newsfeeds − Determine where Usenet articles are sent

The file pathetc/newsfeeds specifies how incoming articles
should be distributed to other programs and files on the
server.  It is parsed by the InterNetNews server innd(8)
when it starts up, or when directed to by ctlinnd(8).  innd
doesn’t send articles to remote sites itself, so newsfeeds
doesn’t directly determine which remote news servers
articles are sent to.  Instead, it specifies what batch
files should be created or which programs should be run (and
what information should be sent to them), and then this
information is used by programs like innxmit(8) and
innfeed(8) to feed articles to remote sites.

     The newsfeeds file isn’t used solely to set up feeding
accepted articles to remote sites but also to pass them (or
bits of information about them) to any local programs or
files that want that data.  For example, controlchan(8), a
daemon that processes incoming control messages, runs out of
newsfeeds, as could a news to mail gateway.

     The file is interpreted as a set of lines, parsed
according to the following rules:  If a line ends with a
backslash, the backslash, the newline, and any whitespace at
the start of the next line is deleted.  This is repeated
until the entire "logical" line is collected.  If the
logical line is blank or starts with a number sign ("#"), it
is ignored.

     All other lines are interpreted as feed entries.  An
entry should consist of four colon‐separated fields; two of
the fields may have optional sub‐fields, marked off by a
slash.  Fields or sub‐fields that take multiple parameters
should be separated by a comma.  Extra whitespace can cause
problems and should be avoided.  Except for the site names,
case is significant.  The format of an entry is:


     Each field is described below.

     The sitename is the name of the site to which a news
article can be sent.  It is used for writing log entries and
for determining if an article should be forwarded to a site.
(A "site" is the generic term for some destination of
newsfeed data; it often corresponds to a remote news peer,
but doesn’t have to.  For example, a local archiving program
run from newsfeeds is also a "site".)  If sitename already
appears in the article’s Path: header, then the article will
not be sent to the site.  The name is usually whatever the
remote site uses to identify itself in the Path: header, but


can be almost any word.

     Be careful, though, to avoid having the sitename
accidentally match a Path: header entry unintentionally.
For this reason, special local entries (such as archivers or
gateways) should probably end with an exclamation point to
make sure that they do not have the same name as any real
site.  For example, "gateway" is an obvious name for the
local entry that forwards articles out to a mailing list.
If a site with the name "gateway" posts an article, when the
local site receives the article it will see the name in the
Path and not send the article to its own "gateway" entry.
Since "gateway!" can’t appear as an individual Path: entry
since "!" is a delimiter in the Path: header, that would be
a better thing to use for sitename.

     (Another way to avoid this problem is with the "Ap"
flag; see the description below.)

     If an entry has an exclusion sub‐field, the article
will not be sent to that site if any of exclude appear in
the Path: header.  (It’s sometimes convenient to have the
sitename be an abbreviated form of the name of the remote
site, since all the sitenames to which an article is sent
are written to the log and using shorter sitenames can
therefore improve performance for large servers.  In this
case, the Path: header entries of those sites should be
given as exclude entries and the "Ap" flag used so that the
abbreviated sitename doesn’t accidentally match some other
Path: header entry.)

     The same sitename can be used more than once and the
appropriate action will be taken for each entry that should
receive the article, but this is recommended only for
program feeds to avoid confusion.  Case is not significant
in site names.

     The comma‐separated pattern specifies which groups to
send to the site; it is interpreted to build a "subscription
list" for the site.  The default subscription is to get all
groups carried by the server.  It is a uwildmat(3) pattern
supporting poison ("@") wildcards; see the uwildmat(3) man
page for full details on the pattern matching language.
pattern will be matched against every newsgroup carried by
the server and all newsgroups that match will be added to
the subscription list for the site.

     Normally, a given article (or information about it) is
sent to a site if any of the newsgroups to which the article
was posted are in that site’s subscription list.  If a
newsgroup matches a "@" pattern in pattern, then not only is
it not added to the subscription list, but any articles
crossposted to that newsgroup also will not be sent to that
site even if other newsgroups to which it was crossposted


are in that site’s subscription list.  This is called a
poison pattern (because matching groups are "poisoned").

