notmuch-search-terms

NOTMUCH-SEARCH-TERMS(7)              notmuch             NOTMUCH-SEARCH-TERMS(7)



NAME
       notmuch-search-terms - syntax for notmuch queries

SYNOPSIS
       notmuch count [option ...] <search-term> ...

       notmuch dump [--gzip] [--format=(batch-tag|sup)] [--output=<file>] [--]
       [<search-term> ...]

       notmuch reindex [option ...] <search-term> ...

       notmuch search [option ...] <search-term> ...

       notmuch show [option ...] <search-term> ...

       notmuch tag +<tag> ... -<tag> [--] <search-term> ...

DESCRIPTION
       Several notmuch commands accept a common syntax for search terms.

       The search terms can consist of free-form text (and quoted phrases) which
       will match all messages that contain all of the given terms/phrases in
       the body, the subject, or any of the sender or recipient headers.

       As a special case, a search string consisting of exactly a single
       asterisk ("*") will match all messages.

   Search prefixes
       In addition to free text, the following prefixes can be used to force
       terms to match against specific portions of an email, (where <brackets>
       indicate user-supplied values).

       Some of the prefixes with <regex> forms can be also used to restrict the
       results to those whose value matches a regular expression (see regex(7))
       delimited with //, for example:

          notmuch search 'from:"/bob@.*[.]example[.]com/"'

       body:<word-or-quoted-phrase>
              Match terms in the body of messages.

       from:<name-or-address> or from:/<regex>/
              The from: prefix is used to match the name or address of the
              sender of an email message.

       to:<name-or-address>
              The to: prefix is used to match the names or addresses of any
              recipient of an email message, (whether To, Cc, or Bcc).

       subject:<word-or-quoted-phrase> or subject:/<regex>/
              Any term prefixed with subject: will match only text from the
              subject of an email. Searching for a phrase in the subject is
              supported by including quotation marks around the phrase,
              immediately following subject:.

       attachment:<word>
              The attachment: prefix can be used to search for specific
              filenames (or extensions) of attachments to email messages.

       mimetype:<word>
              The mimetype: prefix will be used to match text from the
              content-types of MIME parts within email messages (as specified by
              the sender).

       tag:<tag> or tag:/<regex>/ or is:<tag> or is:/<regex>/
              For tag: and is: valid tag values include inbox and unread by
              default for new messages added by notmuch new as well as any other
              tag values added manually with notmuch tag.

       id:<message-id> or mid:<message-id> or mid:/<regex>/
              For id: and mid:, message ID values are the literal contents of
              the Message-ID: header of email messages, but without the '<', '>'
              delimiters.

       thread:<thread-id>
              The thread: prefix can be used with the thread ID values that are
              generated internally by notmuch (and do not appear in email
              messages). These thread ID values can be seen in the first column
              of output from notmuch search

       thread:{<notmuch query>}
              Threads may be searched for indirectly by providing an arbitrary
              notmuch query in {}. For example, the following returns threads
              containing a message from mallory and one (not necessarily the
              same message) with Subject containing the word "crypto".

                 % notmuch search 'thread:"{from:mallory}" and thread:"{subject:crypto}"'

              The performance of such queries can vary wildly. To understand
              this, the user should think of the query thread:{<something>} as
              expanding to all of the thread IDs which match <something>;
              notmuch then performs a second search using the expanded query.

       path:<directory-path> or path:<directory-path>/** or path:/<regex>/
              The path: prefix searches for email messages that are in
              particular directories within the mail store. The directory must
              be specified relative to the top-level maildir (and without the
              leading slash). By default, path: matches messages in the
              specified directory only. The "/**" suffix can be used to match
              messages in the specified directory and all its subdirectories
              recursively. path:"" matches messages in the root of the mail
              store and, likewise, path:** matches all messages.

              path: will find a message if any copy of that message is in the
              specific directory.

       folder:<maildir-folder> or folder:/<regex>/
              The folder: prefix searches for email messages by maildir or MH
              folder. For MH-style folders, this is equivalent to path:. For
              maildir, this includes messages in the "new" and "cur"
              subdirectories. The exact syntax for maildir folders depends on
              your mail configuration. For maildir++, folder:"" matches the
              inbox folder (which is the root in maildir++), other folder names
              always start with ".", and nested folders are separated by "."s,
              such as folder:.classes.topology. For "file system" maildir, the
              inbox is typically folder:INBOX and nested folders are separated
              by slashes, such as folder:classes/topology.

              folder: will find a message if any copy of that message is in the
              specific folder.

       date:<since>..<until> or date:<date>
              The date: prefix can be used to restrict the results to only
              messages within a particular time range (based on the Date:
              header).

