objdump






objdump − display information from object files.

objdump [−a|−−archive−headers]
        [−b bfdname|−−target=bfdname]
        [−C|−−demangle[=style] ]
        [−d|−−disassemble]
        [−D|−−disassemble−all]
        [−z|−−disassemble−zeroes]
        [−EB|−EL|−−endian={big | little }]
        [−f|−−file−headers]
        [−F|−−file−offsets]
        [−−file−start−context]
        [−g|−−debugging]
        [−e|−−debugging−tags]
        [−h|−−section−headers|−−headers]
        [−i|−−info]
        [−j section|−−section=section]
        [−l|−−line−numbers]
        [−S|−−source]
        [−m machine|−−architecture=machine]
        [−M options|−−disassembler−options=options]
        [−p|−−private−headers]
        [−P options|−−private=options]
        [−r|−−reloc]
        [−R|−−dynamic−reloc]
        [−s|−−full−contents]
        [−W[lLiaprmfFsoRtUuTgAckK]|
         −−dwarf[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames−interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges,=gdb_index,=addr,=cu_index,=links,=follow−links]
        [−G|−−stabs]
        [−t|−−syms]
        [−T|−−dynamic−syms]
        [−x|−−all−headers]
        [−w|−−wide]
        [−−start−address=address]
        [−−stop−address=address]
        [−−prefix−addresses]
        [−−[no−]show−raw−insn]
        [−−adjust−vma=offset]
        [−−dwarf−depth=n]
        [−−dwarf−start=n]
        [−−special−syms]
        [−−prefix=prefix]
        [−−prefix−strip=level]
        [−−insn−width=width]
        [−V|−−version]
        [−H|−−help]
        objfile...

objdump displays information about one or more object files.
The options control what particular information to display.
This information is mostly useful to programmers who are
working on the compilation tools, as opposed to programmers
who just want their program to compile and work.










                             ‐2‐


     objfile... are the object files to be examined.  When
you specify archives, objdump shows information on each of
the member object files.

The long and short forms of options, shown here as
alternatives, are equivalent.  At least one option from the
list
−a,−d,−D,−e,−f,−g,−G,−h,−H,−p,−P,−r,−R,−s,−S,−t,−T,−V,−x
must be given.

−a

−−archive−header
    If any of the objfile files are archives, display the
    archive header information (in a format similar to ls
    −l).  Besides the information you could list with ar tv,
    objdump −a shows the object file format of each archive
    member.

−−adjust−vma=offset
    When dumping information, first add offset to all the
    section addresses.  This is useful if the section
    addresses do not correspond to the symbol table, which
    can happen when putting sections at particular addresses
    when using a format which can not represent section
    addresses, such as a.out.

−b bfdname

−−target=bfdname
    Specify that the object‐code format for the object files
    is bfdname.  This option may not be necessary; objdump
    can automatically recognize many formats.

    For example,

            objdump −b oasys −m vax −h fu.o

    displays summary information from the section headers
    (−h) of fu.o, which is explicitly identified (−m) as a
    VAX object file in the format produced by Oasys
    compilers.  You can list the formats available with the
    −i option.

−C

−−demangle[=style]
    Decode (demangle) low‐level symbol names into user‐level
    names.  Besides removing any initial underscore
    prepended by the system, this makes C++ function names
    readable.  Different compilers have different mangling
    styles. The optional demangling style argument can be
    used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
    compiler.









                             ‐3‐


−g

−−debugging
    Display debugging information.  This attempts to parse
    STABS and IEEE debugging format information stored in
    the file and print it out using a C like syntax.  If
    neither of these formats are found this option falls
    back on the −W option to print any DWARF information in
    the file.

−e

−−debugging−tags
    Like −g, but the information is generated in a format
    compatible with ctags tool.

−d

−−disassemble
    Display the assembler mnemonics for the machine
    instructions from objfile.  This option only
    disassembles those sections which are expected to
    contain instructions.

−D

−−disassemble−all
    Like −d, but disassemble the contents of all sections,
    not just those expected to contain instructions.

