pacman

PACMAN(8)                        Pacman Manual                       PACMAN(8)



NAME
       pacman - package manager utility

SYNOPSIS
       pacman <operation> [options] [targets]

DESCRIPTION
       Pacman is a package management utility that tracks installed packages
       on a Linux system. It features dependency support, package groups,
       install and uninstall scripts, and the ability to sync your local
       machine with a remote repository to automatically upgrade packages.
       Pacman packages are a zipped tar format.

       Since version 3.0.0, pacman has been the front-end to libalpm(3), the
       “Arch Linux Package Management” library. This library allows
       alternative front-ends to be written (for instance, a GUI front-end).

       Invoking pacman involves specifying an operation with any potential
       options and targets to operate on. A target is usually a package name,
       file name, URL, or a search string. Targets can be provided as command
       line arguments. Additionally, if stdin is not from a terminal and a
       single hyphen (-) is passed as an argument, targets will be read from
       stdin.

OPERATIONS
       -D, --database
           Operate on the package database. This operation allows you to
           modify certain attributes of the installed packages in pacman’s
           database. It also allows you to check the databases for internal
           consistency. See Database Options below.

       -Q, --query
           Query the package database. This operation allows you to view
           installed packages and their files, as well as meta-information
           about individual packages (dependencies, conflicts, install date,
           build date, size). This can be run against the local package
           database or can be used on individual package files. In the first
           case, if no package names are provided in the command line, all
           installed packages will be queried. Additionally, various filters
           can be applied on the package list. See Query Options below.

       -R, --remove
           Remove package(s) from the system. Groups can also be specified to
           be removed, in which case every package in that group will be
           removed. Files belonging to the specified package will be deleted,
           and the database will be updated. Most configuration files will be
           saved with a .pacsave extension unless the --nosave option is used.
           See Remove Options below.

       -S, --sync
           Synchronize packages. Packages are installed directly from the
           remote repositories, including all dependencies required to run the
           packages. For example, pacman -S qt will download and install qt
           and all the packages it depends on. If a package name exists in
           more than one repository, the repository can be explicitly
           specified to clarify the package to install: pacman -S testing/qt.
           You can also specify version requirements: pacman -S "bash>=3.2".
           Quotes are needed, otherwise the shell interprets ">" as
           redirection to a file.

           In addition to packages, groups can be specified as well. For
           example, if gnome is a defined package group, then pacman -S gnome
           will provide a prompt allowing you to select which packages to
           install from a numbered list. The package selection is specified
           using a space- and/or comma-separated list of package numbers.
           Sequential packages may be selected by specifying the first and
           last package numbers separated by a hyphen (-). Excluding packages
           is achieved by prefixing a number or range of numbers with a caret
           (^).

           Packages that provide other packages are also handled. For example,
           pacman -S foo will first look for a foo package. If foo is not
           found, packages that provide the same functionality as foo will be
           searched for. If any package is found, it will be installed. A
           selection prompt is provided if multiple packages providing foo are
           found.

           You can also use pacman -Su to upgrade all packages that are
           out-of-date. See Sync Options below. When upgrading, pacman
           performs version comparison to determine which packages need
           upgrading. This behavior operates as follows:

               Alphanumeric:
                 1.0a < 1.0b < 1.0beta < 1.0p < 1.0pre < 1.0rc < 1.0 < 1.0.a < 1.0.1
               Numeric:
                 1 < 1.0 < 1.1 < 1.1.1 < 1.2 < 2.0 < 3.0.0

           Additionally, version strings can have an epoch value defined that
           will overrule any version comparison, unless the epoch values are
           equal. This is specified in an epoch:version-rel format. For
           example, 2:1.0-1 is always greater than 1:3.6-1.

       -T, --deptest
           Check dependencies; this is useful in scripts such as makepkg to
           check installed packages. This operation will check each dependency
           specified and return a list of dependencies that are not currently
           satisfied on the system. This operation accepts no other options.
           Example usage: pacman -T qt "bash>=3.2".