     For example, to receive all comp.* groups, but only
comp.sources.unix within the sources newsgroups, the
following pattern can be used:


     Note that the trailing ".*" is required; the pattern
has to match the whole newsgroup name.  "comp.sources.*"
could be written "comp.sources*" and would exclude the
newsgroup comp.sources (if it exists) as well as the groups
in the comp.sources.* hierarchy, but note that this would
also exclude a newsgroup named comp.sources−only (whereas
the above pattern would add that group to the site
subscription list since it matches "comp.*" and none of the
other patterns).

     For another example, to feed alt.* and misc.* to a
given site but not any articles posted to alt.binaries.warez
(even if they’re also crossposted to other alt.* or misc.*
groups), the following pattern can be used:


     Note, however, that if you reversed the "alt.*" and
"@alt.binaries.warez" entries, this pattern would be
equivalent to "alt.*,misc.*", since the last matching
pattern determines whether a given newsgroup matches and the
poison logic only applies if the poison entry is the last
matching entry.

     Control messages follow slightly different propagation
rules than normal articles; see innd(8) for the details.
Note that most subscriptions should have
"!junk,!control,!control.*" in their pattern list due to
those propagation rules (and since "junk" is a special
internal newsgroup; see wanttrash in inn.conf(5) for more
details on what it’s used for) and that the best way to keep
control messages local to a site is with a distribution.

     A subscription can be further modified by specifying
distributions that the site should or should not receive.
The default is to send all articles to all sites that
subscribe to any of the groups where it has been posted, but
if an article has a Distribution: header and any
distributions are specified, then they are checked according
to the following rules:

1.  If the Distribution: header matches any of the values in
    the sub‐field, the article is sent.


2.  If a distribution starts with an exclamation point, and
    it matches the Distribution: header, the article is not

3.  If the Distribution: header does not match any
    distribution in the site’s entry and no negations were
    used, the article is not sent.

4.  If the Distribution: header does not match any
    distribution in the site’s entry and any distribution
    started with an exclamation point, the article is sent.

     If an article has more than one distribution specified,
then each one is handled according according to the above
rules.  If any of the specified distributions indicate that
the article should be sent, it is; if none do, it is not
sent.  In other words, the rules are used as a logical or.

     It is almost definitely a mistake to have a single feed
that specifies distributions that start with an exclamation
point along with some that don’t.

     Distributions are text words, not patterns; entries
like "*" or "all" have no special meaning.

     The flag field is described in "FLAG VALUES".  The
interpretation of the parameter field depends on the type of
feed and is explained in more detail in "FEED TYPES".  It
can be omitted for some types of feeds.

     The site named "ME" is special.  There must be exactly
one such entry, and it should be the first entry in the
file.  If the "ME" entry has an exclusion sub‐field,
incoming articles are rejected completely if any of the
names specified in that exclusion sub‐field appear in their
Path: headers.  If the "ME" entry has a subscription list,
that list is prepended to the subscription list of all other
entries.  For example, "*,!control,!control.*,!junk,!foo.*"
could be used to set the default subscription list for all
other feeds so that local postings are not propagated unless
"foo.*" explicitly appears in the site’s subscription list.
This feature tends to be somewhat confusing since the
default subscription is prepended and can be overridden by
other patterns.

     If the "ME" entry has a distribution sub‐field, only
articles that match that distribution list are accepted and
all other articles with a distribution are rejected.  A
common use for this is to put something like "/!local" in
the "ME" entry to reject local postings from other
misconfigured sites.  The distribution sub‐field of "ME" has
no effect on the acceptance or rejection of articles that do
not have a Distribution header field.


     An empty "ME" entry is possible, in which case no
exclusion patterns will be defined.

