# math

```math(1)                              fish                              math(1)

NAME
math - Perform mathematics calculations

Synopsis
math [-sN | --scale=N] [--] EXPRESSION

Description
math is used to perform mathematical calculations. It supports all the
usual operations such as addition, subtraction, etc. As well as
functions like abs(), sqrt() and log2().

By default, the output is as a float with trailing zeroes trimmed. To
get a fixed representation, the --scale option can be used, including
--scale=0 for integer output.

Keep in mind that parameter expansion takes before expressions are
evaluated. This can be very useful in order to perform calculations
involving shell variables or the output of command substitutions, but
it also means that parenthesis and the asterisk glob character have to
be escaped or quoted.

math ignores whitespace between arguments and takes its input as
multiple arguments (internally joined with a space), so math 2 +2 and
math '2 +    2' work the same. math 2 2 is an error.

The following options are available:

· -sN or --scale=N sets the scale of the result. N must be an integer.
A scale of zero causes results to be rounded down to the nearest
integer. So 3/2 returns 1 rather than 2 which 1.5 would normally
round to. This is for compatibility with bc which was the basis for
this command prior to fish 3.0.0. Scale values greater than zero
causes the result to be rounded using the usual rules to the
specified number of decimal places.

Return Values
If the expression is successfully evaluated and doesn't over/underflow
or return NaN the return status is zero (success) else one.

Syntax
math knows some operators, constants, functions and can (obviously)

For numbers, . is always the radix character regardless of locale -
2.5, not 2,5. Scientific notation (10e5) is also available.

Operators
math knows the following operators:

· + for addition and - for subtraction.

· * for multiplication, / for division.

· ^ for exponentiation.

· % for modulo.

· ( and ) for grouping.

They are all used in an infix manner - 5 + 2, not + 5 2.

Constants
math knows the following constants:

· e - Euler's number.

· pi - You know that one. Half of Tau. (Tau is not implemented)

Use them without a leading \$ - pi - 3 should be about 0.

Functions
math supports the following functions:

· abs

· acos

· asin

· atan

· atan2

· ceil

· cos

· cosh

· exp - the base-e exponential function

· fac - factorial

· floor

· ln

· log or log10 - the base-10 logarithm

· ncr

· npr

· pow(x,y) returns x to the y (and can be written as x ^ y)

· round - rounds to the nearest integer, away from 0

· sin

· sinh

· sqrt

· tan

· tanh

All of the trigonometric functions use radians.

Examples
math 1+1 outputs 2.

math \$status - 128 outputs the numerical exit status of the last
command minus 128.

math 10 / 6 outputs 1.666667.

math -s0 10.0 / 6.0 outputs 1.

math -s3 10 / 6 outputs 1.666.

math 'sin(pi)' outputs 0.

Compatibility notes
Fish 1.x and 2.x releases relied on the bc command for handling math
expressions. Starting with fish 3.0.0 fish uses the tinyexpr library
and evaluates the expression without the involvement of any external
commands.

You don't need to use -- before the expression even if it begins with a
minus sign which might otherwise be interpreted as an invalid option.
If you do insert -- before the expression it will cause option scanning
to stop just like for every other command and it won't be part of the
expression.

Version 3.0.2                   Tue Mar 26 2019                        math(1)```