVIRONMENT'               => '<H2>',
               'ERRORS'                    => '<H2>',
               'EXAMPLES'                  => '<H2>',
               'EXTERNAL INFLUENCES'       => '<H2>',
               'FILES'                     => '<H2>',
               'LIMITATIONS'               => '<H2>',
               'NAME'                      => '<H2>',
               'NOTES?'                    => '<H2>',
               'OPTIONS'                   => '<H2>',
               'REFERENCES'                => '<H2>',
               'RETURN VALUE'              => '<H2>',
               'SECTION.*:'                => '<H2>',
               'SEE ALSO'                  => '<H2>',
               'STANDARDS CONFORMANCE'     => '<H2>',
               'STYLE CONVENTION'          => '<H2>',
               'SYNOPSIS'                  => '<H2>',
               'SYNTAX'                    => '<H2>',
               'WARNINGS'                  => '<H2>',
               '\s+Section.*:'             => '<H3>',
           );
           $HeadFallback = '<H2>';  # Fallback tag if above is not found.

       Check the perl source code of man2html for the latest default mapping.

       You can reassign the $HeadFallback variable to a different value if you
       choose.  This value is used as the header tag of a section head if no
       matches are found in the %SectionHead map.

   Using Regular Expressions in the Map File
       You may have noticed unusual characters in the default map file, like
       "\s" or "*".  The man2html utility actual treats the <section head text>
       as a perl regular expression.  If you are comfortable with perl regular
       expressions, then you have their full power to use in your map file.

       Caution: The man2html utility already anchors the regular expression to
       the beginning of the line with left margin spacing specified by the
       -leftm option.  Therefore, do not use the `^' character to anchor your
       regular expression to the beginning.  However, you may end your
       expression with a `$' to anchor it to the end of the line.

       Since the <section head text> is actually a regular expression, you will
       have to be careful of special characters if you want them to be treated
       literally.  Any of the characters `[ ] ( ) . ^ { } $ * ? +  |' should be
       escaped by prefixing them by the `\' character if you want perl to treat
       them "as is".

       Caution: One should use single quotes instead of double quotes to delimit
       <section head text>.  This will preserve any `\' characters for character
       escaping or when the `\' is used for special perl character matching
       sequences (e.g.,  \s, \w, \S).

   Other Tid-bits on the Map File
       Comments can be inserted in the map file by using the '#' character.
       Anything after, and including, the '#' character is ignored, up to the
       end of line.

       You might be thinking that the above is quite-a-bit-of-stuff just for
       doing manpage section heads.  However, you will be surprised how much
       better the HTML output looks with header tags, even though, everything
       else is in a <PRE> tag.

LINKING TO OTHER MANPAGES
       The man2html utility allows the ability to link to other manpage
       references.  If the -cgiurl option is specified, man2html will create
       anchors that link to other manpages.

       The URL entered with the -cgiurl option is actually a template that
       determines the actual URL used to link to other manpages.  The following
       variables are defined during run time that may be used in the template
       string:


           $title The title of the manual page referenced.

           $section
                  The section number of the manual page referenced.

           $subsection
                  The subsection of the manual page referenced.

       Any other text in the template is preserved "as is".

       Caution: The man2html utility evaluates the template string as a perl
       string expression.  Therefore, one might need to surround the variable
       names with '{}' (e.g., ${title}) so that man2html properly recognizes the
       variable.

       Note: If a CGI program calling man2html is actually a shell script or a
       perl program, make sure to properly escape the '$' character in the URL
       template to avoid variable interpolation by the CGI program.

       Normally, the URL calls a CGI program (hence the option name), but the
       URL can easily link to statically converted documents.