    This option also has a subtle effect on the disassembly
    of instructions in code sections.  When option −d is in
    effect objdump will assume that any symbols present in a
    code section occur on the boundary between instructions
    and it will refuse to disassemble across such a
    boundary.  When option −D is in effect however this
    assumption is supressed.  This means that it is possible
    for the output of −d and −D to differ if, for example,
    data is stored in code sections.

    If the target is an ARM architecture this switch also
    has the effect of forcing the disassembler to decode
    pieces of data found in code sections as if they were
    instructions.

−−prefix−addresses
    When disassembling, print the complete address on each
    line.  This is the older disassembly format.

−EB

−EL











                             ‐4‐


−−endian={big|little}
    Specify the endianness of the object files.  This only
    affects disassembly.  This can be useful when
    disassembling a file format which does not describe
    endianness information, such as S−records.

−f

−−file−headers
    Display summary information from the overall header of
    each of the objfile files.

−F

−−file−offsets
    When disassembling sections, whenever a symbol is
    displayed, also display the file offset of the region of
    data that is about to be dumped.  If zeroes are being
    skipped, then when disassembly resumes, tell the user
    how many zeroes were skipped and the file offset of the
    location from where the disassembly resumes.  When
    dumping sections, display the file offset of the
    location from where the dump starts.

−−file−start−context
    Specify that when displaying interlisted source
    code/disassembly (assumes −S) from a file that has not
    yet been displayed, extend the context to the start of
    the file.

−h

−−section−headers

−−headers
    Display summary information from the section headers of
    the object file.

    File segments may be relocated to nonstandard addresses,
    for example by using the −Ttext, −Tdata, or −Tbss
    options to ld.  However, some object file formats, such
    as a.out, do not store the starting address of the file
    segments.  In those situations, although ld relocates
    the sections correctly, using objdump −h to list the
    file section headers cannot show the correct addresses.
    Instead, it shows the usual addresses, which are
    implicit for the target.

    Note, in some cases it is possible for a section to have
    both the READONLY and the NOREAD attributes set.  In
    such cases the NOREAD attribute takes precedence, but
    objdump will report both since the exact setting of the
    flag bits might be important.










                             ‐5‐


−H

−−help
    Print a summary of the options to objdump and exit.

−i

−−info
    Display a list showing all architectures and object
    formats available for specification with −b or −m.

−j name

−−section=name
    Display information only for section name.

−l

−−line−numbers
    Label the display (using debugging information) with the
    filename and source line numbers corresponding to the
    object code or relocs shown.  Only useful with −d, −D,
    or −r.

−m machine

−−architecture=machine
    Specify the architecture to use when disassembling
    object files.  This can be useful when disassembling
    object files which do not describe architecture
    information, such as S−records.  You can list the
    available architectures with the −i option.

    If the target is an ARM architecture then this switch
    has an additional effect.  It restricts the disassembly
    to only those instructions supported by the architecture
    specified by machine.  If it is necessary to use this
    switch because the input file does not contain any
    architecture information, but it is also desired to
    disassemble all the instructions use −marm.

−M options

−−disassembler−options=options
    Pass target specific information to the disassembler.
    Only supported on some targets.  If it is necessary to
    specify more than one disassembler option then multiple
    −M options can be used or can be placed together into a
    comma separated list.

    For ARC, dsp controls the printing of DSP instructions,
    spfp selects the printing of FPX single precision FP
    instructions, dpfp selects the printing of FPX double
    precision FP instructions, quarkse_em selects the









                             ‐6‐


    printing of special QuarkSE‐EM instructions, fpuda
    selects the printing of double precision assist
    instructions, fpus selects the printing of FPU single
    precision FP instructions, while fpud selects the
    printing of FPU souble precision FP instructions.
    Additionally, one can choose to have all the immediates
    printed in hexadecimal using hex.  By default, the short
    immediates are printed using the decimal representation,
    while the long immediate values are printed as
    hexadecimal.

    cpu=... allows to enforce a particular ISA when
    disassembling instructions, overriding the −m value or
    whatever is in the ELF file.  This might be useful to
    select ARC EM or HS ISA, because architecture is same
    for those and disassembler relies on private ELF header
    data to decide if code is for EM or HS.  This option
    might be specified multiple times − only the latest
    value will be used.  Valid values are same as for the
    assembler −mcpu=... option.