     Finally, it is also possible to set variables in
newsfeeds and use them later in the file.  A line starting
with "$" sets a variable.  For example:


     This sets the variable "LOCALGROUPS" to
"local.*,example.*" and the variable "CONTROLGROUPS" to
"control,control.*".  They can later be used elsewhere in
the file, such as in a site entry like:

     which is then completely equivalent to:

     Variables aren’t solely simple substitution.  If either
"!" or "@" immediately preceds the variable and the value of
the variable contains commas, that character will be
duplicated before each comma.  This somewhat odd‐sounding
behavior is designed to make it easier to use variables to
construct feed patterns.  The utility becomes more obvious
when you observe that the line:

     is therefore equivalent to:

     which (as explained below) excludes all of the groups
in $LOCALGROUPS and unwanted control articles from the feed
to that site.

The flags parameter specifies miscellaneous parameters,
including the type of feed, what information should be sent
to it, and various limitations on what articles should be
sent to a site.  They may be specified in any order and
should be separated by commas.  Flags that take values
should have the value immediately after the flag letter with
no whitespace.  The valid flags are:

< size
    An article will only be sent to this site if it is less
    than size bytes long.  The default is no limit.

> size
    An article will only be sent to this site if it is
    greater than size bytes long.  The default is no limit.


A checks
    An article will only be sent to this site if it meets
    the requirements specified in checks, which should be
    chosen from the following set.  checks can be multiple
    letters if appropriate.  Note that this flag is not
    effective on funnel targets; it has to be used on every
    funnel entry (for instance, Af is not effective on the
    innfeed! funnel target and therefore has to be specified
    on every funnelled news site).

    c  Exclude all kinds of control messages.

    C  Only send control messages, not regular articles.

    d  Only send articles with a Distribution: header.
       Combined with a particular distribution value in the
       distribution part of the site entry, this can be used
       to limit articles sent to a site to just those with a
       particuliar distribution.

    e  Only send articles where every newsgroup listed in
       the Newsgroups: header exists in the active file.

    f  Don’t send articles rejected by filters.  This is
       only useful when dontrejectfiltered is set to true in
       inn.conf.  With that variable set, this lets one
       accept all articles but not propagate filtered ones
       to some sites.

    j  Propagate articles according to their Newsgroups:
       header.  This is only useful when wanttrash is set to
       true in inn.conf.  With that variable set, articles
       accepted and filed in "junk" (due to wanttrash) are
       fed to peers based on their subscription pattern
       applied to the Newsgroups: header as though they were
       accepted and all those groups were locally carried.
       Otherwise, they are propagated to sites that receive
       the "junk" newsgroup.

       This variable is useful if you want to run INN with a
       minimal active file and propagate all posts.

    o  Only send articles for which overview data was

    O  Send articles to this site that don’t have an
       Injection‐Info: or X−Trace: header, even if the "O"
       flag is also given.

    p  Only check the exclusions against the Path: header of
       articles; don’t check the site name.  This is useful
       if your site names aren’t the same as the Path:
       entries added by those remote sites, or for program
       feeds where the site name is arbitrary and unrelated


       to the Path: header.

        If both "c" and "C" are given, the last specified
        one takes precedence.

B high/low
    If a site is being fed by a file, channel, or exploder
    (see below), the server will normally start trying to
    write the information as soon as possible.  Providing a
    buffer may give better system performance and help
    smooth out overall load if a large batch of news comes
    in.  The value of the this flag should be two numbers
    separated by a slash.  high specifies the point at which
    the server can start draining the feed’s I/O buffer, and
    low specifies when to stop writing and begin buffering
    again; the units are bytes.  The default is to do no
    buffering, sending output as soon as it is possible to
    do so.

C count
    If this flag is specified, an article will only be sent
    to this site if the number of groups it is posted to,
    plus the square of the number of groups followups would
    appear in, is no more than count.  30 is a good value
    for this flag, allowing for instance:

    •  crossposts to only 5 groups when followups aren’t

    •  crossposts to up to 26 groups when followups are set
       to two groups;

    •  crossposts to up to 29 groups when followups are set
       to a single group;

    •  crossposts to up to 30 groups when followups are set
       to poster.

