mysql

MYSQL(1)                      MySQL Database System                     MYSQL(1)



NAME
       mysql - the MySQL command-line client

SYNOPSIS
       mysql [options] db_name

DESCRIPTION
       mysql is a simple SQL shell with input line editing capabilities. It
       supports interactive and noninteractive use. When used interactively,
       query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
       noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in
       tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using command
       options.

       If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets,
       use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
       server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set and
       buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by returning
       the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the
       client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

           Note
           Alternatively, MySQL Shell offers access to the X DevAPI. For
           details, see MySQL Shell 8.0 (part of MySQL 8.0)[1].

       Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
       interpreter as follows:

           shell> mysql db_name

       Or:

           shell> mysql --user=user_name --password db_name
           Enter password: your_password

       Then type an SQL statement, end it with ;, \g, or \G and press Enter.

       Typing Control+C interrupts the current statement if there is one, or
       cancels any partial input line otherwise.

       You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:

           shell> mysql db_name < script.sql > output.tab

       On Unix, the mysql client logs statements executed interactively to a
       history file. See the section called “MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING”.

MYSQL CLIENT OPTIONS
       mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the
       command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of an option file. For
       information about option files used by MySQL programs, see
       Section 4.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”.

       •   --help, -?

           Display a help message and exit.

       •   --auto-rehash

           Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which
           enables database, table, and column name completion. Use
           --disable-auto-rehash to disable rehashing. That causes mysql to
           start faster, but you must issue the rehash command or its \#
           shortcut if you want to use name completion.

           To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the name
           is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press Tab
           again to see the possible names that begin with what you have typed
           so far. Completion does not occur if there is no default database.

               Note
               This feature requires a MySQL client that is compiled with the
               readline library. Typically, the readline library is not
               available on Windows.

       •   --auto-vertical-output

           Cause result sets to be displayed vertically if they are too wide for
           the current window, and using normal tabular format otherwise. (This
           applies to statements terminated by ; or \G.)

       •   --batch, -B

           Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a
           new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

           Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
           the description for the --raw option.

       •   --binary-as-hex

           When this option is given, mysql displays binary data using
           hexadecimal notation (0xvalue). This occurs whether the overall
           output dislay format is tabular, vertical, HTML, or XML.

           As of MySQL 8.0.19, when mysql operates in interactive mode, this
           option is enabled by default. In addition, output from the status (or
           \s) command includes this line when the option is enabled implicitly
           or explicitly:

               Binary data as: Hexadecimal

           To disable hexadecimal notation, use --skip-binary-as-hex--binary-mode

           This option helps when processing mysqlbinlog output that may contain
           BLOB values. By default, mysql translates \r\n in statement strings
           to \n and interprets \0 as the statement terminator.  --binary-mode
           disables both features. It also disables all mysql commands except
           charset and delimiter in noninteractive mode (for input piped to
           mysql or loaded using the source command).

       •   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to
           select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

       •   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

           The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.15,
           “Character Set Configuration”.

       •   --column-names

           Write column names in results.

       •   --column-type-info

           Display result set metadata.

       •   --comments, -c

           Whether to strip or preserve comments in statements sent to the
           server. The default is --skip-comments (strip comments), enable with
           --comments (preserve comments).

               Note
               The mysql client always passes optimizer hints to the server,
               regardless of whether this option is given.

               Comment stripping is deprecated. This feature and the options to
               control it will be removed in a future MySQL release.

       •   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
           possible. See Section 4.2.6, “Connection Compression Control”.

           As of MySQL 8.0.18, this option is deprecated. It will be removed in
           a future MySQL version. See the section called “Legacy Connection
           Compression Configuration”.

       •   --compression-algorithms=value The permitted compression algorithms
           for connections to the server. The available algorithms are the same
           as for the protocol_compression_algorithms system variable. The
           default value is uncompressed.

           For more information, see Section 4.2.6, “Connection Compression
           Control”.

           This option was added in MySQL 8.0.18.

       •   --connect-expired-password

           Indicate to the server that the client can handle sandbox mode if the
           account used to connect has an expired password. This can be useful
           for noninteractive invocations of mysql because normally the server
           disconnects noninteractive clients that attempt to connect using an
           account with an expired password. (See Section 6.2.16, “Server
           Handling of Expired Passwords”.)

       •   --connect-timeout=value The number of seconds before connection
           timeout. (Default value is 0.)

       •   --database=db_name, -D db_name

           The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.

       •   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
           option.

       •   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
           option.

       •   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when
           the program exits.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
           option.

       •   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about which client-side authentication plugin to use. See
           Section 6.2.17, “Pluggable Authentication”.

       •   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set for the client and
           connection.

           This option can be useful if the operating system uses one character
           set and the mysql client by default uses another. In this case,
           output may be formatted incorrectly. You can usually fix such issues
           by using this option to force the client to use the system character
           set instead.

           For more information, see Section 10.4, “Connection Character Sets
           and Collations”, and Section 10.15, “Character Set Configuration”.

       •   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix)
           before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

           For additional information about this and other option-file options,
           see Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File
           Handling”.

       •   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

           Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read
           .mylogin.cnf.

           For additional information about this and other option-file options,
           see Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File
           Handling”.

       •   --defaults-group-suffix=str

           Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual
           names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql normally reads the
           [client] and [mysql] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other
           option is given, mysql also reads the [client_other] and
           [mysql_other] groups.

           For additional information about this and other option-file options,
           see Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File
           Handling”.