       -U, --upgrade
           Upgrade or add package(s) to the system and install the required
           dependencies from sync repositories. Either a URL or file path can
           be specified. This is a “remove-then-add” process. See Upgrade
           Options below; also see Handling Config Files for an explanation on
           how pacman takes care of configuration files.

       -F, --files
           Query the files database. This operation allows you to look for
           packages owning certain files or display files owned by certain
           packages. Only packages that are part of your sync databases are
           searched. See File Options below.

       -V, --version
           Display version and exit.

       -h, --help
           Display syntax for the given operation. If no operation was
           supplied, then the general syntax is shown.

OPTIONS
       -b, --dbpath <path>
           Specify an alternative database location (the default is
           /var/lib/pacman). This should not be used unless you know what you
           are doing.  NOTE: If specified, this is an absolute path, and the
           root path is not automatically prepended.

       -r, --root <path>
           Specify an alternative installation root (default is /). This
           should not be used as a way to install software into /usr/local
           instead of /usr.  NOTE: If database path or log file are not
           specified on either the command line or in pacman.conf(5), their
           default location will be inside this root path.  NOTE: This option
           is not suitable for performing operations on a mounted guest
           system. See --sysroot instead.

       -v, --verbose
           Output paths such as as the Root, Conf File, DB Path, Cache Dirs,
           etc.

       --arch <arch>
           Specify an alternate architecture.

       --cachedir <dir>
           Specify an alternative package cache location (the default is
           /var/cache/pacman/pkg). Multiple cache directories can be
           specified, and they are tried in the order they are passed to
           pacman.  NOTE: This is an absolute path, and the root path is not
           automatically prepended.

       --color <when>
           Specify when to enable coloring. Valid options are always, never,
           or auto.  always forces colors on; never forces colors off; and
           auto only automatically enables colors when outputting onto a tty.

       --config <file>
           Specify an alternate configuration file.

       --debug
           Display debug messages. When reporting bugs, this option is
           recommended to be used.

       --gpgdir <dir>
           Specify a directory of files used by GnuPG to verify package
           signatures (the default is /etc/pacman.d/gnupg). This directory
           should contain two files: pubring.gpg and trustdb.gpg.  pubring.gpg
           holds the public keys of all packagers.  trustdb.gpg contains a
           so-called trust database, which specifies that the keys are
           authentic and trusted.  NOTE: This is an absolute path, and the
           root path is not automatically prepended.

       --hookdir <dir>
           Specify a alternative directory containing hook files (the default
           is /etc/pacman.d/hooks). Multiple hook directories can be specified
           with hooks in later directories taking precedence over hooks in
           earlier directories.  NOTE: This is an absolute path, and the root
           path is not automatically prepended.

       --logfile <file>
           Specify an alternate log file. This is an absolute path, regardless
           of the installation root setting.

       --noconfirm
           Bypass any and all “Are you sure?” messages. It’s not a good idea
           to do this unless you want to run pacman from a script.

       --confirm
           Cancels the effects of a previous --noconfirm.

       --disable-download-timeout
           Disable defaults for low speed limit and timeout on downloads. Use
           this if you have issues downloading files with proxy and/or
           security gateway.

       --sysroot <dir>
           Specify an alternative system root. Pacman will chroot and chdir
           into the system root prior to running. This allows mounted guest
           systems to be properly operated on. Any other paths given will be
           interpreted as relative to the system root. Requires root
           privileges.

TRANSACTION OPTIONS (APPLY TO -S, -R AND -U)
       -d, --nodeps
           Skips dependency version checks. Package names are still checked.
           Normally, pacman will always check a package’s dependency fields to
           ensure that all dependencies are installed and there are no package
           conflicts in the system. Specify this option twice to skip all
           dependency checks.

       --assume-installed <package=version>
           Add a virtual package "package" with version "version" to the
           transaction to satisfy dependencies. This allows to disable
           specific dependency checks without affecting all dependency checks.
           To disable all dependency checking, see the --nodeps option.

       --dbonly
           Adds/removes the database entry only, leaving all files in place.

       --noprogressbar
           Do not show a progress bar when downloading files. This can be
           useful for scripts that call pacman and capture the output.