        Note that if an article does not contain a Followup‐
        To: header field, the number of groups followups
        would appear in is the number of groups it is posted

F name
    Specifies the name of the file that should be used if
    it’s necessary to begin spooling for the site (see
    below).  If name is not an absolute path, it is taken to
    be relative to pathoutgoing in inn.conf.  If name is a
    directory, the file togo in that directory will be used
    as the file name.

G count
    If this flag is specified, an article will only be sent
    to this site if it is posted to no more than count


    newsgroups.  This has the problem of filtering out many
    FAQs, as well as newsgroup creation postings and similar
    administrative announcements.  Either the C flag or the
    U flag is a better solution.

H count
    If this flag is specified, an article will only be sent
    to this site if it has count or fewer sites in its Path:
    line.  This flag should only be used as a rough guide
    because of the loose interpretation of the Path: header;
    some sites put the poster’s name in the header, and some
    sites that might logically be considered to be one hop
    become two because they put the posting workstation’s
    name in the header.  The default value for count if not
    specified is one.  (Also see the O flag, which is
    sometimes more appropriate for some uses of this flag.)

I size
    The flag specifies the size of the internal buffer for a
    file feed.  If there are more file feeds than allowed by
    the system, they will be buffered internally in least‐
    recently‐used order.  If the internal buffer grows
    bigger then size bytes, however, the data will be
    written out to the appropriate file.  The default value
    is 16 KB.

N status
    Restricts the articles sent to this site to those in
    newsgroups with the moderation status given by status.
    If status is "m", only articles in moderated groups are
    sent; if status is "u", only articles in unmoderated
    groups are sent.

O originator
    If this flag is specified, an article will only be sent
    to this site if it contains an Injection‐Info: header
    (or an X−Trace: header if no Injection‐Info: header is
    found) and the first field of this header matches
    originator.  originator is a uwildmat(3) expression
    without commas or a list of such expressions, separated
    by "/".  The article is never sent if the first
    character of the pattern begins with "@" and the rest of
    the pattern matches.  One use of this flag is to
    restrict the feed to locally generated posts by using an
    originator pattern that matches the Injection‐Info:
    header added by the local server.

P priority
    The nice priority that this channel or program feed
    should receive.  This should be a positive number
    between 0 and 20 and is the priority that the new
    process will run with.  This flag can be used to raise
    the priority to normal if you’re using the nicekids
    parameter in inn.conf.


Q hashfeed
    Specifies the hashfeed match expression for this site.
    It must be in the form "value/mod" or "start−end/mod".
    The Message‐ID of the article is hashed using MD5, which
    results in a 128−bit hash.  The lowest 32 bits are then
    taken by default as the hashfeed value (which is an
    integer).  If the hashfeed value modulus "mod" plus one
    equals "value" or is between "start" and "end", the
    article will be fed to this site.  All these numbers
    must be integers.

    It is a deterministic way to control the flow of
    articles and to split a feed.  For instance:

        Q1/2      Feeds about 50% of all articles to this site.
        Q2/2      Feeds the other 50% of all articles.

    Another example with three sites:

        Q1−3/10   Feeds about 30% of all articles.
        Q4−5/10   Feeds about 20% of all articles.
        Q6−10/10  Feeds about 50% of all articles.

    If this flag is specified multiple times, the contents
    will be logically "OR"ed together (just one match is

    You can use an extended syntax of the form
    "value/mod_offset" or "start−end/mod_offset".  As MD5
    generates a 128−bit return value, it is possible to
    specify from which byte‐offset the 32−bit integer used
    by hashfeed starts.  The default value for "offset" is
    "_0" and thirteen overlapping values from "_0" to "_12"
    can be used.  Only up to four totally independent values
    exist:  "_0", "_4", "_8" and "_12".

    Therefore, it allows generating a second level of
    deterministic distribution.  Indeed, if a news server is
    fed "Q1/2", it can go on splitting thanks to "Q1−3/9_4"
    for instance.  Up to four levels of deterministic
    distribution can be used.