       •   --delimiter=str

           Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon character
           (;).

       •   --disable-named-commands

           Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named commands
           only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (;).  mysql
           starts with this option enabled by default. However, even with this
           option, long-format commands still work from the first line. See the
           section called “MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS”.

       •   --enable-cleartext-plugin

           Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin. (See
           Section 6.4.1.4, “Client-Side Cleartext Pluggable Authentication”.)

       •   --execute=statement, -e statement

           Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like
           that produced with --batch. See Section 4.2.2.1, “Using Options on
           the Command Line”, for some examples. With this option, mysql does
           not use the history file.

       •   --force, -f

           Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

       •   --get-server-public-key

           Request from the server the public key required for RSA key
           pair-based password exchange. This option applies to clients that
           authenticate with the caching_sha2_password authentication plugin.
           For that plugin, the server does not send the public key unless
           requested. This option is ignored for accounts that do not
           authenticate with that plugin. It is also ignored if RSA-based
           password exchange is not used, as is the case when the client
           connects to the server using a secure connection.

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a valid
           public key file, it takes precedence over --get-server-public-key.

           For information about the caching_sha2_password plugin, see
           Section 6.4.1.2, “Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.

       •   --histignore

           A list of one or more colon-separated patterns specifying statements
           to ignore for logging purposes. These patterns are added to the
           default pattern list ("*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*"). The value specified
           for this option affects logging of statements written to the history
           file, and to syslog if the --syslog option is given. For more
           information, see the section called “MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING”.

       •   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

       •   --html, -H

           Produce HTML output.

       •   --ignore-spaces, -i

           Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is described
           in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see Section 5.1.11,
           “Server SQL Modes”).

       •   --init-command=str

           SQL statement to execute after connecting to the server. If
           auto-reconnect is enabled, the statement is executed again after
           reconnection occurs.

       •   --line-numbers

           Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with --skip-line-numbers.

       •   --local-infile[={0|1}]

           By default, LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA is determined by the
           default compiled into the MySQL client library. To enable or disable
           LOCAL explicitly, use the --local-infile option. When given with no
           value, the option enables LOCAL. When given as --local-infile=0 or
           --local-infile=1, the option explicitly disables or enables LOCAL.

           Successful use of LOCAL load operations within mysql also requires
           that the server permits local loading; see Section 6.1.6, “Security
           Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL”

       •   --login-path=name

           Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path
           file. A “login path” is an option group containing options that
           specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to
           authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the
           mysql_config_editor utility. See mysql_config_editor(1).

           For additional information about this and other option-file options,
           see Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File
           Handling”.

       •   --max-allowed-packet=value The maximum size of the buffer for
           client/server communication. The default is 16MB, the maximum is 1GB.

       •   --max-join-size=value The automatic limit for rows in a join when
           using --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000,000.)

       •   --named-commands, -G

           Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are permitted, not
           just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are
           recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands. See
           the section called “MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS”.

       •   --net-buffer-length=value The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket
           communication. (Default value is 16KB.)

       •   --no-auto-rehash, -A

           This has the same effect as --skip-auto-rehash. See the description
           for --auto-rehash.

       •   --no-beep, -b

           Do not beep when errors occur.

       •   --no-defaults

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading
           unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to
           prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in
           all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than
           on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is
           created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See
           mysql_config_editor(1).)

           For additional information about this and other option-file options,
           see Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File
           Handling”.

       •   --one-database, -o

           Ignore statements except those that occur while the default database
           is the one named on the command line. This option is rudimentary and
           should be used with care. Statement filtering is based only on USE
           statements.

           Initially, mysql executes statements in the input because specifying
           a database db_name on the command line is equivalent to inserting USE
           db_name at the beginning of the input. Then, for each USE statement
           encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following statements depending
           on whether the database named is the one on the command line. The
           content of the statements is immaterial.

           Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:

               DELETE FROM db2.t2;
               USE db2;
               DROP TABLE db1.t1;
               CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
               USE db1;
               INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
               CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);

           If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1, mysql
           handles the input as follows:

           •   The DELETE statement is executed because the default database is
               db1, even though the statement names a table in a different
               database.

           •   The DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not executed
               because the default database is not db1, even though the
               statements name a table in db1.

           •   The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed because the
               default database is db1, even though the CREATE TABLE statement
               names a table in a different database.

       •   --pager[=command]

           Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is
           omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment
           variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so
           forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive mode.
           To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called “MYSQL
           CLIENT COMMANDS”, discusses output paging further.

       •   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password of the MySQL account used for connecting to the server.
           The password value is optional. If not given, mysql prompts for one.
           If given, there must be no space between --password= or -p and the
           password following it. If no password option is specified, the
           default is to send no password.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. To avoid giving the password on the command line, use an
           option file. See Section 6.1.2.1, “End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security”.

           To explicitly specify that there is no password and that mysql should
           not prompt for one, use the --skip-password option.

       •   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
           applies only if the server was started with the named_pipe system
           variable enabled to support named-pipe connections. In addition, the
           user making the connection must be a member of the Windows group
           specified by the named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

       •   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if
           the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin
           but mysql does not find it. See Section 6.2.17, “Pluggable
           Authentication”.

       •   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           For TCP/IP connections, the port number to use.

       •   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option
           files.

           For additional information about this and other option-file options,
           see Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File
           Handling”.

       •   --prompt=format_str

           Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The
           special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in the
           section called “MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS”.

