mcs

mcs(1)                       General Commands Manual                      mcs(1)



NAME
       mcs - Turbo C# Compiler

SYNOPSIS
       mcs [option] [source-files]

DESCRIPTION
       mcs is the Turbo C# compiler (also known as the Mono C# compiler), it is
       an implementation of the ECMA-334 language specification.  You can pass
       one or more options to drive the compiler, and a set of source files.
       Extra options or arguments can be provided in a response file.  Response
       files are referenced by prepending the @ symbol to the response file
       name.

       The mcs compiler is used to compile against the latest Mono Base Class
       Library version and fully implements C# 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0
       specifications with partial support for C# 7.0.

       See the section on packages for more information.

       The Turbo C# compiler accepts the same command line options that the
       Microsoft C# compiler does.  Those options can start with a slash or a
       dash (/checked is the same as -checked).  Additionally some GNU-like
       options are supported, those begin with "--".  All MCS-specific flags
       which are not available in the Microsoft C# compiler are available only
       with the GNU-style options.

       C# source files must end with a ".cs" extension.  Compilation of C#
       source code requires all the files that make up a library, module or
       executable to be provided on the command line.  There is no support for
       partial compilation.  To achieve the benefits of partial compilation, you
       should compile programs into their own assemblies, and later reference
       them with the "-r" flag.

       The Turbo C# compiler generates images (.exe files) that contain CIL byte
       code that can be executed by any system that implements a Common Language
       Infrastructure virtual machine such as the Microsoft .NET runtime engine
       on Windows or the Mono runtime engine on Unix systems.  Executables are
       not bound to a specific CPU or operating system.

       The Turbo C# compiler by default only references three assemblies:
       mscorlib.dll, System.dll and System.Xml.dll.   If you want to reference
       extra libraries you must manually specify them using the -pkg: command
       line option or the -r: command line option.  Alternatively if you want to
       get all of the System libraries, you can use the -pkg:dotnet command line
       option.

OPTIONS
       --about
              Displays information about the Turbo C# compiler

       --addmodule:MODULE1[,MODULE2]
              Includes the specified modules in the resulting assembly.  Modules
              are created by calling the compiler with the -target:module option

       -checked, -checked+
              Sets the default compilation mode to `checked'.  This makes all
              the math operations checked (the default is unchecked).

       -checked-
              Sets the default compilation mode to `unchecked'.  This makes all
              the math operations unchecked (this is the default).

       -clscheck-, -clscheck+
              Disables or enables the Common Language Specification (CLS) checks
              (it is enabled by default).

              The Common Language Specification (CLS) defines an interoperable
              subset of types as well as conventions that compilers (CLS
              producers) and developers must follow to expose code to other
              programming languages (CLS consumers).

       -codepage:ID
              Specifies the code page used to process the input files from the
              point it is specified on.  By default files will be processed in
              the environment-dependent native code page.  The compiler will
              also automatically detect Unicode files that have an embedded byte
              mark at the beginning.

              Other popular encodings are 28591 (Latin1), 1252 (iso-8859-1) and
              65001 (UTF-8).

              MCS supports a couple of shorthands: "utf8" can be used to specify
              utf-8 instead of using the cryptic 65001 and "reset" restores the
              automatic handling of code pages.  These shorthands are not
              available on the Microsoft compiler.

       -define:SYMLIST, -d:SYMLIST
              Defines the symbol listed by the semi-colon separated list SYMLIST
              SYMBOL.  This can be tested in the source code by the pre-
              processor, or can be used by methods that have been tagged with
              the Conditional attribute.

       -debug, -debug+
              Generate debugging information. To obtain stack traces with
              debugging information, you need to invoke the mono runtime with
              the `--debug' flag. The debugging information is stored in a MDB
              file located in same output folder as produced assembly.

       -debug-
              Do not generate debugging information.

       -delaysign+
              Only embed the strongname public key into the assembly. The actual
              signing must be done in a later stage using the SN tool. This is
              useful to protect the private key during development. Note that
              delay signing can only be done using a strongname key file (not a
              key container). The option is equivalent to including [assembly:
              AssemblyDelaySign (true)] in your source code. Compiler option
              takes precedence over the attributes.

       -delaysign-
              Default. Strongname (sign) the assembly using the strong name key
              file (or container). The option is equivalent to including
              [assembly: AssemblyDelaySign (false)] in your source code.
              Compiler option takes precedence over the attributes.

       -doc:FILE
              Extracts the C#/XML documentation from the source code and stores
              in in the given FILE.