    The algorithm is compatible with the one used by
    Diablo 5.1 and up.  If you want to use the legacy
    quickhashing method used by Diablo before 5.1, you can
    put an "@" sign just after the Q flag (for instance
    "Q@1−3/10", but the distribution of the messages is not
    perfect with this legacy method whose use is discouraged
    and for which offsets cannot be used).

S size
    If the amount of data queued for the site gets to be
    larger than size bytes, the server will switch to
    spooling, appending to a file specified by the F flag,


    or pathoutgoing/sitename if F is not specified.
    Spooling usually happens only for channel or exploder
    feeds, when the spawned program isn’t keeping up with
    its input.

T type
    This flag specifies the type of feed for this site.
    type should be a letter chosen from the following set:

        c        Channel
        f        File
        l        Log entry only
        m        Funnel (multiple entries feed into one)
        p        Program
        x        Exploder

    Each feed is described below in "FEED TYPES".  The
    default is Tf, for a file feed.

U count
    If this flag is specified, an article will only be sent
    to this site if followups to this article would be
    posted to no more than count newsgroups.  (Also see C
    for a more complex way of handling this.)

W items
    For a file, channel, or exploder feed, this flag
    controls what information will be sent to this site.
    For a program feed, only the asterisk ("*") has any
    effect.  items should be chosen from the following set:

    b  Size of the article (in wire format, meaning with
       CRLF at the end of each line, periods doubled at the
       beginning of lines, and ending in a line with a
       single period) in bytes.

    e  The time the article will expire as seconds since
       epoch if it has an Expires: header, 0 otherwise.

    f  The storage API token of the article (the same as
       "n").  The article can be retrieved given the storage
       API token by using sm(8).

    g  The newsgroup the article is in; if cross‐posted,
       then the first of the groups to which the article was
       posted that this site gets.  (The difference from "G"
       is that this sends the newsgroup to which the article
       was posted even if it is a control message.)

    h  The history hash key of the article (derived from the
       message ID).

    m  The message ID of the article.


    n  The storage API token of the article.  The article
       can be retrieved given the storage API token by using

    p  The time the article was posted a seconds since

    s  The site that fed the article to the server.  This is
       taken from either the Path: header or the IP address
       of the sending site depending on the value of
       logipaddr in inn.conf.  If logipaddr is true and the
       IP address is (meaning that the article was
       fed from localhost by a program like rnews(8)), the
       Path: header value will be sent instead.

    t  The time the article was received as seconds since

    *  The names of the appropriate funnel entries, or all
       sites that get the article (see below for more

    D  The value of the Distribution: header of the article,
       or "?" if there is no such header in the article.

    G  Where the article is stored.  If the newsgroup is
       crossposted, this is generally the first of the
       groups to which it was posted that this site
       receives; however, control messages are filed in
       control or control.*  (which is the difference
       between this item and "g").

    H  All of the headers, followed by a blank line.  The
       Xref header will already be present, and a Bytes
       header containing the article’s size in bytes as in
       the "b" item will be added to the headers.  If used,
       this should be the only item in the list.

    N  The value of the Newsgroups: header.

    P  The value of the Path: header.

    O  Overview data for the article.

    R  Information needed for replication (the Xref header
       without the site name).

        More than one letter can be given.  If multiple
        items are specified, they will be written in the
        order specified separated by spaces.  ("H" should be
        the only item if given, but if it’s not a newline
        will be sent before the beginning of the headers.)
        The default is Wn.


        The "H" and "O" items are intended for use by
        programs that create news overview databases or
        require similar information.  WnteO is the flag to
        generate input needed by the overchan(8) program.

