@INDOT@named — Internet domain name server (DNS)

     @INDOT@NAMED [-d debuglevel] [-p port#] [-(b|c) config_file] [-f -q -r]
                  [-w directory] [config_file]

     Named is the Internet domain name server.  See RFC's 1033, 1034, and 1035
     for more information on the Internet name-domain system.  Without any
     arguments, named will read the default configuration file /etc/named.conf,
     read any initial data, and listen for queries.  A config_file argument
     given at the end of the command line will override any config_file
     specified by using the “-b” or “-c” flags.

     NOTE: Several of named's options, and much more of its behaviour, can be
     controlled in the configuration file.  Please refer to the configuration
     file guide included with this BIND distribution for further information.

     Options are:

     -d debuglevel
                 Print debugging information.  The debuglevel is a number
                 determines the level of messages printed.  If negative,
                 debuglevel is set to “1”.

                 NOTE: The new debugging framework is considerably more
                 sophisticated than it was in older versions of @INDOT@NAMED.
                 The configuration file's “logging” statement allows for
                 multiple, distinct levels of debugging for each of a large set
                 of categories of events (such as queries, transfers in or out,
                 etc.).  Please refer to the configuration file guide included
                 with this BIND distribution for further information about these
                 extensive new capabilities.

     -p port#    Use the specified remote port number; this is the port number
                 to which @INDOT@NAMED will send queries.  The default value is
                 the standard port number, i.e., the port number returned by
                 getservbyname(@LIB_NETWORK_EXT@) for service “domain”.

                 NOTE: Previously, the syntax “-p port#[/localport#]” was
                 supported; the first port was that used when contacting remote
                 servers, and the second one was the service port bound by the
                 local instance of @INDOT_U@NAMED.  The current usage is
                 equivalent to the old usage without the localport# specified;
                 this functionality can be specified with the “listen-on” clause
                 of the configuration file's “options” statement.

     -(b|c) config_file
                 Use an alternate config_file; this argument is overridden by
                 any config_file which is specified at the end of the command
                 line.  The default value is /etc/named.conf.

     -f          Run this process in the foreground; don't fork(@SYSCALL_EXT@)
                 and daemonize.  (The default is to daemonize.)

     -q          Trace all incoming queries if @INDOT_U@NAMED has been compiled
                 with QRYLOG defined.

                 NOTE: This option is deprecated in favor of the “queries”
                 logging category of the configuration file's “logging”
                 statement; for more information, please refer to the
                 configuration file guide included with this distribution of

     -r          Turns recursion off in the server.  Answers can come only from
                 local (primary or secondary) zones.  This can be used on root
                 servers.  The default is to use recursion.

                 NOTE: This option can be overridden by and is deprecated in
                 favor of the “recursion” clause of the configuration file's
                 “options” statement.

     -w directory
                 Sets the working directory of the server.  The “directory”
                 clause of the configuration file's “options” statement
                 overrides any value specified on the command line.  The default
                 working directory is the current directory (“.”).

     Any additional argument is taken as the name of the configuration file, for
     compatibility with older implementations; as noted above, this argument
     overrides any config_file specified by the use of the “-b” or “-c” flags.
     If no further argument is given, then the default configuration file is
     used (/etc/named.conf).

   Master File Format
     The master file consists of control information and a list of resource
     records for objects in the zone of the forms:

           $INCLUDE <filename> <opt_domain>
           $ORIGIN <domain>
           <domain> <opt_ttl> <opt_class> <type> <resource_record_data>


     domain        is “.” for root, “@” for the current origin, or a standard
                   domain name. If domain is a standard domain name that does
                   not end with “.”, the current origin is appended to the
                   domain. Domain names ending with “.” are unmodified.

     opt_domain    This field is used to define an origin for the data in an
                   included file.  It is equivalent to placing an $ORIGIN
                   statement before the first line of the included file.  The
                   field is optional.  Neither the opt_domain field nor $ORIGIN
                   statements in the included file modify the current origin for
                   this file.

     opt_ttl       An optional integer number for the time-to-live field.  It
                   defaults to zero, meaning the minimum value specified in the
                   SOA record for the zone.

     opt_class     The object address type; currently only one type is
                   supported, IN, for objects connected to the DARPA Internet.

     type          This field contains one of the following tokens; the data
                   expected in the resource_record_data field is in parentheses:

                         A          a host address (dotted-quad IP address)

                         NS         an authoritative name server (domain)

                         MX         a mail exchanger (domain), preceded by a
                                    preference value (0..32767), with lower
                                    numeric values representing higher logical

