passwd

passwd(1)          ÐолÑзоваÑелÑÑкие ÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ð°Ð½Ð´Ñ         passwd(1)



ÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐ
       passwd - изменÑÐµÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÑзоваÑелÑ

СÐÐТÐÐСÐС
       passwd [паÑамеÑÑÑ] [УЧÐТÐÐЯ_ÐÐÐÐСЬ]

ÐÐÐСÐÐÐÐ
       The passwd command changes passwords for user accounts. A normal user
       may only change the password for their own account, while the superuser
       may change the password for any account.  passwd also changes the
       account or associated password validity period.

   Ðзменение паÑолÑ
       СнаÑала полÑзоваÑÐµÐ»Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð¿ÑоÑÑÑ Ð²Ð²ÐµÑÑи ÑÑаÑÑй
       паÑолÑ, еÑли он бÑл. ÐÑÐ¾Ñ Ð¿Ð°ÑолÑ
       заÑиÑÑовÑваеÑÑÑ Ð¸ ÑÑавниваеÑÑÑ Ñ Ð¸Ð¼ÐµÑÑимÑÑ. У
       полÑзоваÑÐµÐ»Ñ ÐµÑÑÑ ÑолÑко одна попÑÑка ввеÑÑи
       пÑавилÑнÑй паÑолÑ. ÐÐ»Ñ ÑÑпеÑполÑзоваÑÐµÐ»Ñ ÑÑоÑ
       Ñаг пÑопÑÑкаеÑÑÑ, Ð´Ð»Ñ Ñого ÑÑÐ¾Ð±Ñ Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½Ð¾ бÑло
       измениÑÑ Ð·Ð°Ð±ÑÑÑй паÑолÑ.

       After the password has been entered, password aging information is
       checked to see if the user is permitted to change the password at this
       time. If not, passwd refuses to change the password and exits.

       ÐаÑем полÑзоваÑÐµÐ»Ñ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð»Ð¾Ð¶Ð°Ñ Ð´Ð²Ð°Ð¶Ð´Ñ Ð²Ð²ÐµÑÑи
       новÑй паÑолÑ. ÐнаÑение вÑоÑого ввода
       ÑÑавниваеÑÑÑ Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑвÑм и Ð´Ð»Ñ Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿Ð°Ñоли
       из Ð¾Ð±ÐµÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð¿ÑÑок Ð´Ð¾Ð»Ð¶Ð½Ñ ÑовпаÑÑÑ.

       ÐаÑем паÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ ÑеÑÑиÑÑеÑÑÑ Ð½Ð° ÑложноÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð±Ð¾Ñа.
       СоглаÑно обÑим пÑинÑипам, паÑоли должнÑ
       бÑÑÑ Ð´Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¾Ñ 6 до 8 Ñимволов и вклÑÑаÑÑ
       один или более Ñимволов каждого Ñипа:

       •   ÑÑÑоÑнÑе бÑквÑ

       •   ÑиÑÑÑ Ð¾Ñ 0 до 9

       •   знаки пÑнкÑÑаÑии

       Care must be taken not to include the system default erase or kill
       characters.  passwd will reject any password which is not suitably
       complex.

   ÐÑÐ±Ð¾Ñ Ð¿Ð°ÑолÑ
       The security of a password depends upon the strength of the encryption
       algorithm and the size of the key space. The legacy UNIX System
       encryption method is based on the NBS DES algorithm. More recent
       methods are now recommended (see ENCRYPT_METHOD). The size of the key
       space depends upon the randomness of the password which is selected.

