passwd

PASSWD(1)                             用户命令                             PASSWD(1)



名称
       passwd - 更改用户密码

大纲
       passwd [选项] [登录]

描述
       The passwd command changes passwords for user accounts. A normal user may
       only change the password for their own account, while the superuser may
       change the password for any account.  passwd also changes the account or
       associated password validity period.

   密码更改
       如果有旧密码,首先提示用户输入旧密码。加密这个密码然后和存储的密码进行比较。用户只有一次机会输入正确密码。允许超级用户略过这个步骤,以便更改忘记了的密码。

       After the password has been entered, password aging information is
       checked to see if the user is permitted to change the password at this
       time. If not, passwd refuses to change the password and exits.

       提示用户输入两次新密码。第二次和第一次进行比较,并且需要相同才能更改密码。

       然后,测试密码的负责程度。一般来讲,密码应该包含 6 到 8 位字符,从下边的一个或多个集合中选择:

       •   小写字母

       •   数字 0 到 9

       •   标点符号

       Care must be taken not to include the system default erase or kill
       characters.  passwd will reject any password which is not suitably
       complex.

   关于用户密码的提示
       The security of a password depends upon the strength of the encryption
       algorithm and the size of the key space. The legacy UNIX System
       encryption method is based on the NBS DES algorithm. More recent methods
       are now recommended (see ENCRYPT_METHOD). The size of the key space
       depends upon the randomness of the password which is selected.

       由于粗心地或处理选择密码,会危及密码的安全。由于这个原因,您不应该选择出现在词典中或者必须要写下来才能记住的密码。密码也不应该是一个名字、许可证号、生日或者街道号。所有这些可以用于猜测来损害系统安全。

       You can find advice on how to choose a strong password on
       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Password_strength

选项
       The options which apply to the passwd command are:

       -a, --all
           This option can be used only with -S and causes show status for all
           users.

       -d, --delete
           删除用户密码(让它为空)。这是禁用一个用户密码的快速方法。它将设置给出名称的账户。

       -e, --expire
           让一个账户的密码立即过期。这可以强制一个用户下次登录时更改密码。

       -h, --help
           现实帮助信息并退出。

       -i, --inactive INACTIVE
           This option is used to disable an account after the password has been
           expired for a number of days. After a user account has had an expired
           password for INACTIVE days, the user may no longer sign on to the
           account.

       -k, --keep-tokens
           表示密码更改只应该因为认证口令(密码)过期更改。用户希望保持他们尚未过期的口令。

       -l, --lock
           锁定指定账户的密码。此选项通过将密码更改为一个不可能与加密值匹配的值来禁用(它在密码开头添加一个“!”)。

           Note that this does not disable the account. The user may still be
           able to login using another authentication token (e.g. an SSH key).
           To disable the account, administrators should use usermod
           --expiredate 1 (this set the account's expire date to Jan 2, 1970).

           被锁定了密码的用户不允许更改密码。

       -n, --mindays MIN_DAYS
           Set the minimum number of days between password changes to MIN_DAYS.
           A value of zero for this field indicates that the user may change
           their password at any time.

       -q, --quiet
           安静模式。

       -r, --repository REPOSITORY
           change password in REPOSITORY repository

       -R, --root CHROOT_DIR
           Apply changes in the CHROOT_DIR directory and use the configuration
           files from the CHROOT_DIR directory.

       -S, --status
           显示账户状态信息。状态信息包含 7 个字段。首个字段是用户的登录名,第二个字段表示用户账户是否已经锁定密码(L)、没有密码
           (NP)或者密码可用(P),第三个字段给出最后一次更改密码的日期。接下来的四个字段分别是密码的最小年龄、最大年龄、警告期和禁用期。这些年龄以天为单位计算。

       -u, --unlock
           Unlock the password of the named account. This option re-enables a
           password by changing the password back to its previous value (to the
           value before using the -l option).

       -w, --warndays WARN_DAYS
           Set the number of days of warning before a password change is
           required. The WARN_DAYS option is the number of days prior to the
           password expiring that a user will be warned that their password is
           about to expire.

       -x, --maxdays MAX_DAYS
           Set the maximum number of days a password remains valid. After
           MAX_DAYS, the password is required to be changed.

           Passing the number -1 as MAX_DAYS will remove checking a password's
           validity.

CAVEATS
       密码复杂性检查在每台机器间不同。用户应该选择适合的尽量复杂的密码。

       在启动了 NIS 的系统上,如果没有登录 NIS 服务器,用户或许不能更改自己的密码。

配置文件
       The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the
       behavior of this tool:

       ENCRYPT_METHOD (string)
           这定义了系统加密密码的默认算法(如果没有在命令行上指定算法)。

           It can take one of these values: DES (default), MD5, SHA256, SHA512.

           Note: this parameter overrides the MD5_CRYPT_ENAB variable.

       MD5_CRYPT_ENAB (boolean)
           Indicate if passwords must be encrypted using the MD5-based
           algorithm. If set to yes, new passwords will be encrypted using the
           MD5-based algorithm compatible with the one used by recent releases
           of FreeBSD. It supports passwords of unlimited length and longer salt
           strings. Set to no if you need to copy encrypted passwords to other
           systems which don't understand the new algorithm. Default is no.

           This variable is superseded by the ENCRYPT_METHOD variable or by any
           command line option used to configure the encryption algorithm.

           This variable is deprecated. You should use ENCRYPT_METHOD.

       OBSCURE_CHECKS_ENAB (boolean)
           对密码更改启用附加检查。

       PASS_ALWAYS_WARN (boolean)
           如果是 root,警告弱密码,但是仍然允许使用。

       PASS_CHANGE_TRIES (number)
           可以尝试更改密码的最大次数(太容易)。

       PASS_MAX_LEN (number), PASS_MIN_LEN (number)
           Number of significant characters in the password for crypt().
           PASS_MAX_LEN is 8 by default. Don't change unless your crypt() is
           better. This is ignored if MD5_CRYPT_ENAB set to yes.

       SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS (number), SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS (number)
           When ENCRYPT_METHOD is set to SHA256 or SHA512, this defines the
           number of SHA rounds used by the encryption algorithm by default
           (when the number of rounds is not specified on the command line).

           使用很多轮转,会让暴力破解更加困难。但是需要注意,认证用户时也会需要更多的 CPU 资源。

           如果没有指定,libc 会选择默认的轮转数(5000)。

           值必须在 1000 - 999,999,999 之间。

           If only one of the SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS or SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS
           values is set, then this value will be used.

           If SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS > SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS, the highest value
           will be used.

文件
       /etc/passwd
           用户账户信息。

       /etc/shadow
           安全用户账户信息。

       /etc/login.defs
           Shadow 密码套件配置。

退出值
       The passwd command exits with the following values:

       0
           success

       1
           permission denied

       2
           invalid combination of options

       3
           unexpected failure, nothing done

       4
           unexpected failure, passwd file missing

       5
           passwd file busy, try again

       6
           invalid argument to option

参见
       chpasswd(8), passwd(5), shadow(5), login.defs(5), usermod(8).



shadow-utils 4.8.1                 2020-01-23                          PASSWD(1)