       •   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally result in use of
           a protocol other than the one you want. For details on the
           permissible values, see Section 4.2.4, “Connecting to the MySQL
           Server Using Command Options”.

       •   --quick, -q

           Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received.
           This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With this
           option, mysql does not use the history file.

       •   --raw, -r

           For tabular output, the “boxing” around columns enables one column
           value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular output (such
           as is produced in batch mode or when the --batch or --silent option
           is given), special characters are escaped in the output so they can
           be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash are written as
           \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this character
           escaping.

           The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular output
           and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

               % mysql
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               +----------+
               | CHAR(92) |
               +----------+
               | \        |
               +----------+
               % mysql -s
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               CHAR(92)
               \\
               % mysql -s -r
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               CHAR(92)
               \

       •   --reconnect

           If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to
           reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
           connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use
           --skip-reconnect.

       •   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

           If this option is enabled, UPDATE and DELETE statements that do not
           use a key in the WHERE clause or a LIMIT clause produce an error. In
           addition, restrictions are placed on SELECT statements that produce
           (or are estimated to produce) very large result sets. If you have set
           this option in an option file, you can use --skip-safe-updates on the
           command line to override it. For more information about this option,
           see Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates).

       •   --select-limit=value The automatic limit for SELECT statements when
           using --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)

       •   --server-public-key-path=file_name

           The path name to a file containing a client-side copy of the public
           key required by the server for RSA key pair-based password exchange.
           The file must be in PEM format. This option applies to clients that
           authenticate with the sha256_password or caching_sha2_password
           authentication plugin. This option is ignored for accounts that do
           not authenticate with one of those plugins. It is also ignored if
           RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is the case when the
           client connects to the server using a secure connection.

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a valid
           public key file, it takes precedence over --get-server-public-key.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using OpenSSL.

           For information about the sha256_password and caching_sha2_password
           plugins, see Section 6.4.1.3, “SHA-256 Pluggable Authentication”, and
           Section 6.4.1.2, “Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.

       •   --shared-memory-base-name=name

           On Windows, the shared-memory name to use for connections made using
           shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The
           shared-memory name is case-sensitive.

           This option applies only if the server was started with the
           shared_memory system variable enabled to support shared-memory
           connections.

       •   --show-warnings

           Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any.
           This option applies to interactive and batch mode.

       •   --sigint-ignore

           Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C).

           Without this option, typing Control+C interrupts the current
           statement if there is one, or cancels any partial input line
           otherwise.

       •   --silent, -s

           Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple
           times to produce less and less output.

           This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
           the description for the --raw option.

       •   --skip-column-names, -N

           Do not write column names in results.

       •   --skip-line-numbers, -L

           Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to compare
           result files that include error messages.

       •   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

           On Windows, this option applies only if the server was started with
           the named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe
           connections. In addition, the user making the connection must be a
           member of the Windows group specified by the
           named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

       •   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
           server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See the section called “Command Options for Encrypted
           Connections”.

       •   --ssl-fips-mode={OFF|ON|STRICT} Controls whether to enable FIPS mode
           on the client side. The --ssl-fips-mode option differs from other
           --ssl-xxx options in that it is not used to establish encrypted
           connections, but rather to affect which cryptographic operations are
           permitted. See Section 6.5, “FIPS Support”.

           These --ssl-fips-mode values are permitted:

           •   OFF: Disable FIPS mode.

           •   ON: Enable FIPS mode.

           •   STRICT: Enable “strict” FIPS mode.


               Note
               If the OpenSSL FIPS Object Module is not available, the only
               permitted value for --ssl-fips-mode is OFF. In this case, setting
               --ssl-fips-mode to ON or STRICT causes the client to produce a
               warning at startup and to operate in non-FIPS mode.

       •   --syslog, -j

           This option causes mysql to send interactive statements to the system
           logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog; on Windows, it is the
           Windows Event Log. The destination where logged messages appear is
           system dependent. On Linux, the destination is often the
           /var/log/messages file.

           Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog. This
           output is formatted for readability; each logged message actually
           takes a single line.

               Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
                 SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
                 DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
               Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
                 SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
                 DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'

           For more information, see the section called “MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING”.

       •   --table, -t

           Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive
           use, but can be used to produce table output in batch mode.

       •   --tee=file_name

           Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only in
           interactive mode.  the section called “MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS”,
           discusses tee files further.

       •   --tls-ciphersuites=ciphersuite_list

           The permissible ciphersuites for encrypted connections that use
           TLSv1.3. The value is a list of one or more colon-separated
           ciphersuite names. The ciphersuites that can be named for this option
           depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see
           Section 6.3.2, “Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and Ciphers”.

           This option was added in MySQL 8.0.16.

       •   --tls-version=protocol_list

           The permissible TLS protocols for encrypted connections. The value is
           a list of one or more comma-separated protocol names. The protocols
           that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to
           compile MySQL. For details, see Section 6.3.2, “Encrypted Connection
           TLS Protocols and Ciphers”.

       •   --unbuffered, -n

           Flush the buffer after each query.

       •   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The user name of the MySQL account to use for connecting to the
           server.

       •   --verbose, -v

           Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This
           option can be given multiple times to produce more and more output.
           (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even in batch
           mode.)

       •   --version, -V

           Display version information and exit.

       •   --vertical, -E

           Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value).
           Without this option, you can specify vertical output for individual
           statements by terminating them with \G.

       •   --wait, -w

           If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of
           aborting.