       ÐÑи обеÑпеÑении безопаÑноÑÑи паÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ð²ÑбиÑаÑÑ
       неÑÑо ÑÑеднее Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ñ ÑложнÑм паÑолем и
       ÑложноÑÑÑÑ ÑабоÑÑ Ñ Ð½Ð¸Ð¼. Ðо ÑÑой пÑиÑине, Ð²Ñ Ð½Ðµ
       Ð´Ð¾Ð»Ð¶Ð½Ñ Ð¸ÑполÑзоваÑÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑолÑ, коÑоÑÑй ÑвлÑеÑÑÑ
       Ñловом из ÑловаÑÑ Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ коÑоÑÑй пÑидÑÑÑÑ
       запиÑаÑÑ Ð¸Ð·-за его ÑложноÑÑи. Также, паÑолÑ
       не должен бÑÑÑ Ð½Ð°Ð·Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸ÐµÐ¼ Ñего-либо,
       номеÑом ваÑей лиÑензии, днÑм ÑÐ¾Ð¶Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð¸
       домаÑним адÑеÑом. Ðбо вÑÑм ÑÑом легко
       догадаÑÑÑÑ, ÑÑо пÑиведÑÑ Ðº наÑÑÑениÑ
       безопаÑноÑÑи ÑиÑÑемÑ.

       You can find advice on how to choose a strong password on
       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Password_strength

ÐÐÐ ÐÐÐТРЫ
       The options which apply to the passwd command are:

       -a, --all
           This option can be used only with -S and causes show status for all
           users.

       -d, --delete
           УдалиÑÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÑзоваÑÐµÐ»Ñ (ÑделаÑÑ ÐµÐ³Ð¾
           пÑÑÑÑм). ÐÑо бÑÑÑÑÑй ÑпоÑоб заблокиÑоваÑÑ
           паÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ ÑÑÑÑной запиÑи. ÐÑо ÑделаеÑ
           ÑказаннÑÑ ÑÑÑÑнÑÑ Ð·Ð°Ð¿Ð¸ÑÑ Ð±ÐµÑпаÑолÑной.

       -e, --expire
           Ðемедленно ÑделаÑÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ ÑÑÑаÑевÑим. Ð
           ÑезÑлÑÑаÑе ÑÑо заÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÑзоваÑелÑ
           измениÑÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ð¿Ñи ÑледÑÑÑем вÑоде в
           ÑиÑÑемÑ.

       -h, --help
           ÐоказаÑÑ ÐºÑаÑкÑÑ ÑпÑÐ°Ð²ÐºÑ Ð¸ законÑиÑÑ ÑабоÑÑ.

       -i, --inactive INACTIVE
           This option is used to disable an account after the password has
           been expired for a number of days. After a user account has had an
           expired password for INACTIVE days, the user may no longer sign on
           to the account.

       -k, --keep-tokens
           УказÑваеÑ, ÑÑо изменение паÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ð½Ñжно
           вÑполниÑÑ ÑолÑко Ð´Ð»Ñ ÑÑÑаÑевÑÐ¸Ñ ÐºÐ»ÑÑей
           аÑÑенÑиÑикаÑии (паÑолей). ÐолÑзоваÑели
           ÑоÑÑÑ Ð¾ÑÑавиÑÑ Ñвои непÑоÑÑоÑеннÑе клÑÑи
           неÑÑонÑÑÑми.

       -l, --lock
           ÐаблокиÑоваÑÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ñказанной ÑÑÑÑной
           запиÑи. ÐÑÐ¾Ñ Ð¿Ð°ÑамеÑÑ Ð±Ð»Ð¾ÐºÐ¸ÑÑÐµÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑолÑ,
           изменÑÑ ÐµÐ³Ð¾ знаÑение на ваÑианÑ, коÑоÑÑй
           не Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÑ Ð±ÑÑÑ ÑиÑÑованнÑм паÑолем
           (добавлÑеÑÑÑ Ñимвол «!» в наÑало паÑолÑ).

           Note that this does not disable the account. The user may still be
           able to login using another authentication token (e.g. an SSH key).
           To disable the account, administrators should use usermod
           --expiredate 1 (this set the account's expire date to Jan 2, 1970).

           ÐоÑеÑиÑÐµÐ»Ñ Ñ Ð·Ð°Ð±Ð»Ð¾ÐºÐ¸ÑованнÑм паÑолем не
           Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÑ Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ Ñвой паÑолÑ.

       -n, --mindays MIN_DAYS
           Set the minimum number of days between password changes to
           MIN_DAYS. A value of zero for this field indicates that the user
           may change their password at any time.