       -errorreport
              This flag is ignored by Mono's C# compiler and is present only to
              allow MCS to be used as a CSC replacement for msbuild/xbuild.

       --fatal
              This is used for debugging the compiler.  This makes the error
              emission generate an exception that can be caught by a debugger.

       -filealign
              This flag is ignored by Mono's C# compiler and is present only to
              allow MCS to be used as a CSC replacement for msbuild/xbuild.

       -fullpaths
              Any source code error or warning issued by the compiler includes
              file name only by default. This option causes compiler to issue
              absolute file path instead.

       -keyfile:KEYFILE
              Strongname (sign) the output assembly using the key pair present
              in the specified strong name key file (snk). A full key pair is
              required by default (or when using delaysign-). A file containing
              only the public key can be used with delaysign+. The option is
              equivalent to including [assembly: AssemblyKeyFile ("KEYFILE")] in
              your source code.  Compiler option takes precedence over the
              attributes.

       -keycontainer:CONTAINER
              Strongname (sign) the output assembly using the key pair present
              in the specified container. Note that delaysign+ is ignored when
              using key containers. The option is equivalent to including
              [assembly: AssemblyKeyName ("CONTAINER")] in your source code.
              Compiler option takes precedence over the attributes.

       -langversion:TEXT
              The option specifies the version of the language to use. The
              feature set is different in each C# version. This switch can be
              used to force the compiler to allow only a subset of the features.
              The possible values are:

              Default
                     Instruct compiler to use the latest version. Equivalent is
                     to omit the switch (this currently defaults to the C# 6.0
                     language specification).

              ISO-1  Restrict compiler to use only first ISO standardized
                     features.  The usage of features such as generics, static
                     classes, anonymous methods will lead to error.

              ISO-2  Restrict compiler to use only the second ISO standardized
                     features.  This allows the use of generics, static classes,
                     iterators and anonymous methods for example.

              3      Restrict the compiler to use only the features available in
                     C# 3.0 (a superset of ISO-1 and ISO-2).

              4      Restrict the compiler to use only the features available in
                     C# 4.0 specification.

              5      Restrict the compiler to use only the features available in
                     C# 5.0 specification.

              6      Restrict the compiler to use only the features available in
                     C# 6.0 specification.

              experimental
                     Enables unstable features from upcoming versions of the
                     language.

              Notice that this flag only restricts the language features
              available to the programmer. A version of produced assemblies can
              be controlled using SDK option.

       -lib:PATHLIST
              Each path specified in the comma-separated list will direct the
              compiler to look for libraries in that specified path.

       -L PATH
              Directs the compiler to look for libraries in the specified path.
              Multiple paths can be provided by using the option multiple times.

       -main:CLASS
              Tells the compiler which CLASS contains the entry point. Useful
              when you are compiling several classes with a Main method.

       -nostdlib, -nostdlib+
              Use this flag if you want to compile the core library.  This makes
              the compiler load its internal types from the assembly being
              compiled.

       -noconfig, -noconfig+
              Disables the default compiler configuration to be loaded.  The
              compiler by default has references to the system assemblies.

       -nowarn:WARNLIST
              Makes the compiler ignore warnings specified in the comma-
              separated list WARNLIST>

       -optimize, -optimize+, -optimize-
              Controls compiler code generation optimizations on the code. Using
              -optimize or -optimize+ will turn on optimizations, -optimize-
              will turn it off.  The default in mcs is to optimize-. The option
              can be mixed with -debug but for the best debugging experience it
              is recommended leave the options off.

       -out:FNAME, -o FNAME
              Names the output file to be generated.

       --parse
              Used for benchmarking.  The compiler will only parse its input
              files.

       -pathmap:K=V[,Kn=Vn]
              Sets a mapping for source path names used in generated output.

       -pkg:package1[,packageN]
              Reference assemblies for the given packages.

              The compiler will invoke pkg-config --libs on the set of packages
              specified on the command line to obtain libraries and directories
              to compile the code.

              This is typically used with third party components, like this:

                        $ mcs -pkg:gtk-sharp demo.cs

              -pkg:dotnet
                     This will instruct the compiler to reference the System.*
                     libraries available on a typical dotnet framework
                     installation, notice that this does not include all of the
                     Mono libraries, only the System.* ones.  This is a
                     convenient shortcut for those porting code.

       -platform:ARCH
              Used to specify the target platform. The possible values are:
              anycpu, anycpu32bitpreferred, arm, x86, x64 or itanium. The
              default option is anycpu.