       •   --xml, -X

           Produce XML output.

               <field name="column_name">NULL</field>

           The output when --xml is used with mysql matches that of mysqldump
           --xml. See mysqldump(1), for details.

           The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:

               shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
               <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
               </row>
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
               <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
               </row>
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
               <field name="Value">i686</field>
               </row>
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
               <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>
               </row>
               </resultset>

       •   --zstd-compression-level=level The compression level to use for
           connections to the server that use the zstd compression algorithm.
           The permitted levels are from 1 to 22, with larger values indicating
           increasing levels of compression. The default zstd compression level
           is 3. The compression level setting has no effect on connections that
           do not use zstd compression.

           For more information, see Section 4.2.6, “Connection Compression
           Control”.

           This option was added in MySQL 8.0.18.

MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS
       mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be
       executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself interprets.
       For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the mysql> prompt:

           mysql> help
           List of all MySQL commands:
           Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
           ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
           clear     (\c) Clear the current input statement.
           connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
           delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
           edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
           ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
           exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
           go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
           help      (\h) Display this help.
           nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
           notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
           pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
           print     (\p) Print current command.
           prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
           quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
           rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
           source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
           status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
           system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
           tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
                          outfile.
           use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
           charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                          binlog with multi-byte charsets.
           warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
           nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
           resetconnection(\x) Clean session context.
           For server side help, type 'help contents'

       If mysql is invoked with the --binary-mode option, all mysql commands are
       disabled except charset and delimiter in noninteractive mode (for input
       piped to mysql or loaded using the source command).

       Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not
       case-sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an
       optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.

       The use of short-form commands within multiple-line /* ... */ comments is
       not supported. Short-form commands do work within single-line /*! ... */
       version comments, as do /*+ ... */ optimizer-hint comments, which are
       stored in object definitions. If there is a concern that optimizer-hint
       comments may be stored in object definitions so that dump files when
       reloaded with mysql would result in execution of such commands, either
       invoke mysql with the --binary-mode option or use a reload client other
       than mysql.

       •   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

           Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.

           If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
           search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
           MySQL Reference Manual. For more information, see the section called
           “MYSQL CLIENT SERVER-SIDE HELP”.

       •   charset charset_name, \C charset_name

           Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES statement.
           This enables the character set to remain synchronized on the client
           and server if mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled (which is not
           recommended), because the specified character set is used for
           reconnects.

       •   clear, \c

           Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about
           executing the statement that you are entering.

       •   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]

           Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name
           arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host
           where the server is running. If omitted, the current values are used.

       •   delimiter str, \d str

           Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between SQL
           statements. The default is the semicolon character (;).

           The delimiter string can be specified as an unquoted or quoted
           argument on the delimiter command line. Quoting can be done with
           either single quote ('), double quote ("), or backtick (`)
           characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either quote
           the string with a different quote character or escape the quote with
           a backslash (\) character. Backslash should be avoided outside of
           quoted strings because it is the escape character for MySQL. For an
           unquoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the first space or end
           of line. For a quoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the
           matching quote on the line.

           mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a statement
           delimiter anywhere it occurs, except within quoted strings. Be
           careful about defining a delimiter that might occur within other
           words. For example, if you define the delimiter as X, you will be
           unable to use the word INDEX in statements.  mysql interprets this as
           INDE followed by the delimiter X.

           When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other than
           the default of ;, instances of that character are sent to the server
           without interpretation. However, the server itself still interprets ;
           as a statement delimiter and processes statements accordingly. This
           behavior on the server side comes into play for multiple-statement
           execution (see Section 28.7.22, “C API Multiple Statement Execution
           Support”), and for parsing the body of stored procedures and
           functions, triggers, and events (see Section 24.1, “Defining Stored
           Programs”).

       •   edit, \e

           Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the
           EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine which editor to
           use. The default editor is vi if neither variable is set.

           The edit command works only in Unix.

       •   ego, \G

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed and display
           the result using vertical format.

       •   exit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       •   go, \g

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed.

       •   nopager, \n

           Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

           The nopager command works only in Unix.

       •   notee, \t

           Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for tee.

       •   nowarning, \w

           Disable display of warnings after each statement.

       •   pager [command], \P [command]

           Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke
           mysql, it is possible to browse or search query results in
           interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any other
           similar program. If you specify no value for the option, mysql checks
           the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets the pager to
           that. Pager functionality works only in interactive mode.

           Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command and
           disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional argument; if
           given, the paging program is set to that. With no argument, the pager
           is set to the pager that was set on the command line, or stdout if no
           pager was specified.

           Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen()
           function, which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee
           option can be used instead to save query output, although it is not
           as convenient as pager for browsing output in some situations.

       •   print, \p

           Print the current input statement without executing it.

       •   prompt [str], \R [str]

           Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special
           character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described
           later in this section.

           If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets the
           prompt to the default of mysql>.

       •   quit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       •   rehash, \#

           Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and column
           name completion while you are entering statements. (See the
           description for the --auto-rehash option.)

       •   resetconnection, \x

           Reset the connection to clear the session state.

           Resetting a connection has effects similar to mysql_change_user() or
           an auto-reconnect except that the connection is not closed and
           reopened, and re-authentication is not done. See Section 28.7.6.3,
           “mysql_change_user()”, and Section 28.7.27, “C API Automatic
           Reconnection Control”.