                         CNAME      the canonical name for an alias (domain)

                         SOA        marks the start of a zone of authority
                                    (domain of originating host, domain address
                                    of maintainer, a serial number and the
                                    following parameters in seconds: refresh,
                                    retry, expire and minimum TTL (see RFC

                         NULL       a null resource record (no format or data)

                         RP         a Responsible Person for some domain name
                                    (mailbox, TXT-referral)

                         PTR        a domain name pointer (domain)

                         HINFO      host information (cpu_type OS_type)

     Resource records normally end at the end of a line, but may be continued
     across lines between opening and closing parentheses.  Comments are
     introduced by semicolons and continue to the end of the line.

     NOTE: There are other resource record types not shown here.  You should
     consult the BIND Operations Guide (“BOG”) for the complete list.  Some
     resource record types may have been standardized in newer RFC's but not yet
     implemented in this version of BIND.

   SOA Record Format
     Each master zone file should begin with an SOA record for the zone.  An
     example SOA record is as follows:

     @       IN      SOA     ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. rwh.ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. (
                                     1989020501      ; serial
                                     10800   ; refresh
                                     3600    ; retry
                                     3600000 ; expire
                                     86400 ) ; minimum

     The SOA specifies a serial number, which should be changed each time the
     master file is changed.  Note that the serial number can be given as a
     dotted number, but this is a very unwise thing to do since the translation
     to normal integers is via concatenation rather than multiplication and
     addition.  You can spell out the year, month, day of month, and 0..99
     version number and still fit inside the unsigned 32-bit size of this field.
     (It's true that we will have to rethink this strategy in the year 4294, but
     we're not worried about it.)

     Secondary servers check the serial number at intervals specified by the
     refresh time in seconds; if the serial number changes, a zone transfer will
     be done to load the new data.  If a master server cannot be contacted when
     a refresh is due, the retry time specifies the interval at which refreshes
     should be attempted.  If a master server cannot be contacted within the
     interval given by the expire time, all data from the zone is discarded by
     secondary servers.  The minimum value is the time-to-live (“TTL”) used by
     records in the file with no explicit time-to-live value.

     The boot file directives “domain” and “suffixes” have been obsoleted by a
     more useful, resolver-based implementation of suffixing for partially-
     qualified domain names.  The prior mechanisms could fail under a number of
     situations, especially when then local nameserver did not have complete

     The following signals have the specified effect when sent to the server
     process using the kill(@CMD_EXT@) command:

     SIGHUP    Causes server to read named.boot and reload the database.  If the
               server is built with the FORCED_RELOAD compile-time option, then
               SIGHUP will also cause the server to check the serial number on
               all secondary zones; normally, the serial numbers are only
               checked at the SOA-specified intervals.

     SIGINT    Dumps the current data base and cache to “/var/tmp/named_dump.db”
               or the value of _PATH_DUMPFILE.

     SIGILL    Dumps statistics data into named.stats if the server is compiled
               with -DSTATS.  Statistics data is appended to the file.

     SIGSYS    Dumps the profiling data in /var/tmp if the server is compiled
               with profiling (server forks, chdirs and exits).

     SIGTERM   Dumps the primary and secondary database files.  Used to save
               modified data on shutdown if the server is compiled with dynamic
               updating enabled.

     SIGUSR1   Turns on debugging; each SIGUSR1 increments debug level.  (SIGEMT
               on older systems without SIGUSR1.)

     SIGUSR2   Turns off debugging completely.  (SIGFPE on older systems without

     SIGWINCH  Toggles logging of all incoming queries via syslog(@SYS_OPS_EXT@)
               (requires server to have been built with the QRYLOG option).

     /etc/named.conf                             default name server
                                                 configuration file
     /var/run/ (_PATH_PIDFILE)          the process id
     /var/tmp/named_dump.db (_PATH_DUMPFILE)     dump of the name server
     /var/tmp/ (file: _PATH_DEBUG)      debug output
     /var/tmp/named.stats (file: _PATH_STATS)    nameserver statistics data

     gethostbyname(@LIB_NETWORK_EXT@), hostname(@DESC_EXT@), kill(@CMD_EXT@),
     resolver(@LIB_NETWORK_EXT@), resolver(@FORMAT_EXT@), signal(@SYSCALL_EXT@),
     RFC 882, RFC 883, RFC 973, RFC 974, RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, RFC 1123,
     “Name Server Operations Guide for BIND”

4th Berkeley Distribution       February 1, 1996       4th Berkeley Distribution