       --noscriptlet
           If an install scriptlet exists, do not execute it. Do not use this
           unless you know what you are doing.

       -p, --print
           Only print the targets instead of performing the actual operation
           (sync, remove or upgrade). Use --print-format to specify how
           targets are displayed. The default format string is "%l", which
           displays URLs with -S, file names with -U, and pkgname-pkgver with
           -R.

       --print-format <format>
           Specify a printf-like format to control the output of the --print
           operation. The possible attributes are: "%n" for pkgname, "%v" for
           pkgver, "%l" for location, "%r" for repository, and "%s" for size.
           Implies --print.

UPGRADE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -S AND -U)
       --asdeps
           Install packages non-explicitly; in other words, fake their install
           reason to be installed as a dependency. This is useful for makepkg
           and other build-from-source tools that need to install dependencies
           before building the package.

       --asexplicit
           Install packages explicitly; in other words, fake their install
           reason to be explicitly installed. This is useful if you want to
           mark a dependency as explicitly installed so it will not be removed
           by the --recursive remove operation.

       --ignore <package>
           Directs pacman to ignore upgrades of package even if there is one
           available. Multiple packages can be specified by separating them
           with a comma.

       --ignoregroup <group>
           Directs pacman to ignore upgrades of all packages in group, even if
           there is one available. Multiple groups can be specified by
           separating them with a comma.

       --needed
           Do not reinstall the targets that are already up-to-date.

       --overwrite <glob>
           Bypass file conflict checks and overwrite conflicting files. If the
           package that is about to be installed contains files that are
           already installed and match glob, this option will cause all those
           files to be overwritten. Using --overwrite will not allow
           overwriting a directory with a file or installing packages with
           conflicting files and directories. Multiple patterns can be
           specified by separating them with a comma. May be specified
           multiple times. Patterns can be negated, such that files matching
           them will not be overwritten, by prefixing them with an exclamation
           mark. Subsequent matches will override previous ones. A leading
           literal exclamation mark or backslash needs to be escaped.

QUERY OPTIONS (APPLY TO -Q)
       -c, --changelog
           View the ChangeLog of a package if it exists.

       -d, --deps
           Restrict or filter output to packages installed as dependencies.
           This option can be combined with -t for listing real orphans -
           packages that were installed as dependencies but are no longer
           required by any installed package.

       -e, --explicit
           Restrict or filter output to explicitly installed packages. This
           option can be combined with -t to list explicitly installed
           packages that are not required by any other package.

       -g, --groups
           Display all packages that are members of a named group. If a name
           is not specified, list all grouped packages.

       -i, --info
           Display information on a given package. The -p option can be used
           if querying a package file instead of the local database. Passing
           two --info or -i flags will also display the list of backup files
           and their modification states.

       -k, --check
           Check that all files owned by the given package(s) are present on
           the system. If packages are not specified or filter flags are not
           provided, check all installed packages. Specifying this option
           twice will perform more detailed file checking (including
           permissions, file sizes, and modification times) for packages that
           contain the needed mtree file.

       -l, --list
           List all files owned by a given package. Multiple packages can be
           specified on the command line.

       -m, --foreign
           Restrict or filter output to packages that were not found in the
           sync database(s). Typically these are packages that were downloaded
           manually and installed with --upgrade.

       -n, --native
           Restrict or filter output to packages that are found in the sync
           database(s). This is the inverse filter of --foreign.

       -o, --owns <file>
           Search for packages that own the specified file(s). The path can be
           relative or absolute, and one or more files can be specified.

       -p, --file
           Signifies that the package supplied on the command line is a file
           and not an entry in the database. The file will be decompressed and
           queried. This is useful in combination with --info and --list.

       -q, --quiet
           Show less information for certain query operations. This is useful
           when pacman’s output is processed in a script. Search will only
           show package names and not version, group, and description
           information; owns will only show package names instead of "file is
           owned by pkg" messages; group will only show package names and omit
           group names; list will only show files and omit package names;
           check will only show pairs of package names and missing files; a
           bare query will only show package names rather than names and
           versions.