    If the target is an ARM architecture then this switch
    can be used to select which register name set is used
    during disassembler.  Specifying −M reg‐names‐std (the
    default) will select the register names as used in ARM’s
    instruction set documentation, but with register 13
    called ’sp’, register 14 called ’lr’ and register 15
    called ’pc’.  Specifying −M reg‐names‐apcs will select
    the name set used by the ARM Procedure Call Standard,
    whilst specifying −M reg‐names‐raw will just use r
    followed by the register number.

    There are also two variants on the APCS register naming
    scheme enabled by −M reg‐names‐atpcs and −M reg‐names‐
    special‐atpcs which use the ARM/Thumb Procedure Call
    Standard naming conventions.  (Either with the normal
    register names or the special register names).

    This option can also be used for ARM architectures to
    force the disassembler to interpret all instructions as
    Thumb instructions by using the switch
    −−disassembler−options=force−thumb.  This can be useful
    when attempting to disassemble thumb code produced by
    other compilers.

    For the x86, some of the options duplicate functions of
    the −m switch, but allow finer grained control.
    Multiple selections from the following may be specified
    as a comma separated string.

    "x86−64"

    "i386"










                             ‐7‐


    "i8086"
        Select disassembly for the given architecture.

    "intel"

    "att"
        Select between intel syntax mode and AT&T syntax
        mode.

    "amd64"

    "intel64"
        Select between AMD64 ISA and Intel64 ISA.

    "intel−mnemonic"

    "att−mnemonic"
        Select between intel mnemonic mode and AT&T mnemonic
        mode.  Note: "intel−mnemonic" implies "intel" and
        "att−mnemonic" implies "att".

    "addr64"

    "addr32"

    "addr16"

    "data32"

    "data16"
        Specify the default address size and operand size.
        These four options will be overridden if "x86−64",
        "i386" or "i8086" appear later in the option string.

    "suffix"
        When in AT&T mode, instructs the disassembler to
        print a mnemonic suffix even when the suffix could
        be inferred by the operands.

        For PowerPC, the −M argument raw selects
        disasssembly of hardware insns rather than aliases.
        For example, you will see "rlwinm" rather than
        "clrlwi", and "addi" rather than "li".  All of the
        −m arguments for gas that select a CPU are
        supported.  These are: 403, 405, 440, 464, 476, 601,
        603, 604, 620, 7400, 7410, 7450, 7455, 750cl, 821,
        850, 860, a2, booke, booke32, cell, com, e200z4,
        e300, e500, e500mc, e500mc64, e500x2, e5500, e6500,
        efs, power4, power5, power6, power7, power8, power9,
        ppc, ppc32, ppc64, ppc64bridge, ppcps, pwr, pwr2,
        pwr4, pwr5, pwr5x, pwr6, pwr7, pwr8, pwr9, pwrx,
        titan, and vle.  32 and 64 modify the default or a
        prior CPU selection, disabling and enabling 64−bit
        insns respectively.  In addition, altivec, any, htm,









                             ‐8‐


        vsx, and spe add capabilities to a previous or later
        CPU selection.  any will disassemble any opcode
        known to binutils, but in cases where an opcode has
        two different meanings or different arguments, you
        may not see the disassembly you expect.  If you
        disassemble without giving a CPU selection, a
        default will be chosen from information gleaned by
        BFD from the object files headers, but the result
        again may not be as you expect.

        For MIPS, this option controls the printing of
        instruction mnemonic names and register names in
        disassembled instructions.  Multiple selections from
        the following may be specified as a comma separated
        string, and invalid options are ignored:

    "no−aliases"
        Print the ’raw’ instruction mnemonic instead of some
        pseudo instruction mnemonic.  I.e., print ’daddu’ or
        ’or’ instead of ’move’, ’sll’ instead of ’nop’, etc.

    "msa"
        Disassemble MSA instructions.

    "virt"
        Disassemble the virtualization ASE instructions.

    "xpa"
        Disassemble the eXtended Physical Address (XPA) ASE
        instructions.