       -resource:RESOURCE[,ID]
              Embeds to the given resource file.  The optional ID can be used to
              give a different name to the resource.  If not specified, the
              resource name will be the file name.

       -linkresource:RESOURCE[,ID]
              Links to the specified RESOURCE.  The optional ID can be used to
              give a name to the linked resource.

       -r:ASSEMBLY1[,ASSEMBLY2], -reference ASSEMBLY1[,ASSEMBLY2]
              Reference the named assemblies.  Use this to use classes from the
              named assembly in your program.  The assembly will be loaded from
              either the system directory where all the assemblies live, or from
              the path explicitly given with the -L option.

              You can also use a semicolon to separate the assemblies instead of
              a comma.

       -reference:ALIAS=ASSEMBLY
              Extern alias reference support for C#.

              If you have different assemblies that provide the same types, the
              extern alias support allows you to provide names that your
              software can use to tell those appart.    The types from ASSEMBLY
              will be exposed as ALIAS, then on the C# source code, you need to
              do:

                   extern alias ALIAS;
              To bring it into your namespace.   For example, to cope with two
              graphics libraries that define "Graphics.Point", one in
              "OpenGL.dll" and one in "Postscript.dll", you would invoke the
              compiler like this:

                   mcs -r:Postscript=Postscript.dll -r:OpenGL=OpenGL.dll

              And in your source code, you would write:

                   extern alias Postscript;
                   extern alias OpenGL;

                   class X {
                        // This is a Graphics.Point from Postscrip.dll
                        Postscript.Point p = new Postscript.Point ();

                        // This is a Graphics.Point from OpenGL.dll
                        OpenGL.Point p = new OpenGL.Point ();
                   }

       -recurse:PATTERN, --recurse PATTERN
              Does recursive compilation using the specified pattern.  In Unix
              the shell will perform globbing, so you might want to use it like
              this:

                 $ mcs -recurse:'*.cs'

       -sdk:VERSION
              Used to specify the version of Base Class Library assemblies used
              for compilation. Following predefined values are valid: 2, 4
              (default) as well as any custom value. The predefined version
              number means which custom value is specified mcs will try to find
              Base Class Libraries in the mono installed location
              PREFIX/lib/mono/<value>.

       --shell
              Starts up the compiler in interactive mode, providing a C# shell
              for statements and expressions.   A shortcut is to use the csharp
              command directly.

       --stacktrace
              Generates a stack trace at the time the error is reported, useful
              for debugging the compiler.

       -target:KIND, -t:KIND
              Used to specify the desired target.  The possible values are: exe
              (plain executable), winexe (Windows.Forms executable), library
              (component libraries) and module (partial library).

       --timestamp
              Another debugging flag.  Used to display the times at various
              points in the compilation process.

       -unsafe, -unsafe+
              Enables compilation of unsafe code.

       -v     Debugging. Turns on verbose yacc parsing.

       --version
              Shows the compiler version.

       -warnaserror, -warnaserror+
              All compilers warnings will be reported as errors.

       -warnaserror:W1,[Wn], -warnaserror+:W1,[Wn]
              Treats one or more compiler warnings as errors.

       -warnaserror-:W1,[Wn]
              Sets one or more compiler warnings to be always threated as
              warnings.  Becomes useful when used together with -warnaserror.

       -warn:LEVEL
              Sets the warning level.  0 is the lowest warning level, and 4 is
              the highest.  The default is 4.

       -win32res:FILE
              Specifies a Win32 resource file (.res) to be bundled into the
              resulting assembly.

       -win32icon:FILE
              Attaches the icon specified in FILE on the output into the
              resulting assembly.

       --     Use this to stop option parsing, and allow option-looking
              parameters to be passed on the command line.

PACKAGES AND LIBRARIES
       When referencing an assembly, if the name of the assembly is a path, the
       compiler will try to load the assembly specified in the path.   If it
       does not, then the compiler will try loading the assembly from the
       current directory, the compiler base directory and if the assembly is not
       found in any of those places in the directories specified as arguments to
       the -lib: command argument.

       The compiler uses the library path to locate libraries, and is able to
       reference libraries from a particular package if that directory is used.
       To simplify the use of packages, the C# compiler includes the -pkg:
       command line option that is used to load specific collections of
       libraries.