              See DATE AND TIME SEARCH below for details on the range
              expression, and supported syntax for <since> and <until> date and
              time expressions.

              The time range can also be specified using timestamps without
              including the date prefix using a syntax of:

              <initial-timestamp>..<final-timestamp>

              Each timestamp is a number representing the number of seconds
              since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC. Specifying a time range this way is
              considered legacy and predates the date prefix.

       lastmod:<initial-revision>..<final-revision>
              The lastmod: prefix can be used to restrict the result by the
              database revision number of when messages were last modified (tags
              were added/removed or filenames changed). This is usually used in
              conjunction with the --uuid argument to notmuch search to find
              messages that have changed since an earlier query.

       query:<name>
              The query: prefix allows queries to refer to previously saved
              queries added with notmuch-config(1).

       property:<key>=<value>
              The property: prefix searches for messages with a particular
              <key>=<value> property pair. Properties are used internally by
              notmuch (and extensions) to add metadata to messages. A given key
              can be present on a given message with several different values.
              See notmuch-properties(7) for more details.

       User defined prefixes are also supported, see notmuch-config(1) for
       details.

   Operators
       In addition to individual terms, multiple terms can be combined with
       Boolean operators (and, or, not, and xor). Each term in the query will be
       implicitly connected by a logical AND if no explicit operator is provided
       (except that terms with a common prefix will be implicitly combined with
       OR).  The shorthand '-<term>' can be used for 'not <term>' but
       unfortunately this does not work at the start of an expression.
       Parentheses can also be used to control the combination of the Boolean
       operators, but will have to be protected from interpretation by the
       shell, (such as by putting quotation marks around any parenthesized
       expression).

       In addition to the standard boolean operators, Xapian provides several
       operators specific to text searching.

          notmuch search term1 NEAR term2

       will return results where term1 is within 10 words of term2. The
       threshold can be set like this:

          notmuch search term1 NEAR/2 term2

       The search

          notmuch search term1 ADJ term2

       will return results where term1 is within 10 words of term2, but in the
       same order as in the query. The threshold can be set the same as with
       NEAR:

          notmuch search term1 ADJ/7 term2

   Stemming
       Stemming in notmuch means that these searches

          notmuch search detailed
          notmuch search details
          notmuch search detail

       will all return identical results, because Xapian first "reduces" the
       term to the common stem (here 'detail') and then performs the search.

       There are two ways to turn this off: a search for a capitalized word will
       be performed unstemmed, so that one can search for "John" and not get
       results for "Johnson"; phrase searches are also unstemmed (see below for
       details).  Stemming is currently only supported for English. Searches for
       words in other languages will be performed unstemmed.

   Wildcards
       It is possible to use a trailing '*' as a wildcard. A search for 'wildc*'
       will match 'wildcard', 'wildcat', etc.

   Boolean and Probabilistic Prefixes
       Xapian (and hence notmuch) prefixes are either boolean, supporting exact
       matches like "tag:inbox" or probabilistic, supporting a more flexible
       term based searching. Certain special prefixes are processed by notmuch
       in a way not strictly fitting either of Xapian's built in styles. The
       prefixes currently supported by notmuch are as follows.

       Boolean
              tag:, id:, thread:, folder:, path:, property:

       Probabilistic
              body:, to:, attachment:, mimetype:

       Special
              from:, query:, subject:

   Terms and phrases
       In general Xapian distinguishes between lists of terms and phrases.
       Phrases are indicated by double quotes (but beware you probably need to
       protect those from your shell) and insist that those unstemmed words
       occur in that order. One useful, but initially surprising feature is that
       the following are equivalent ways to write the same phrase.

       • "a list of words"

       • a-list-of-words

       • a/list/of/words

       • a.list.of.words

       Both parenthesised lists of terms and quoted phrases are ok with
       probabilistic prefixes such as to:, from:, and subject:. In particular

          subject:(pizza free)

       is equivalent to

          subject:pizza and subject:free

       Both of these will match a subject "Free Delicious Pizza" while

          subject:"pizza free"

       will not.