    "gpr−names=ABI"
        Print GPR (general‐purpose register) names as
        appropriate for the specified ABI.  By default, GPR
        names are selected according to the ABI of the
        binary being disassembled.

    "fpr−names=ABI"
        Print FPR (floating‐point register) names as
        appropriate for the specified ABI.  By default, FPR
        numbers are printed rather than names.

    "cp0−names=ARCH"
        Print CP0 (system control coprocessor; coprocessor
        0) register names as appropriate for the CPU or
        architecture specified by ARCH.  By default, CP0
        register names are selected according to the
        architecture and CPU of the binary being
        disassembled.

    "hwr−names=ARCH"
        Print HWR (hardware register, used by the "rdhwr"
        instruction) names as appropriate for the CPU or
        architecture specified by ARCH.  By default, HWR









                             ‐9‐


        names are selected according to the architecture and
        CPU of the binary being disassembled.

    "reg−names=ABI"
        Print GPR and FPR names as appropriate for the
        selected ABI.

    "reg−names=ARCH"
        Print CPU‐specific register names (CP0 register and
        HWR names) as appropriate for the selected CPU or
        architecture.

        For any of the options listed above, ABI or ARCH may
        be specified as numeric to have numbers printed
        rather than names, for the selected types of
        registers.  You can list the available values of ABI
        and ARCH using the −−help option.

        For VAX, you can specify function entry addresses
        with −M entry:0xf00ba.  You can use this multiple
        times to properly disassemble VAX binary files that
        don’t contain symbol tables (like ROM dumps).  In
        these cases, the function entry mask would otherwise
        be decoded as VAX instructions, which would probably
        lead the rest of the function being wrongly
        disassembled.

−p

−−private−headers
    Print information that is specific to the object file
    format.  The exact information printed depends upon the
    object file format.  For some object file formats, no
    additional information is printed.

−P options

−−private=options
    Print information that is specific to the object file
    format.  The argument options is a comma separated list
    that depends on the format (the lists of options is
    displayed with the help).

    For XCOFF, the available options are:

    "header"

    "aout"

    "sections"

    "syms"











                            ‐10‐


    "relocs"

    "lineno,"

    "loader"

    "except"

    "typchk"

    "traceback"

    "toc"

    "ldinfo"

        Not all object formats support this option.  In
        particular the ELF format does not use it.

−r

−−reloc
    Print the relocation entries of the file.  If used with
    −d or −D, the relocations are printed interspersed with
    the disassembly.

−R

−−dynamic−reloc
    Print the dynamic relocation entries of the file.  This
    is only meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain
    types of shared libraries.  As for −r, if used with −d
    or −D, the relocations are printed interspersed with the
    disassembly.

−s

−−full−contents
    Display the full contents of any sections requested.  By
    default all non‐empty sections are displayed.

−S

−−source
    Display source code intermixed with disassembly, if
    possible.  Implies −d.

−−prefix=prefix
    Specify prefix to add to the absolute paths when used
    with −S.

−−prefix−strip=level
    Indicate how many initial directory names to strip off
    the hardwired absolute paths. It has no effect without









                            ‐11‐


    −−prefix=prefix.

−−show−raw−insn
    When disassembling instructions, print the instruction
    in hex as well as in symbolic form.  This is the default
    except when −−prefix−addresses is used.

−−no−show−raw−insn
    When disassembling instructions, do not print the
    instruction bytes.  This is the default when
    −−prefix−addresses is used.

−−insn−width=width
    Display width bytes on a single line when disassembling
    instructions.

−W[lLiaprmfFsoRtUuTgAckK]

−−dwarf[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames−interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges,=gdb_index,=addr,=cu_index,=links,=follow−links]

    Displays the contents of the DWARF debug sections in the
    file, if any are present.  Compressed debug sections are
    automatically decompressed (temporarily) before they are
    displayed.  If one or more of the optional letters or
    words follows the switch then only those type(s) of data
    will be dumped.  The letters and words refer to the
    following information:

    "a"

    "=abbrev"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_abbrev section.

    "A"

    "=addr"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_addr section.

    "c"

    "=cu_index"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_cu_index and/or
        .debug_tu_index sections.