   Example1:
       The following template string is specified to call a CGI program to
       retrieve the appropriate manpage linked to:

       /cgi-bin/man.cgi?section=${section}${subsection}&topic=${title}

       If the ls(1) manpage is referenced in the SEE ALSO section, the above
       template will translate to the following URL:

       /cgi-bin/man.cgi?section=1&topic=ls

       The actual HTML markup will look like the following:

       <A HREF="/cgi-bin/man.cgi?section=1&topic=ls">ls(1)</A>

   Example2:
       The following template string is specified to retrieve pre-converted
       manpages:

       http://foo.org/man$section/$title.$section$subsection.html

       If the mount(1M) manpage is referenced, the above template will translate
       to the following URL:

       http://foo.org/man1/mount.1M.html

       The actual HTML markup will look like the following:

       <A HREF="http://foo.org/man1/mount.1M.html">mount(1M)</A>

   -cgiurlexp
       The option -cgiurlexp is a more general form of the -cgiurl option.
       -cgiurlexp allows one to specify a general Perl expression.  For example:

       $title=~/^db_/i?"$title.html":"/cgi-bin/man?$title+$section"

       A -cgiurl string can be expressed as follows with -cgiurlexp:

       return "string"

KEYWORD SEARCH
       The man2html utility has the ability to process keyword search output
       generated by the man -k or apropos commands, through the use of the -k
       option.  The man2html utility will generate an HTML document of the
       keyword search input having the following format:

         • All manpage references are listed by section.

         • Within each section listing, the manpage references are sorted
           alphabetically (case-sensitive) in a <DL> tag.  The manpage
           references are listed in the <DT> section, and the summary text is
           listed in the <DD> section.

         • Each manpage reference listed is a hyperlink to the actual manpage as
           specified by the -cgiurl option.

       This ability to process keyword searches gives nice added functionality
       to a WWW forms interface to man(1).  Even if you have statically
       converted manpages to HTML via another man->HTML program, you can use
       man2html and "man -k" to provide keyword search capabilities easily for
       your HTML manpages.

   Processing Keyword Search Results
       Unfortunately, there is no standard controlling the format of keyword
       search results.  The man2html utility tries it best to handle all the
       variations.  However, the keyword search results generated by the Solaris
       operating system is different enough from other systems that a special
       command-line option (-solaris) must be specified to handle its output.

   Example of raw Solaris-type keyword search results:
       strcpy        strcpy (9f)  - copy a string from one location to another.
       strcpy        string (3c)  - string operations
       strncpy       strcpy (9f)  - copy a string from one location to another.
       strncpy       string (3c)  - string operations

       If keyword search results on your systems appear in the following format:

           <topic>  <actual_manpage> (#) - Description

       then you need to specify the -solaris option in addition to the -k
       option.

ADDITIONAL NOTES
       Different systems format manpages differently.  Here is a list of
       recommended command-line options for certain systems:

           Convex:   <defaults should be okay>
           HP:       -leftm 1 -topm 8
           Sun:      -sun (and -solaris when using -k)

       Some line spacing gets lost in the formatted nroff since the spacing
       would occur in the middle of a page break.  This can cause text to be
       merged that shouldn't be merged when man2html depaginates the text.  To
       avoid this problem, man2html keeps track of the margin indent right
       before and after a page break.  If the margin width of the line after the
       page break is less than the line before the page break, then man2html
       inserts a blank line in the HTML output.

       A manpage cross-reference is detected by the following pseudo expression:
       [A-z.-+_]+([0-9][A-z]?)

       The man2html utility only recognizes lines with " - " (the normal
       separator between manpage references and summary text) while in keyword
       search mode.

       The man2html utility can be hooked in a CGI script/program to convert
       manpages on the fly.  This is the reason for the -cgiurl option.

LIMITATIONS
       The order that section head mapping is searched is not defined.
       Therefore, if two or more <section head text> can match a give manpage
       section, there is no way to determine which map tag is chosen.

       If -seealso is specified, all xrefs are detected after the SEE ALSO
       heading.  In other words, sections after SEE ALSO may contain hyperlinked
       xrefs.

BUGS
       Text that is flush to the left margin, but is not actually a section
       head, can be mistaken for a section head.  This mistake is more likely
       when the -sun option is in affect.

VERSION
       This documentation describes man2html version 3.0.1

SEE ALSO
       man(1), nroff(1), perl(1)

       http://www.oac.uci.edu/indiv/ehood/man2html.html

AUTHOR
       Earl Hood
       ehood@medusa.acs.uci.edu

ERRORS AND OMISSIONS
       Troff version of this document initially created for version 2.1.0 by C.
       Jeffery Small (jeff@cjsa.com) by copying, reformatting, rearranging and
       partially rewriting the contents of the ascii text file doc/man2html.txt.



                                    97/08/12                         MAN2HTML(1)