   Quoting
       Double quotes are also used by the notmuch query parser to protect
       boolean terms, regular expressions, or subqueries containing spaces or
       other special characters, e.g.

          tag:"a tag"

          folder:"/^.*/(Junk|Spam)$/"

          thread:"{from:mallory and date:2009}"

       As with phrases, you need to protect the double quotes from the shell
       e.g.

          % notmuch search 'folder:"/^.*/(Junk|Spam)$/"'
          % notmuch search 'thread:"{from:mallory and date:2009}" and thread:{to:mallory}'

DATE AND TIME SEARCH
       notmuch understands a variety of standard and natural ways of expressing
       dates and times, both in absolute terms ("2012-10-24") and in relative
       terms ("yesterday"). Any number of relative terms can be combined ("1
       hour 25 minutes") and an absolute date/time can be combined with relative
       terms to further adjust it. A non-exhaustive description of the syntax
       supported for absolute and relative terms is given below.

   The range expression
       date:<since>..<until>

       The above expression restricts the results to only messages from <since>
       to <until>, based on the Date: header.

       <since> and <until> can describe imprecise times, such as "yesterday".
       In this case, <since> is taken as the earliest time it could describe
       (the beginning of yesterday) and <until> is taken as the latest time it
       could describe (the end of yesterday). Similarly, date:january..february
       matches from the beginning of January to the end of February.

       If specifying a time range using timestamps in conjunction with the date
       prefix, each timestamp must be preceded by @ (ASCII hex 40). As above,
       each timestamp is a number representing the number of seconds since
       1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC. For example:
          date:@<initial-timestamp>..@<final-timestamp>

       Currently, spaces in range expressions are not supported. You can replace
       the spaces with '_', or (in most cases) '-', or (in some cases) leave the
       spaces out altogether. Examples in this man page use spaces for clarity.

       Open-ended ranges are supported. I.e. it's possible to specify
       date:..<until> or date:<since>.. to not limit the start or end time,
       respectively.

   Single expression
       date:<expr> works as a shorthand for date:<expr>..<expr>.  For example,
       date:monday matches from the beginning of Monday until the end of Monday.

   Relative date and time
       [N|number] (years|months|weeks|days|hours|hrs|minutes|mins|seconds|secs)
       [...]

       All refer to past, can be repeated and will be accumulated.

       Units can be abbreviated to any length, with the otherwise ambiguous
       single m being m for minutes and M for months.

       Number can also be written out one, two, ..., ten, dozen, hundred.
       Additionally, the unit may be preceded by "last" or "this" (e.g., "last
       week" or "this month").

       When combined with absolute date and time, the relative date and time
       specification will be relative from the specified absolute date and time.

       Examples: 5M2d, two weeks

   Supported absolute time formats
       • H[H]:MM[:SS] [(am|a.m.|pm|p.m.)]

       • H[H] (am|a.m.|pm|p.m.)

       • HHMMSS

       • now

       • noon

       • midnight

       • Examples: 17:05, 5pm

   Supported absolute date formats
       • YYYY-MM[-DD]

       • DD-MM[-[YY]YY]

       • MM-YYYY

       • M[M]/D[D][/[YY]YY]

       • M[M]/YYYY

       • D[D].M[M][.[YY]YY]

       • D[D][(st|nd|rd|th)] Mon[thname] [YYYY]

       • Mon[thname] D[D][(st|nd|rd|th)] [YYYY]

       • Wee[kday]

       Month names can be abbreviated at three or more characters.

       Weekday names can be abbreviated at three or more characters.

       Examples: 2012-07-31, 31-07-2012, 7/31/2012, August 3

   Time zones
       • (+|-)HH:MM

       • (+|-)HH[MM]

       Some time zone codes, e.g. UTC, EET.

SEE ALSO
       notmuch(1), notmuch-config(1), notmuch-count(1), notmuch-dump(1),
       notmuch-hooks(5), notmuch-insert(1), notmuch-new(1), notmuch-reindex(1),
       notmuch-properties(1), *notmuch-reply(1), notmuch-restore(1),
       notmuch-search(1), *notmuch-show(1), notmuch-tag(1)

AUTHOR
       Carl Worth and many others

COPYRIGHT
       2009-2020, Carl Worth and many others



0.31                              Sep 12, 2020           NOTMUCH-SEARCH-TERMS(7)