    "f"

    "=frames"
        Display the raw contents of a .debug_frame section.

    "F"

    "=frame−interp"
        Display the interpreted contents of a .debug_frame
        section.









                            ‐12‐


    "g"

    "=gdb_index"
        Displays the contents of the .gdb_index and/or
        .debug_names sections.

    "i"

    "=info"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_info section.
        Note: the output from this option can also be
        restricted by the use of the −−dwarf−depth and
        −−dwarf−start options.

    "k"

    "=links"
        Displays the contents of the .gnu_debuglink and/or
        .gnu_debugaltlink sections.  Also displays the link
        to a separate dwarf object file (dwo), if one is
        specified by the DW_AT_GNU_dwo_name or
        DW_AT_dwo_name attributes in the .debug_info
        section.

    "K"

    "=follow−links"
        Display the contents of any selected debug sections
        that are found in a linked, separate debug info
        file.  This can result in multiple versions of the
        same debug section being displayed if both the main
        file and the separate debug info file contain
        sections with the same name.

        In addition, when displaying DWARF attributes, if a
        form is found that references the separate debug
        info file, then the referenced contents will also be
        displayed.

    "l"

    "=rawline"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_line section in
        a raw format.

    "L"

    "=decodedline"
        Displays the interpreted contents of the .debug_line
        section.

    "m"











                            ‐13‐


    "=macro"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_macro and/or
        .debug_macinfo sections.

    "o"

    "=loc"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_loc and/or
        .debug_loclists sections.

    "p"

    "=pubnames"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_pubnames and/or
        .debug_gnu_pubnames sections.

    "r"

    "=aranges"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_aranges section.

    "R"

    "=Ranges"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_ranges and/or
        .debug_rnglists sections.

    "s"

    "=str"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_str,
        .debug_line_str and/or .debug_str_offsets sections.

    "t"

    "=pubtype"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_pubtypes and/or
        .debug_gnu_pubtypes sections.

    "T"

    "=trace_aranges"
        Displays the contents of the .trace_aranges section.

    "u"

    "=trace_abbrev"
        Displays the contents of the .trace_abbrev section.

    "U"

    "=trace_info"
        Displays the contents of the .trace_info section.










                            ‐14‐


        Note: displaying the contents of
        .debug_static_funcs, .debug_static_vars and
        debug_weaknames sections is not currently supported.

−−dwarf−depth=n
    Limit the dump of the ".debug_info" section to n
    children.  This is only useful with −−debug−dump=info.
    The default is to print all DIEs; the special value 0
    for n will also have this effect.

    With a non‐zero value for n, DIEs at or deeper than n
    levels will not be printed.  The range for n is zero‐
    based.

−−dwarf−start=n
    Print only DIEs beginning with the DIE numbered n.  This
    is only useful with −−debug−dump=info.

    If specified, this option will suppress printing of any
    header information and all DIEs before the DIE numbered
    n.  Only siblings and children of the specified DIE will
    be printed.

    This can be used in conjunction with −−dwarf−depth.

−−dwarf−check
    Enable additional checks for consistency of Dwarf
    information.

−G

−−stabs
    Display the full contents of any sections requested.
    Display the contents of the .stab and .stab.index and
    .stab.excl sections from an ELF file.  This is only
    useful on systems (such as Solaris 2.0) in which ".stab"
    debugging symbol‐table entries are carried in an ELF
    section.  In most other file formats, debugging symbol‐
    table entries are interleaved with linkage symbols, and
    are visible in the −−syms output.

−−start−address=address
    Start displaying data at the specified address.  This
    affects the output of the −d, −r and −s options.

−−stop−address=address
    Stop displaying data at the specified address.  This
    affects the output of the −d, −r and −s options.

−t

−−syms
    Print the symbol table entries of the file.  This is
    similar to the information provided by the nm program,









                            ‐15‐


    although the display format is different.  The format of
    the output depends upon the format of the file being
    dumped, but there are two main types.  One looks like
    this:

            [  4](sec  3)(fl 0x00)(ty   0)(scl   3) (nx 1) 0x00000000 .bss
            [  6](sec  1)(fl 0x00)(ty   0)(scl   2) (nx 0) 0x00000000 fred

    where the number inside the square brackets is the
    number of the entry in the symbol table, the sec number
    is the section number, the fl value are the symbol’s
    flag bits, the ty number is the symbol’s type, the scl
    number is the symbol’s storage class and the nx value is
    the number of auxilary entries associated with the
    symbol.  The last two fields are the symbol’s value and
    its name.