           This example shows how resetconnection clears a value maintained in
           the session state:

               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(3);
               +-------------------+
               | LAST_INSERT_ID(3) |
               +-------------------+
               |                 3 |
               +-------------------+
               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
               +------------------+
               | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
               +------------------+
               |                3 |
               +------------------+
               mysql> resetconnection;
               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
               +------------------+
               | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
               +------------------+
               |                0 |
               +------------------+

       •   source file_name, \. file_name

           Read the named file and executes the statements contained therein. On
           Windows, specify path name separators as / or \\.

           Quote characters are taken as part of the file name itself. For best
           results, the name should not include space characters.

       •   status, \s

           Provide status information about the connection and the server you
           are using. If you are running with --safe-updates enabled, status
           also prints the values for the mysql variables that affect your
           queries.

       •   system command, \! command

           Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.

           Prior to MySQL 8.0.19, the system command works only in Unix. As of
           8.0.19, it also works on Windows.

       •   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

           By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log
           statements and their output. All the data displayed on the screen is
           appended into a given file. This can be very useful for debugging
           purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after each
           statement, just before it prints its next prompt. Tee functionality
           works only in interactive mode.

           You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command.
           Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can be
           disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again re-enables
           logging.

       •   use db_name, \u db_name

           Use db_name as the default database.

       •   warnings, \W

           Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are any).

       Here are a few tips about the pager command:

       •   You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the
           file:

               mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt

           You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use as
           your pager:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S

       •   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
           useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide result
           set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to less can
           make the result set much more readable because you can scroll it
           horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys. You can also
           use -S interactively within less to switch the horizontal-browse mode
           on and off. For more information, read the less manual page:

               shell> man less

       •   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit if
           output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no scrolling is
           necessary:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X

       •   You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query
           output:

               mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
                         | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S

           In this example, the command would send query results to two files in
           two different directories on two different file systems mounted on
           /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen using less.

       You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file enabled
       and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results using the
       less program and still have everything appended into a file the same
       time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager command and
       the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee works even if you
       do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee also logs everything
       that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix tee used with pager does
       not log quite that much. Additionally, tee file logging can be turned on
       and off interactively from within mysql. This is useful when you want to
       log some queries to a file, but not others.

       The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string for
       defining the prompt can contain the following special sequences.

r
.br
.br
72
       ┌───────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────┐
       │Option                     Description                 │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The current connection      │
       │                           │ identifier                  │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ A counter that increments   │
       │                           │ for each statement you      │
       │                           │ issue                       │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The full current date       │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The default database        │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The server host             │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The current delimiter       │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ Minutes of the current time │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ A newline character         │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The current month in three- │
       │                           │ letter format (Jan, Feb,    │
       │                           │ ...)                        │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The current month in        │
       │                           │ numeric format              │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │P                          │ am/pm                       │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The current TCP/IP port or  │
       │                           │ socket file                 │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The current time, in        │
       │                           │ 24-hour military time       │
       │                           │ (0–23)                      │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The current time, standard  │
       │                           │ 12-hour time (1–12)         │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ Semicolon                   │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ Seconds of the current time │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ A tab character             │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │U                          │                             │
       │                           │        Your full            │
       │                           │        user_name@host_name  │
       │                           │        account name         │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ Your user name              │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The server version          │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The current day of the week │
       │                           │ in three-letter format      │
       │                           │ (Mon, Tue, ...)             │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ The current year, four      │
       │                           │ digits                      │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │y                          │ The current year, two       │
       │                           │ digits                      │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │_                          │ A space                     │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │\                          │ A space (a space follows    │
       │                           │ the backslash)              │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │´                          │ Single quote                │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │                           │ Double quote                │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │T}:T{ A literal  backslash │                             │
       │character                  │                             │
       ├───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
       │\fIx                       │                             │
       │                           │        x, for any “x” not   │
       │                           │        listed above         │
       └───────────────────────────┴─────────────────────────────┘

       You can set the prompt in several ways:

       •   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment
           variable to a prompt string. For example:

               shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the
           command line to mysql. For example:

               shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
               (user@host) [database]>

       •   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
           group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf
           file in your home directory. For example:

               [mysql]
               prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_

           In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set
           the prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is advisable
           to double the backslashes when using the special prompt options.
           There is some overlap in the set of permissible prompt options and
           the set of special escape sequences that are recognized in option
           files. (The rules for escape sequences in option files are listed in
           Section 4.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”.) The overlap may cause you
           problems if you use single backslashes. For example, \s is
           interpreted as a space rather than as the current seconds value. The
           following example shows how to define a prompt within an option file
           to include the current time in hh:mm:ss> format:

               [mysql]
               prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

       •   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
           interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:

               mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
               PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
               (user@host) [database]>
               (user@host) [database]> prompt
               Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>
               mysql>

MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING
       The mysql client can do these types of logging for statements executed
       interactively:

       •   On Unix, mysql writes the statements to a history file. By default,
           this file is named .mysql_history in your home directory. To specify
           a different file, set the value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment
           variable.

       •   On all platforms, if the --syslog option is given, mysql writes the
           statements to the system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog;
           on Windows, it is the Windows Event Log. The destination where logged
           messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the destination is
           often the /var/log/messages file.

       The following discussion describes characteristics that apply to all
       logging types and provides information specific to each logging type.