       -s, --search <regexp>
           Search each locally-installed package for names or descriptions
           that match regexp. When including multiple search terms, only
           packages with descriptions matching ALL of those terms are
           returned.

       -t, --unrequired
           Restrict or filter output to print only packages neither required
           nor optionally required by any currently installed package. Specify
           this option twice to include packages which are optionally, but not
           directly, required by another package.

       -u, --upgrades
           Restrict or filter output to packages that are out-of-date on the
           local system. Only package versions are used to find outdated
           packages; replacements are not checked here. This option works best
           if the sync database is refreshed using -Sy.

REMOVE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -R)
       -c, --cascade
           Remove all target packages, as well as all packages that depend on
           one or more target packages. This operation is recursive and must
           be used with care, since it can remove many potentially needed
           packages.

       -n, --nosave
           Instructs pacman to ignore file backup designations. Normally, when
           a file is removed from the system, the database is checked to see
           if the file should be renamed with a .pacsave extension.

       -s, --recursive
           Remove each target specified including all of their dependencies,
           provided that (A) they are not required by other packages; and (B)
           they were not explicitly installed by the user. This operation is
           recursive and analogous to a backwards --sync operation, and it
           helps keep a clean system without orphans. If you want to omit
           condition (B), pass this option twice.

       -u, --unneeded
           Removes targets that are not required by any other packages. This
           is mostly useful when removing a group without using the -c option,
           to avoid breaking any dependencies.

SYNC OPTIONS (APPLY TO -S)
       -c, --clean
           Remove packages that are no longer installed from the cache as well
           as currently unused sync databases to free up disk space. When
           pacman downloads packages, it saves them in a cache directory. In
           addition, databases are saved for every sync DB you download from
           and are not deleted even if they are removed from the configuration
           file pacman.conf(5). Use one --clean switch to only remove packages
           that are no longer installed; use two to remove all files from the
           cache. In both cases, you will have a yes or no option to remove
           packages and/or unused downloaded databases.

           If you use a network shared cache, see the CleanMethod option in
           pacman.conf(5).

       -g, --groups
           Display all the members for each package group specified. If no
           group names are provided, all groups will be listed; pass the flag
           twice to view all groups and their members.

       -i, --info
           Display information on a given sync database package. Passing two
           --info or -i flags will also display those packages in all
           repositories that depend on this package.

       -l, --list
           List all packages in the specified repositories. Multiple
           repositories can be specified on the command line.

       -q, --quiet
           Show less information for certain sync operations. This is useful
           when pacman’s output is processed in a script. Search will only
           show package names and not repository, version, group, and
           description information; list will only show package names and omit
           databases and versions; group will only show package names and omit
           group names.

       -s, --search <regexp>
           This will search each package in the sync databases for names or
           descriptions that match regexp. When you include multiple search
           terms, only packages with descriptions matching ALL of those terms
           will be returned.

       -u, --sysupgrade
           Upgrades all packages that are out-of-date. Each
           currently-installed package will be examined and upgraded if a
           newer package exists. A report of all packages to upgrade will be
           presented, and the operation will not proceed without user
           confirmation. Dependencies are automatically resolved at this level
           and will be installed/upgraded if necessary.

           Pass this option twice to enable package downgrades; in this case,
           pacman will select sync packages whose versions do not match with
           the local versions. This can be useful when the user switches from
           a testing repository to a stable one.

           Additional targets can also be specified manually, so that -Su foo
           will do a system upgrade and install/upgrade the "foo" package in
           the same operation.

       -w, --downloadonly
           Retrieve all packages from the server, but do not install/upgrade
           anything.

       -y, --refresh
           Download a fresh copy of the master package database from the
           server(s) defined in pacman.conf(5). This should typically be used
           each time you use --sysupgrade or -u. Passing two --refresh or -y
           flags will force a refresh of all package databases, even if they
           appear to be up-to-date.

DATABASE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -D)
       --asdeps <package>
           Mark a package as non-explicitly installed; in other words, set
           their install reason to be installed as a dependency.

       --asexplicit <package>
           Mark a package as explicitly installed; in other words, set their
           install reason to be explicitly installed. This is useful it you
           want to keep a package installed even when it was initially
           installed as a dependency of another package.