    The other common output format, usually seen with ELF
    based files, looks like this:

            00000000 l    d  .bss   00000000 .bss
            00000000 g       .text  00000000 fred

    Here the first number is the symbol’s value (sometimes
    refered to as its address).  The next field is actually
    a set of characters and spaces indicating the flag bits
    that are set on the symbol.  These characters are
    described below.  Next is the section with which the
    symbol is associated or *ABS* if the section is absolute
    (ie not connected with any section), or *UND* if the
    section is referenced in the file being dumped, but not
    defined there.

    After the section name comes another field, a number,
    which for common symbols is the alignment and for other
    symbol is the size.  Finally the symbol’s name is
    displayed.

    The flag characters are divided into 7 groups as
    follows:

    "l"

    "g"

    "u"

    "!" The symbol is a local (l), global (g), unique global
        (u), neither global nor local (a space) or both
        global and local (!).  A symbol can be neither local
        or global for a variety of reasons, e.g., because it
        is used for debugging, but it is probably an
        indication of a bug if it is ever both local and
        global.  Unique global symbols are a GNU extension









                            ‐16‐


        to the standard set of ELF symbol bindings.  For
        such a symbol the dynamic linker will make sure that
        in the entire process there is just one symbol with
        this name and type in use.

    "w" The symbol is weak (w) or strong (a space).

    "C" The symbol denotes a constructor (C) or an ordinary
        symbol (a space).

    "W" The symbol is a warning (W) or a normal symbol (a
        space).  A warning symbol’s name is a message to be
        displayed if the symbol following the warning symbol
        is ever referenced.

    "I"

    "i" The symbol is an indirect reference to another
        symbol (I), a function to be evaluated during reloc
        processing (i) or a normal symbol (a space).

    "d"

    "D" The symbol is a debugging symbol (d) or a dynamic
        symbol (D) or a normal symbol (a space).

    "F"

    "f"

    "O" The symbol is the name of a function (F) or a file
        (f) or an object (O) or just a normal symbol (a
        space).

−T

−−dynamic−syms
    Print the dynamic symbol table entries of the file.
    This is only meaningful for dynamic objects, such as
    certain types of shared libraries.  This is similar to
    the information provided by the nm program when given
    the −D (−−dynamic) option.

    The output format is similar to that produced by the
    −−syms option, except that an extra field is inserted
    before the symbol’s name, giving the version information
    associated with the symbol.  If the version is the
    default version to be used when resolving unversioned
    references to the symbol then it’s displayed as is,
    otherwise it’s put into parentheses.

−−special−syms
    When displaying symbols include those which the target
    considers to be special in some way and which would not









                            ‐17‐


    normally be of interest to the user.

−V

−−version
    Print the version number of objdump and exit.

−x

−−all−headers
    Display all available header information, including the
    symbol table and relocation entries.  Using −x is
    equivalent to specifying all of −a −f −h −p −r −t.

−w

−−wide
    Format some lines for output devices that have more than
    80 columns.  Also do not truncate symbol names when they
    are displayed.

−z

−−disassemble−zeroes
    Normally the disassembly output will skip blocks of
    zeroes.  This option directs the disassembler to
    disassemble those blocks, just like any other data.

@file
    Read command‐line options from file.  The options read
    are inserted in place of the original @file option.  If
    file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option
    will be treated literally, and not removed.

    Options in file are separated by whitespace.  A
    whitespace character may be included in an option by
    surrounding the entire option in either single or double
    quotes.  Any character (including a backslash) may be
    included by prefixing the character to be included with
    a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional
    @file options; any such options will be processed
    recursively.

nm(1), readelf(1), and the Info entries for binutils.

Copyright (c) 1991−2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify
this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the
Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with
no Front‐Cover Texts, and with no Back‐Cover Texts.  A copy
of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
Documentation License".