       -q, --quiet
           Ðе вÑводиÑÑ ÑообÑений пÑи ÑабоÑе.

       -r, --repository REPOSITORY
           change password in REPOSITORY repository

       -R, --root CHROOT_DIR
           Apply changes in the CHROOT_DIR directory and use the configuration
           files from the CHROOT_DIR directory.

       -S, --status
           ÐоказаÑÑ ÑоÑÑоÑние ÑÑÑÑной запиÑи.
           ÐнÑоÑмаÑÐ¸Ñ Ð¾ ÑоÑÑоÑнии ÑодеÑÐ¶Ð¸Ñ 7 полей.
           ÐеÑвое поле ÑодеÑÐ¶Ð¸Ñ Ð¸Ð¼Ñ ÑÑÑÑной запиÑи.
           ÐÑоÑое поле ÑказÑваеÑ, заблокиÑован ли
           паÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ ÑÑÑÑной запиÑи (L), она без паÑолÑ
           (NP) или Ñ Ð½ÐµÑ ÐµÑÑÑ ÑабоÑий паÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ (P). ТÑеÑÑе
           поле ÑÑÐ°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð´Ð°ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ñледнего изменениÑ
           паÑолÑ. Ð ÑледÑÑÑÐ¸Ñ ÑеÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÑ ÑÑанÑÑÑÑ
           минималÑнÑй ÑÑок, макÑималÑнÑй ÑÑок,
           пеÑиод вÑдаÑи пÑедÑпÑÐµÐ¶Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð¸ пеÑиод
           неакÑивноÑÑи паÑолÑ. ÐÑи ÑÑоки измеÑÑÑÑÑÑ Ð²
           днÑÑ.

       -u, --unlock
           Unlock the password of the named account. This option re-enables a
           password by changing the password back to its previous value (to
           the value before using the -l option).

       -w, --warndays WARN_DAYS
           Set the number of days of warning before a password change is
           required. The WARN_DAYS option is the number of days prior to the
           password expiring that a user will be warned that their password is
           about to expire.

       -x, --maxdays MAX_DAYS
           Set the maximum number of days a password remains valid. After
           MAX_DAYS, the password is required to be changed.

           Passing the number -1 as MAX_DAYS will remove checking a password's
           validity.

ÐÐ ÐÐÐСТÐÐ ÐÐÐÐÐЯ
       СложноÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ð¿ÑовеÑÑеÑÑÑ Ð½Ð° ÑазнÑÑ Ð¼Ð°ÑинаÑ
       по ÑазномÑ. ÐолÑзоваÑÐµÐ»Ñ Ð½Ð°ÑÑоÑÑелÑно
       ÑекомендÑеÑÑÑ Ð²ÑбиÑаÑÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ñакой
       ÑложноÑÑи, ÑÑÐ¾Ð±Ñ ÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð½Ð¾ÑмалÑно ÑабоÑалоÑÑ.

       ÐолÑзоваÑели не могÑÑ Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÑÑÑ Ñвои паÑоли
       в ÑиÑÑеме, еÑли вклÑÑÑн NIS и они не воÑли на
       ÑеÑÐ²ÐµÑ NIS.

ÐÐСТРÐÐÐÐ
       The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the
       behavior of this tool:

       ENCRYPT_METHOD (string)
           ÐадаÑÑ ÑиÑÑемнÑй алгоÑиÑм ÑиÑÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾
           ÑмолÑÐ°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð´Ð»Ñ ÑиÑÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿Ð°Ñолей
           (иÑполÑзÑеÑÑÑ, еÑли алгоÑиÑм не Ñказан в
           командной ÑÑÑоке).

           It can take one of these values: DES (default), MD5, SHA256,
           SHA512.

           Note: this parameter overrides the MD5_CRYPT_ENAB variable.

       MD5_CRYPT_ENAB (boolean)
           Indicate if passwords must be encrypted using the MD5-based
           algorithm. If set to yes, new passwords will be encrypted using the
           MD5-based algorithm compatible with the one used by recent releases
           of FreeBSD. It supports passwords of unlimited length and longer
           salt strings. Set to no if you need to copy encrypted passwords to
           other systems which don't understand the new algorithm. Default is
           no.