       -k, --check
           Check the local package database is internally consistent. This
           will check all required files are present and that installed
           packages have the required dependencies, do not conflict and that
           multiple packages do not own the same file. Specifying this option
           twice will perform a check on the sync databases to ensure all
           specified dependencies are available.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress messages on successful completion of database operations.

FILE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -F)
       -y, --refresh
           Download fresh package databases from the server. Use twice to
           force a refresh even if databases are up to date.

       -l, --list
           List the files owned by the queried package.

       -s, --search
           Search package file names for matching strings.

       -x, --regex
           Treat arguments to --search as regular expressions.

       -o, --owns
           Search for packages that own a particular file.

       -q, --quiet
           Show less information for certain file operations. This is useful
           when pacman’s output is processed in a script, however, you may
           want to use --machinereadable instead.

       --machinereadable
           Use a machine readable output format for --list, --search and
           --owns. The format is repository\0pkgname\0pkgver\0path\n with \0
           being the NULL character and \n a linefeed.

HANDLING CONFIG FILES
       Pacman uses the same logic as rpm to determine action against files
       that are designated to be backed up. During an upgrade, three MD5
       hashes are used for each backup file to determine the required action:
       one for the original file installed, one for the new file that is about
       to be installed, and one for the actual file existing on the file
       system. After comparing these three hashes, the follow scenarios can
       result:

       original=X, current=X, new=X
           All three files are the same, so overwrites are not an issue.
           Install the new file.

       original=X, current=X, new=Y
           The current file is the same as the original, but the new one
           differs. Since the user did not ever modify the file, and the new
           one may contain improvements or bug fixes, install the new file.

       original=X, current=Y, new=X
           Both package versions contain the exact same file, but the one on
           the file system has been modified. Leave the current file in place.

       original=X, current=Y, new=Y
           The new file is identical to the current file. Install the new
           file.

       original=X, current=Y, new=Z
           All three files are different, so install the new file with a
           .pacnew extension and warn the user. The user must then manually
           merge any necessary changes into the original file.

       original=NULL, current=Y, new=Z
           The package was not previously installed, and the file already
           exists on the file system. Install the new file with a .pacnew
           extension and warn the user. The user must then manually merge any
           necessary changes into the original file.

EXAMPLES
       pacman -Ss ne.hack
           Search for regexp "ne.hack" in package database.

       pacman -S gpm
           Download and install gpm including dependencies.

       pacman -U /home/user/ceofhack-0.6-1-x86_64.pkg.tar.gz
           Install ceofhack-0.6-1 package from a local file.

       pacman -Syu
           Update package list and upgrade all packages afterwards.

       pacman -Syu gpm
           Update package list, upgrade all packages, and then install gpm if
           it wasn’t already installed.

CONFIGURATION
       See pacman.conf(5) for more details on configuring pacman using the
       pacman.conf file.

SEE ALSO
       alpm-hooks(5), libalpm(3), makepkg(8), pacman.conf(5)

       See the pacman website at https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/ for current
       information on pacman and its related tools.

BUGS
       Bugs? You must be kidding; there are no bugs in this software. But if
       we happen to be wrong, send us an email with as much detail as possible
       to pacman-dev@archlinux.org.

AUTHORS
       Current maintainers:

       ·   Allan McRae <allan@archlinux.org>

       ·   Andrew Gregory <andrew.gregory.8@gmail.com>

       ·   Dan McGee <dan@archlinux.org>

       ·   Dave Reisner <dreisner@archlinux.org>

       Past major contributors:

       ·   Judd Vinet <jvinet@zeroflux.org>

       ·   Aurelien Foret <aurelien@archlinux.org>

       ·   Aaron Griffin <aaron@archlinux.org>

       ·   Xavier Chantry <shiningxc@gmail.com>

       ·   Nagy Gabor <ngaba@bibl.u-szeged.hu>

       For additional contributors, use git shortlog -s on the pacman.git
       repository.



Pacman 5.1.3                      2019-03-01                         PACMAN(8)