       •   How Logging Occurs

       •   Controlling the History File

       •   syslog Logging Characteristics
       How Logging Occurs

       For each enabled logging destination, statement logging occurs as
       follows:

       •   Statements are logged only when executed interactively. Statements
           are noninteractive, for example, when read from a file or a pipe. It
           is also possible to suppress statement logging by using the --batch
           or --execute option.

       •   Statements are ignored and not logged if they match any pattern in
           the “ignore” list. This list is described later.

       •   mysql logs each nonignored, nonempty statement line individually.

       •   If a nonignored statement spans multiple lines (not including the
           terminating delimiter), mysql concatenates the lines to form the
           complete statement, maps newlines to spaces, and logs the result,
           plus a delimiter.

       Consequently, an input statement that spans multiple lines can be logged
       twice. Consider this input:

           mysql> SELECT
               -> 'Today is'
               -> ,
               -> CURDATE()
               -> ;

       In this case, mysql logs the “SELECT”, “'Today is'”, “,”, “CURDATE()”,
       and “;” lines as it reads them. It also logs the complete statement,
       after mapping SELECT\n'Today is'\n,\nCURDATE() to SELECT 'Today is' ,
       CURDATE(), plus a delimiter. Thus, these lines appear in logged output:

           SELECT
           'Today is'
           ,
           CURDATE()
           ;
           SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE();

       mysql ignores for logging purposes statements that match any pattern in
       the “ignore” list. By default, the pattern list is
       "*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*", to ignore statements that refer to passwords.
       Pattern matching is not case-sensitive. Within patterns, two characters
       are special:

       •   ?  matches any single character.

       •   * matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

       To specify additional patterns, use the --histignore option or set the
       MYSQL_HISTIGNORE environment variable. (If both are specified, the option
       value takes precedence.) The value should be a list of one or more
       colon-separated patterns, which are appended to the default pattern list.

       Patterns specified on the command line might need to be quoted or escaped
       to prevent your command interpreter from treating them specially. For
       example, to suppress logging for UPDATE and DELETE statements in addition
       to statements that refer to passwords, invoke mysql like this:

           shell> mysql --histignore="*UPDATE*:*DELETE*"

       Controlling the History File

       The .mysql_history file should be protected with a restrictive access
       mode because sensitive information might be written to it, such as the
       text of SQL statements that contain passwords. See Section 6.1.2.1, “End-
       User Guidelines for Password Security”. Statements in the file are
       accessible from the mysql client when the up-arrow key is used to recall
       the history. See Disabling Interactive History.

       If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
       .mysql_history if it exists. Then use either of the following techniques
       to prevent it from being created again:

       •   Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable to /dev/null. To cause
           this setting to take effect each time you log in, put it in one of
           your shell's startup files.

       •   Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null; this need be
           done only once:

               shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history
       syslog Logging Characteristics

       If the --syslog option is given, mysql writes interactive statements to
       the system logging facility. Message logging has the following
       characteristics.

       Logging occurs at the “information” level. This corresponds to the
       LOG_INFO priority for syslog on Unix/Linux syslog capability and to
       EVENTLOG_INFORMATION_TYPE for the Windows Event Log. Consult your system
       documentation for configuration of your logging capability.

       Message size is limited to 1024 bytes.

       Messages consist of the identifier MysqlClient followed by these values:

       •   SYSTEM_USER

           The operating system user name (login name) or -- if the user is
           unknown.

       •   MYSQL_USER

           The MySQL user name (specified with the --user option) or -- if the
           user is unknown.

       •   CONNECTION_ID:

           The client connection identifier. This is the same as the
           CONNECTION_ID() function value within the session.

       •   DB_SERVER

           The server host or -- if the host is unknown.

       •   DB

           The default database or -- if no database has been selected.

       •   QUERY

           The text of the logged statement.

       Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog. This
       output is formatted for readability; each logged message actually takes a
       single line.

           Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
             SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
             DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
           Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
             SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
             DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'

MYSQL CLIENT SERVER-SIDE HELP
           mysql> help search_string

       If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a search
       string to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL
       Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command requires that the
       help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help topic
       information (see Section 5.1.14, “Server-Side Help Support”).

       If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:

           mysql> help me
           Nothing found
           Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics

       Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:

           mysql> help contents
           You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
           For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
           following categories:
              Account Management
              Administration
              Data Definition
              Data Manipulation
              Data Types
              Functions
              Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
              Geographic Features
              Language Structure
              Plugins
              Storage Engines
              Stored Routines
              Table Maintenance
              Transactions
              Triggers

       If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of
       matching topics:

           mysql> help logs
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
           where <item> is one of the following topics:
              SHOW
              SHOW BINARY LOGS
              SHOW ENGINE
              SHOW LOGS

       Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic:

           mysql> help show binary logs
           Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'
           Description:
           Syntax:
           SHOW BINARY LOGS
           SHOW MASTER LOGS
           Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
           part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
           to determine which logs can be purged.
           mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
           +---------------+-----------+-----------+
           | Log_name      | File_size | Encrypted |
           +---------------+-----------+-----------+
           | binlog.000015 |    724935 | Yes       |
           | binlog.000016 |    733481 | Yes       |
           +---------------+-----------+-----------+

       The search string can contain the wildcard characters % and _. These have
       the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations performed with the
       LIKE operator. For example, HELP rep% returns a list of topics that begin
       with rep:

           mysql> HELP rep%
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
           where <item> is one of the following
           topics:
              REPAIR TABLE
              REPEAT FUNCTION
              REPEAT LOOP
              REPLACE
              REPLACE FUNCTION

EXECUTING SQL STATEMENTS FROM A TEXT FILE
       The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

           shell> mysql db_name

       However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
       then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a text
       file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute. Then
       invoke mysql as shown here:

           shell> mysql db_name < text_file

       If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the file,
       it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command line:

           shell> mysql < text_file

       If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
       using the source command or \.  command:

           mysql> source file_name
           mysql> \. file_name

       Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to the
       user. For this you can insert statements like this:

           SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';

       The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

       You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes each
       statement to be displayed before the result that it produces.

       mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM) characters at the beginning
       of input files. Previously, it read them and sent them to the server,
       resulting in a syntax error. Presence of a BOM does not cause mysql to
       change its default character set. To do that, invoke mysql with an option
       such as --default-character-set=utf8.

