PIDFD_SEND_SIGNAL(2)       Linux Programmer's Manual      PIDFD_SEND_SIGNAL(2)

       pidfd_send_signal - send a signal to a process specified by a file

       #include <signal.h>

       int pidfd_send_signal(int pidfd, int sig, siginfo_t *info,
                             unsigned int flags);

       The pidfd_send_signal() system call sends the signal sig to the target
       process referred to by pidfd, a PID file descriptor that refers to a

       If the info argument points to a siginfo_t buffer, that buffer should
       be populated as described in rt_sigqueueinfo(2).

       If the info argument is a NULL pointer, this is equivalent to
       specifying a pointer to a siginfo_t buffer whose fields match the
       values that are implicitly supplied when a signal is sent using

       *  si_signo is set to the signal number;
       *  si_errno is set to 0;
       *  si_code is set to SI_USER;
       *  si_pid is set to the caller's PID; and
       *  si_uid is set to the caller's real user ID.

       The calling process must either be in the same PID namespace as the
       process referred to by pidfd, or be in an ancestor of that namespace.

       The flags argument is reserved for future use; currently, this argument
       must be specified as 0.

       On success, pidfd_send_signal() returns 0.  On error, -1 is returned
       and errno is set to indicate the cause of the error.

       EBADF  pidfd is not a valid PID file descriptor.

       EINVAL sig is not a valid signal.

       EINVAL The calling process is not in a PID namespace from which it can
              send a signal to the target process.

       EINVAL flags is not 0.

       EPERM  The calling process does not have permission to send the signal
              to the target process.

       EPERM  pidfd doesn't refer to the calling process, and info.si_code is
              invalid (see rt_sigqueueinfo(2)).

       ESRCH  The target process does not exist (i.e., it has terminated and
              been waited on).

       pidfd_send_signal() first appeared in Linux 5.1.

       pidfd_send_signal() is Linux specific.

       Currently, there is no glibc wrapper for this system call; call it
       using syscall(2).

   PID file descriptors
       The pidfd argument is a PID file descriptor, a file descriptor that
       refers to  process.  Such a file descriptor can be obtained in any of
       the following ways:

       *  by opening a /proc/[pid] directory;

       *  using pidfd_open(2); or

       *  via the PID file descriptor that is returned by a call to clone(2)
          or clone3(2) that specifies the CLONE_PIDFD flag.

       The pidfd_send_signal() system call allows the avoidance of race
       conditions that occur when using traditional interfaces (such as
       kill(2)) to signal a process.  The problem is that the traditional
       interfaces specify the target process via a process ID (PID), with the
       result that the sender may accidentally send a signal to the wrong
       process if the originally intended target process has terminated and
       its PID has been recycled for another process.  By contrast, a PID file
       descriptor is a stable reference to a specific process; if that process
       terminates, pidfd_send_signal() fails with the error ESRCH.

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #include <limits.h>
       #include <signal.h>
       #include <fcntl.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <string.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <sys/syscall.h>

       #ifndef __NR_pidfd_send_signal
       #define __NR_pidfd_send_signal 424

       static int
       pidfd_send_signal(int pidfd, int sig, siginfo_t *info,
               unsigned int flags)
           return syscall(__NR_pidfd_send_signal, pidfd, sig, info, flags);

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
           siginfo_t info;
           char path[PATH_MAX];
           int pidfd, sig;

           if (argc != 3) {
               fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <pid> <signal>\n", argv[0]);

           sig = atoi(argv[2]);

           /* Obtain a PID file descriptor by opening the /proc/PID directory
              of the target process */

           snprintf(path, sizeof(path), "/proc/%s", argv[1]);

           pidfd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
           if (pidfd == -1) {

           /* Populate a 'siginfo_t' structure for use with
              pidfd_send_signal() */

           memset(&info, 0, sizeof(info));
           info.si_code = SI_QUEUE;
           info.si_signo = sig;
           info.si_errno = 0;
           info.si_uid = getuid();
           info.si_pid = getpid();
           info.si_value.sival_int = 1234;

           /* Send the signal */

           if (pidfd_send_signal(pidfd, sig, &info, 0) == -1) {


       clone(2), kill(2), pidfd_open(2), rt_sigqueueinfo(2), sigaction(2),
       pid_namespaces(7), signal(7)

       This page is part of release 5.07 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                             2020-06-09              PIDFD_SEND_SIGNAL(2)