           This variable is superseded by the ENCRYPT_METHOD variable or by
           any command line option used to configure the encryption algorithm.

           This variable is deprecated. You should use ENCRYPT_METHOD.

       OBSCURE_CHECKS_ENAB (boolean)
           ÐклÑÑÐ°ÐµÑ Ð´Ð¾Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð½Ð¸ÑелÑнÑе пÑовеÑки пÑи
           Ñмене паÑолÑ.

       PASS_ALWAYS_WARN (boolean)
           ÐÑедÑпÑеждаÑÑ Ð¾ ÑлабÑÑ Ð¿Ð°ÑолÑÑ (но ÑазÑеÑаÑÑ
           Ð¸Ñ Ð¸ÑполÑзоваÑÑ) Ð´Ð»Ñ ÑÑпеÑполÑзоваÑелÑ.

       PASS_CHANGE_TRIES (number)
           ÐакÑималÑное колиÑеÑÑво попÑÑок ÑменÑ
           паÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ (ÑлиÑком пÑоÑÑого) пÑи
           непÑоÑождении пÑовеÑки.

       PASS_MAX_LEN (number), PASS_MIN_LEN (number)
           Number of significant characters in the password for crypt().
           PASS_MAX_LEN is 8 by default. Don't change unless your crypt() is
           better. This is ignored if MD5_CRYPT_ENAB set to yes.

       SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS (number), SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS (number)
           When ENCRYPT_METHOD is set to SHA256 or SHA512, this defines the
           number of SHA rounds used by the encryption algorithm by default
           (when the number of rounds is not specified on the command line).

           УвелиÑение колиÑеÑÑва ÑаÑндов повÑÑаеÑ
           ÑложноÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð±Ð¾Ñа паÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ð¿ÑоÑÑÑм
           пеÑебоÑом. Ðо замеÑим, ÑÑо пÑи ÑÑом длÑ
           аÑÑенÑиÑикаÑии полÑзоваÑелей ÑÑебÑеÑÑÑ
           болÑÑее колиÑеÑÑво пÑоÑеÑÑоÑнÑÑ ÑеÑÑÑÑов.

           ÐÑли не задана, Ñо libc вÑбиÑÐ°ÐµÑ Ð·Ð½Ð°Ñение
           колиÑеÑÑва ÑаÑндов по ÑмолÑÐ°Ð½Ð¸Ñ (5000).

           ÐнаÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð´Ð¾Ð»Ð¶Ð½Ñ Ð»ÐµÐ¶Ð°ÑÑ Ð² диапазоне
           1000-999999999.

           If only one of the SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS or SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS
           values is set, then this value will be used.

           If SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS > SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS, the highest value
           will be used.

ФÐÐÐЫ
       /etc/passwd
           ÑодеÑÐ¶Ð¸Ñ Ð¸Ð½ÑоÑмаÑÐ¸Ñ Ð¾ полÑзоваÑелÑÑ

       /etc/shadow
           ÑодеÑÐ¶Ð¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑиÑаемÑÑ Ð¸Ð½ÑоÑмаÑÐ¸Ñ Ð¾
           полÑзоваÑелÑÑ

       /etc/login.defs
           ÑодеÑÐ¶Ð¸Ñ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑигÑÑаÑÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´ÑиÑÑÐµÐ¼Ñ ÑеневÑÑ
           паÑолей

ÐÐÐÐÐ ÐЩÐÐÐЫРÐÐÐЧÐÐÐЯ
       The passwd command exits with the following values:

       0
           success

       1
           permission denied

       2
           invalid combination of options

       3
           unexpected failure, nothing done

       4
           unexpected failure, passwd file missing

       5
           passwd file busy, try again

       6
           invalid argument to option

СÐÐТРÐТРТÐÐÐÐ
       chpasswd(8), passwd(5), shadow(5), login.defs(5), usermod(8).



shadow-utils 4.8.1                01/23/2020                         passwd(1)