       For more information about batch mode, see Section 3.5, “Using mysql in
       Batch Mode”.

MYSQL CLIENT TIPS
       This section provides information about techniques for more effective use
       of mysql and about mysql operational behavior.

       •   Input-Line Editing

       •   Disabling Interactive History

       •   Unicode Support on Windows

       •   Displaying Query Results Vertically

       •   Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates)

       •   Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect

       •   mysql Client Parser Versus Server Parser
       Input-Line Editing

       mysql supports input-line editing, which enables you to modify the
       current input line in place or recall previous input lines. For example,
       the left-arrow and right-arrow keys move horizontally within the current
       input line, and the up-arrow and down-arrow keys move up and down through
       the set of previously entered lines.  Backspace deletes the character
       before the cursor and typing new characters enters them at the cursor
       position. To enter the line, press Enter.

       On Windows, the editing key sequences are the same as supported for
       command editing in console windows. On Unix, the key sequences depend on
       the input library used to build mysql (for example, the libedit or
       readline library).

       Documentation for the libedit and readline libraries is available online.
       To change the set of key sequences permitted by a given input library,
       define key bindings in the library startup file. This is a file in your
       home directory: .editrc for libedit and .inputrc for readline.

       For example, in libedit, Control+W deletes everything before the current
       cursor position and Control+U deletes the entire line. In readline,
       Control+W deletes the word before the cursor and Control+U deletes
       everything before the current cursor position. If mysql was built using
       libedit, a user who prefers the readline behavior for these two keys can
       put the following lines in the .editrc file (creating the file if
       necessary):

           bind "^W" ed-delete-prev-word
           bind "^U" vi-kill-line-prev

       To see the current set of key bindings, temporarily put a line that says
       only bind at the end of .editrc.  mysql will show the bindings when it
       starts.  Disabling Interactive History

       The up-arrow key enables you to recall input lines from current and
       previous sessions. In cases where a console is shared, this behavior may
       be unsuitable.  mysql supports disabling the interactive history
       partially or fully, depending on the host platform.

       On Windows, the history is stored in memory.  Alt+F7 deletes all input
       lines stored in memory for the current history buffer. It also deletes
       the list of sequential numbers in front of the input lines displayed with
       F7 and recalled (by number) with F9. New input lines entered after you
       press Alt+F7 repopulate the current history buffer. Clearing the buffer
       does not prevent logging to the Windows Event Viewer, if the --syslog
       option was used to start mysql. Closing the console window also clears
       the current history buffer.

       To disable interactive history on Unix, first delete the .mysql_history
       file, if it exists (previous entries are recalled otherwise). Then start
       mysql with the --histignore="*" option to ignore all new input lines. To
       re-enable the recall (and logging) behavior, restart mysql without the
       option.

       If you prevent the .mysql_history file from being created (see
       Controlling the History File) and use --histignore="*" to start the mysql
       client, the interactive history recall facility is disabled fully.
       Alternatively, if you omit the --histignore option, you can recall the
       input lines entered during the current session.  Unicode Support on
       Windows

       Windows provides APIs based on UTF-16LE for reading from and writing to
       the console; the mysql client for Windows is able to use these APIs. The
       Windows installer creates an item in the MySQL menu named MySQL command
       line client - Unicode. This item invokes the mysql client with properties
       set to communicate through the console to the MySQL server using Unicode.

       To take advantage of this support manually, run mysql within a console
       that uses a compatible Unicode font and set the default character set to
       a Unicode character set that is supported for communication with the
       server:

        1. Open a console window.

        2. Go to the console window properties, select the font tab, and choose
           Lucida Console or some other compatible Unicode font. This is
           necessary because console windows start by default using a DOS raster
           font that is inadequate for Unicode.

        3. Execute mysql.exe with the --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4)
           option. This option is necessary because utf16le is one of the
           character sets that cannot be used as the client character set. See
           the section called “Impermissible Client Character Sets”.

       With those changes, mysql will use the Windows APIs to communicate with
       the console using UTF-16LE, and communicate with the server using UTF-8.
       (The menu item mentioned previously sets the font and character set as
       just described.)

       To avoid those steps each time you run mysql, you can create a shortcut
       that invokes mysql.exe. The shortcut should set the console font to
       Lucida Console or some other compatible Unicode font, and pass the
       --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4) option to mysql.exe.