        The asterisk ("*") has special meaning.  Normally it
        expands to a space‐separated list of all sites that
        received the current article.  If, however, this
        site is a target of a funnel feed (in other words,
        if it is named by other sites which have the Tm
        flag), then the asterisk expands to the names of the
        funnel feeds that received the article.  Similarly,
        if the site is a program feed, an asterisk in the
        parameter field will be expanded into the list of
        funnel feeds that received the article.  A program
        feed cannot get the site list unless it is the
        target of other Tm feeds.

innd provides four basic types of feeds:  log, file,
program, and channel.  An exploder is a special type of
channel.  In addition, several entries can feed into the
same feed; these are funnel feeds, which refer to an entry
that is one of the other types.  Funnel feeds are partially
described above with the description of the W* flag.  A
funnel feed gets every article that would be sent to any of
the feeds that funnel into it and normally include the W*
flag in their flags so that the program processing that feed
knows which sites received which articles.  The most common
funnel feed is innfeed(8).

     Note that the term "feed" is technically a misnomer,
since the server doesn’t transfer articles itself and only
writes data to a file, program, or log telling another
program to transfer the articles.

     The simplest feed is a log feed (Tl).  Other than a
mention in the news log file, pathlog/news, no data is
written out.  This is equivalent to a Tf entry writing to
/dev/null, except that no file is ever opened.  Flushing a
log feed does nothing.

     A file feed (Tf) is the next simplest type of feed.
When the site should receive an article, the specified data
is written out to the file named by the parameter field.  If
parameter is not an absolute path, it is taken to be
relative to pathoutgoing in inn.conf.  If parameter is not
given, it defaults to pathoutgoing/sitename.  The file name
should be unique (two file feeds should not ever point to
the same file).

     File feeds are designed for use by external programs
that periodically process the written data.  To cooperate
with innd properly, such external programs should first
rename the batch file and then send a flush command for that


site to innd using ctlinnd(8).  innd will then write out any
buffered data, close the file, and reopen it (under the
original name), and the program can process the data in the
renamed file at its leisure.  File feeds are most frequently
used in combination with nntpsend(8).

     A program feed (Tp) spawns a given program for every
article that the site receives.  The parameter field must be
the command line to execute, and should contain one instance
of %s, which will be replaced by the storage API token of
the article (the actual article can be retrieved by the
program using sm(8)).  The program will not receive anything
on standard input (unlike earlier versions of INN, where the
article is sent to the program on stdin), and standard
output and error from the program will be set to the error
log (pathlog/errlog).  innd will try to avoid spawning a
shell if the command has no shell meta‐characters; this
feature can be defeated if necessary for some reason by
appending a semi‐colon to the end of the command.  The full
path name of the program to be run must be specified unless
the command will be run by the shell (and it is strongly
recommended that the full path name always be specified

     If a program feed is the target of a funnel, and if W*
appears in the flags of the site, a single asterisk may be
present in the parameter and will be replaced by a space‐
separated list of names of the sites feeding into the funnel
which received the relevant article.  If the site is not the
target of a funnel, or if the W* flag is not used, the
asterisk has no special meaning.

     Flushing a program feed does nothing.

     For a channel (Tc) or exploder (Tx) feed, the parameter
field again names the process to start.  As with program
feeds, the full path to the program must be specified.
However, rather than spawning the program for every article,
it is spawned once and then whenever the site receives an
article, the data specified by the site flags is written to
the standard input of the spawned program.  Standard output
and error are set as with program feeds.  If the process
exits, it will be restarted automatically.  If the process
cannot be started, the server will spool input to a file
named pathoutgoing/sitename and will try to start the
process again later.

     When a channel or exploder feed is flushed, the server
closes its end of the pipe to the program’s standard input.
Any pending data that has not been written will be spooled;
see the description of the S flag above.  The server will
then spawn a new instance of the program.  No signal is sent
to the program; it is up to the program handling a channel
or exploder feed to notice end of file on its standard input


and exit appropriately.

     Exploders are a special type of channel feed.  In
addition to the channel feed behavior described above,
exploders can also be sent command lines.  These lines start
with an exclamation point and their interpretation is up to
the exploder.  The following commands are generated
automatically by the server:

         !newgroup group
    !rmgroup group
    !flush site

     These commands are sent whenever the ctlinnd(8) command
of the same name is received by the server.  In addition,
the ctlinnd(8) "send" command can be used to send an
arbitrary command line to an exploder.  The primary exploder
is buffchan(8).