       Libraries visible to the compiler are stored relative to the installation
       prefix under PREFIX/lib/mono/ called the PACKAGEBASE and the defaults for
       mcs, gmcs and smcs are as follows:

       mcs    References the PACKAGEBASE/1.0 directory

       gmcs   References the PACKAGEBASE/2.0 directory

       smcs   References the PACKAGEBASE/2.1 directory

       Those are the only runtime profiles that exist.  Although other
       directories exist (like 3.0 and 3.5) those are not really runtime
       profiles, they are merely placeholders for extra libraries that build on
       the 2.0 foundation.

       Software providers will distribute software that is installed relative to
       the PACKAGEBASE directory.  This is integrated into the gacutil tool that
       not only installs public assemblies into the Global Assembly Cache (GAC)
       but also installs them into the PACKAGEBASE/PKG directory (where PKG is
       the name passed to the -package flag to gacutil).

       As a developer, if you want to consume the Gtk# libraries, you would
       invoke the compiler like this:

            $ mcs -pkg:gtk-sharp-2.0 main.cs

       The -pkg: option instructs the compiler to fetch the definitions for gtk-
       sharp-2.0 from pkg-config, this is equivalent to passing to the C#
       compiler the output of:

            $ pkg-config --libs gtk-sharp-2.0

       Usually this merely references the libraries from PACKAGEBASE/PKG.

       Although there are directory names for 3.0 and 3.5, that does not mean
       that there are 3.0 and 3.5 compiler editions or profiles.   Those are
       merely new libraries that must be manually referenced either with the
       proper -pkg: invocation, or by referencing the libraries directly.

SPECIAL DEFINES
       The TRACE and DEBUG defines have a special meaning to the compiler.

       By default calls to methods and properties in the
       System.Diagnostics.Trace class are not generated unless the TRACE symbol
       is defined (either through a "#define TRACE") in your source code, or by
       using the --define TRACE in the command line.

       By default calls to methods and properties in the
       System.Diagnostics.Debug class are not generated unless the DEBUG symbol
       is defined (either through a "#define DEBUG") in your source code, or by
       using the --define DEBUG in the command line.

       Note that the effect of defining TRACE and DEBUG is a global setting,
       even if they are only defined in a single file.

DEBUGGING SUPPORT
       When using the "-debug" flag, MCS will generate a file with the extension
       .mdb that contains the debugging information for the generated assembly.
       This file is consumed by the Mono debugger (mdb).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       MCS_COLORS
              If this variable is set, it contains a string in the form
              "foreground,background" that specifies which color to use to
              display errors on some terminals.

              The background is optional and defaults to your terminal current
              background.   The possible colors for foreground are: black, red,
              brightred, green, brightgreen, yellow, brightyellow, blue,
              brightblue, magenta, brightmagenta, cyan, brightcyan, grey, white
              and brightwhite.

              The possible colors for background are: black, red, green, yellow,
              blue, magenta, cyan, grey and white.

              For example, you could set these variable from your shell:
                   export MCS_COLORS
                   MCS_COLORS=errors=brightwhite,red

              You can disable the built-in color scheme by setting this variable
              to "disable".

NOTES
       During compilation the MCS compiler defines the __MonoCS__ symbol, this
       can be used by pre-processor instructions to compile Mono C# compiler
       specific code.   Please note that this symbol is only to test for the
       compiler, and is not useful to distinguish compilation or deployment
       platforms.

AUTHORS
       The Mono C# Compiler was written by Miguel de Icaza, Ravi Pratap, Martin
       Baulig, Marek Safar and Raja Harinath.  The development was funded by
       Ximian, Novell and Marek Safar.

LICENSE
       The Mono Compiler Suite is released under the terms of the GNU GPL or the
       MIT X11.  Please read the accompanying `COPYING' file for details.
       Alternative licensing for the compiler is available from Xamarin.

SEE ALSO
       csharp(1), mono(1), pkg-config(1), sn(1)

BUGS
       To report bugs in the compiler, you must file them on our bug tracking
       system, at: http://www.mono-project.com/community/bugs/

MAILING LIST
       The Mono Mailing lists are listed at http://www.mono-
       project.com/community/help/mailing-lists/

MORE INFORMATION
       The Mono C# compiler was developed by Novell, Inc (http://www.novell.com)
       and Xamarin Inc (http://www.xamarin.com) is based on the ECMA C# language
       standard available here: http://www.ecma.ch/ecma1/STAND/ecma-334.htm

       The home page for the Mono C# compiler is at http://www.mono-
       project.com/docs/about-mono/languages/csharp/



                                 6 January 2001                           mcs(1)