       Alternatively, create a shortcut that only sets the console font, and set
       the character set in the [mysql] group of your my.ini file:

           [mysql]
           default-character-set=utf8

       Displaying Query Results Vertically

       Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically,
       instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be displayed
       vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a semicolon. For
       example, longer text values that include newlines often are much easier
       to read with vertical output:

           mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
           *************************** 1. row ***************************
             msg_nro: 3068
                date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
           time_zone: +0200
           mail_from: Jones
               reply: jones@example.com
             mail_to: "John Smith" <smith@example.com>
                 sbj: UTF-8
                 txt: >>>>> "John" == John Smith writes:
           John> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
           John> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
           John> TODO list and see what happens.
           Yes, please do that.
           Regards,
           Jones
                file: inbox-jani-1
                hash: 190402944
           1 row in set (0.09 sec)

       Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates)

       For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
       --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). Safe-updates mode is helpful
       for cases when you might have issued an UPDATE or DELETE statement but
       forgotten the WHERE clause indicating which rows to modify. Normally,
       such statements update or delete all rows in the table. With
       --safe-updates, you can modify rows only by specifying the key values
       that identify them, or a LIMIT clause, or both. This helps prevent
       accidents. Safe-updates mode also restricts SELECT statements that
       produce (or are estimated to produce) very large result sets.

       The --safe-updates option causes mysql to execute the following statement
       when it connects to the MySQL server, to set the session values of the
       sql_safe_updates, sql_select_limit, and max_join_size system variables:

           SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, max_join_size=1000000;

       The SET statement affects statement processing as follows:

       •   Enabling sql_safe_updates causes UPDATE and DELETE statements to
           produce an error if they do not specify a key constraint in the WHERE
           clause, or provide a LIMIT clause, or both. For example:

               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

       •   Setting sql_select_limit to 1,000 causes the server to limit all
           SELECT result sets to 1,000 rows unless the statement includes a
           LIMIT clause.

       •   Setting max_join_size to 1,000,000 causes multiple-table SELECT
           statements to produce an error if the server estimates it must
           examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

       To specify result set limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can
       override the defaults by using the --select-limit and --max-join-size
       options when you invoke mysql:

           mysql --safe-updates --select-limit=500 --max-join-size=10000

       It is possible for UPDATE and DELETE statements to produce an error in
       safe-updates mode even with a key specified in the WHERE clause, if the
       optimizer decides not to use the index on the key column:

       •   Range access on the index cannot be used if memory usage exceeds that
           permitted by the range_optimizer_max_mem_size system variable. The
           optimizer then falls back to a table scan. See the section called
           “Limiting Memory Use for Range Optimization”.

       •   If key comparisons require type conversion, the index may not be used
           (see Section 8.3.1, “How MySQL Uses Indexes”). Suppose that an
           indexed string column c1 is compared to a numeric value using WHERE
           c1 = 2222. For such comparisons, the string value is converted to a
           number and the operands are compared numerically (see Section 12.2,
           “Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation”), preventing use of the
           index. If safe-updates mode is enabled, an error occurs.

       As of MySQL 8.0.13, safe-updates mode also includes these behaviors:

       •   EXPLAIN with UPDATE and DELETE statements does not produce
           safe-updates errors. This enables use of EXPLAIN plus SHOW WARNINGS
           to see why an index is not used, which can be helpful in cases such
           as when a range_optimizer_max_mem_size violation or type conversion
           occurs and the optimizer does not use an index even though a key
           column was specified in the WHERE clause.

       •   When a safe-updates error occurs, the error message includes the
           first diagnostic that was produced, to provide information about the
           reason for failure. For example, the message may indicate that the
           range_optimizer_max_mem_size value was exceeded or type conversion
           occurred, either of which can preclude use of an index.

       •   For multiple-table deletes and updates, an error is produced with
           safe updates enabled only if any target table uses a table scan.
       Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect

       If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a
       statement, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to
       the server and send the statement again. However, even if mysql succeeds
       in reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your previous
       session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the autocommit
       mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any current
       transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for you, as in the
       following example where the server was shut down and restarted between
       the first and second statements without you knowing it:

           mysql> SET @a=1;
           Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
           mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
           ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
           No connection. Trying to reconnect...
           Connection id:    1
           Current database: test
           Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
           mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
           +------+
           | a    |
           +------+
           | NULL |
           +------+
           1 row in set (0.05 sec)

       The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the
       reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql terminate
       with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start the mysql
       client with the --skip-reconnect option.

       For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state
       information when a reconnection occurs, see Section 28.7.27, “C API
       Automatic Reconnection Control”.  mysql Client Parser Versus Server
       Parser

       The mysql client uses a parser on the client side that is not a duplicate
       of the complete parser used by the mysqld server on the server side. This
       can lead to differences in treatment of certain constructs. Examples:

       •   The server parser treats strings delimited by " characters as
           identifiers rather than as plain strings if the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode
           is enabled.

           The mysql client parser does not take the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode into
           account. It treats strings delimited by ", ', and ` characters the
           same, regardless of whether ANSI_QUOTES is enabled.

       •   Within /*! ... */ and /*+ ... */ comments, the mysql client parser
           interprets short-form mysql commands. The server parser does not
           interpret them because these commands have no meaning on the server
           side.

           If it is desirable for mysql not to interpret short-form commands
           within comments, a partial workaround is to use the --binary-mode
           option, which causes all mysql commands to be disabled except \C and
           \d in noninteractive mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded using
           the source command).

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright © 1997, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights
       reserved.

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General
       Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51
       Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see
       http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.


NOTES
        1. MySQL Shell 8.0 (part of MySQL 8.0)
           https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-shell/8.0/en/

SEE ALSO
       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

AUTHOR
       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).



MySQL 8.0                          03/06/2020                           MYSQL(1)