     Finally, Tm feeds are the input to a funnel.  The
parameter field of the site should name the site handling
articles for all of the funnel inputs.

The syntax of the newsfeeds file is so complex because you
can specify a staggering variety of feeds.  INN is capable
of interacting with a wide variety of programs that do
various things with news articles.  Far and away the most
common two entries in newsfeeds, however, are file feeds for
nntpsend(8) and funnel feeds for innfeed(8).

     The former look like this:

     which generates a file named
pathoutgoing/ containing one line per
article consisting of the storage API token, a space, and
the message ID.

     The latter look like this:

     Very similar, except that this is the input to a funnel
feed named "innfeed!".  One could also write this as:


     (note the Ap so that articles that contain just
"example" in the Path: header will still be sent), which is
completely equivalent except that this will be logged in
pathlog/news as going to the site "example" rather than


     The typical feed entry for innfeed(8) is a good example
of a channel feed that’s the target of various funnel feeds
(make sure the path to innfeed is properly set):

         innfeed!:!*:Tc,Wnm*:<pathbin in inn.conf>/innfeed −y

     Note that the pattern for this feed is just "!*" so
that it won’t receive any articles directly.  The feed
should only receive those articles that would go to one of
the funnel feeds that are feeding into it.  innfeed(8) will
receive one line per article on its standard input
containing the storage API token, the message ID, and a
space‐separated list of sites that should receive that

     Here’s a more esoteric example of a channel feed:

        :exec awk '$1 > 1000000 { print "BIG", $2, $3 }' > /dev/console

     This receives the byte size of each article along with
the storage API token and message ID, and prints to the
console a line for every article that’s over a million
bytes.  This is actually rather a strange way to write this
since INN can do the size check itself; the following is

        :exec awk '{ print "BIG", $2, $3}' > /dev/console

     Here’s a cute, really simple news to mail gateway that
also serves as an example of a fairly fancy program feed:

        :sm %s | innmail −s "News article" *

     Remember that %s is replaced by the storage API token,
so this retrieves the article and pipes it into innmail
(which is safer than programs like Mail(1) because it
doesn’t parse the body for tilde commands) with a given
subject line.  Note the use of "*" in the command line and
W* in the flags; this entry is designed to be used as the
target of funnel feeds such as:

     Suppose that the server receives an article crossposted
between news.admin.misc and  The server
will notice that the article should be sent to the site
"" and the site "", both of
which funnel into "mailer!", so it will look at the
"mailer!" site and end up executing the command line:


         sm @...@ | innmail −s "News article"

     which will mail the article to both Peter and Sue.

     Finally, another very useful example of a channel feed:
the standard entry for controlchan(8).  Make sure its path
is properly set.

        :AC,Tc,Wnsm:<pathbin in inn.conf>/controlchan

     This program only wants information about articles
posted to a control newsgroup other than control.cancel,
which due to the sorting of control messages described in
innd(8) will send it all control messages except for cancel
messages.  In this case, we also exclude any article with a
distribution of "collabra−internal".  controlchan gets the
storage API token, the name of the sending site (for
processing old‐style ihave and sendme control messages, be
sure to read about logipaddr in controlchan(8)), and the
message ID for each article.

     For many other examples, including examples of the
special "ME" site entry, see the example newsfeeds file
distributed with INN.  Also see the install documentation
that comes with INN for information about setting up the
standard newsfeeds entries used by most sites.

Written by Rich $alz <> for InterNetNews.
Reformatted and rewritten in POD by Russ Allbery

     $Id: newsfeeds.pod 10283 2018−05−14 12:43:05Z iulius $

active(5), buffchan(8), controlchan(8), ctlinnd(8),
inn.conf(5), innd(8), innfeed(8), innxmit(8), nntpsend(8),