PASSWD(1)                   Polecenia użytkowników                  PASSWD(1)

       passwd - zmiana hasła użytkownika

       passwd [opcje] [LOGIN]

       The passwd command changes passwords for user accounts. A normal user
       may only change the password for his/her own account, while the
       superuser may change the password for any account.  passwd also changes
       the account or associated password validity period.

   Password Changes
       The user is first prompted for his/her old password, if one is present.
       This password is then encrypted and compared against the stored
       password. The user has only one chance to enter the correct password.
       The superuser is permitted to bypass this step so that forgotten
       passwords may be changed.

       After the password has been entered, password aging information is
       checked to see if the user is permitted to change the password at this
       time. If not, passwd refuses to change the password and exits.

       The user is then prompted twice for a replacement password. The second
       entry is compared against the first and both are required to match in
       order for the password to be changed.

       Then, the password is tested for complexity. As a general guideline,
       passwords should consist of 6 to 8 characters including one or more
       characters from each of the following sets:

       •   lower case alphabetics

       •   digits 0 thru 9

       •   punctuation marks

       Care must be taken not to include the system default erase or kill
       characters.  passwd will reject any password which is not suitably

   Hints for user passwords
       The security of a password depends upon the strength of the encryption
       algorithm and the size of the key space. The legacy UNIX System
       encryption method is based on the NBS DES algorithm. More recent
       methods are now recommended (see ENCRYPT_METHOD). The size of the key
       space depends upon the randomness of the password which is selected.

       Compromises in password security normally result from careless password
       selection or handling. For this reason, you should not select a
       password which appears in a dictionary or which must be written down.
       The password should also not be a proper name, your license number,
       birth date, or street address. Any of these may be used as guesses to
       violate system security.

       You can find advices on how to choose a strong password on

       Polecenie passwd posiada nastÄpujÄce opcje:

       -a, --all
           This option can be used only with -S and causes show status for all

       -d, --delete
           Delete a user's password (make it empty). This is a quick way to
           disable a password for an account. It will set the named account

       -e, --expire
           Immediately expire an account's password. This in effect can force
           a user to change his/her password at the user's next login.

       -h, --help
           WyÅwietlenie komunikatu pomocy i zakoÅczenie działania.

       -i, --inactiveNIEAKTYWNE
           This option is used to disable an account after the password has
           been expired for a number of days. After a user account has had an
           expired password for INACTIVE days, the user may no longer sign on
           to the account.

       -k, --keep-tokens
           Indicate password change should be performed only for expired
           authentication tokens (passwords). The user wishes to keep their
           non-expired tokens as before.

       -l, --lock
           Lock the password of the named account. This option disables a
           password by changing it to a value which matches no possible
           encrypted value (it adds a ´!´ at the beginning of the password).

           Note that this does not disable the account. The user may still be
           able to login using another authentication token (e.g. an SSH key).
           To disable the account, administrators should use usermod
           --expiredate 1 (this set the account's expire date to Jan 2, 1970).

           Users with a locked password are not allowed to change their

       -n, --mindays MIN_DAYS
           Utawia minimalnÄ liczbÄ dni pomiÄdzy zmianami hasła na MIN_DAYS.
           WartoÅÄ zerowa oznacza, że użytkownik może je zmieniaÄ w
           dowolnym czasie.

       -q, --quiet
           Cichy tryb pracy.

       -r, --repositoryREPOZYTORIUM
           change password in REPOSITORY repository

       -S, --status
           Display account status information. The status information consists
           of 7 fields. The first field is the user's login name. The second
           field indicates if the user account has a locked password (L), has
           no password (NP), or has a usable password (P). The third field
           gives the date of the last password change. The next four fields
           are the minimum age, maximum age, warning period, and inactivity
           period for the password. These ages are expressed in days.

       -u, --unlock
           Unlock the password of the named account. This option re-enables a
           password by changing the password back to its previous value (to
           the value before using the -l option).

       -w, --warndaysDNI_OSTRZ
           Set the number of days of warning before a password change is
           required. The WARN_DAYS option is the number of days prior to the
           password expiring that a user will be warned that his/her password
           is about to expire.

       -x, --maxdaysMAX_DNI
           Set the maximum number of days a password remains valid. After
           MAX_DAYS, the password is required to be changed.

       Password complexity checking may vary from site to site. The user is
       urged to select a password as complex as he or she feels comfortable

       Users may not be able to change their password on a system if NIS is
       enabled and they are not logged into the NIS server.

       passwd uses PAM to authenticate users and to change their passwords.

           Informacja o kontach użytkowników.

           Informacje chronione o użytkownikach.

           PAM configuration for passwd.

       Polecenie passwd koÅczy działanie z nastÄpujÄcymi wartoÅciami kodów

           poprawne zakoÅczenie działania programu

           brak dostÄpu

           nieprawidłowa kombinacja opcji

           unexpected failure, nothing done

           unexpected failure, passwd file missing

           passwd file busy, try again

           nieprawidłowy argument opcji

       passwd(5), shadow(5), usermod(8).

Polecenia użytkowników           09/06/2012                         PASSWD(1)