PKCS12(1)                            OpenSSL                           PKCS12(1)

       openssl-pkcs12, pkcs12 - PKCS#12 file utility

       openssl pkcs12 [-help] [-export] [-chain] [-inkey file_or_id] [-certfile
       filename] [-name name] [-caname name] [-in filename] [-out filename]
       [-noout] [-nomacver] [-nocerts] [-clcerts] [-cacerts] [-nokeys] [-info]
       [-des | -des3 | -idea | -aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -aria128 | -aria192
       | -aria256 | -camellia128 | -camellia192 | -camellia256 | -nodes]
       [-noiter] [-maciter | -nomaciter | -nomac] [-twopass] [-descert]
       [-certpbe cipher] [-keypbe cipher] [-macalg digest] [-keyex] [-keysig]
       [-password arg] [-passin arg] [-passout arg] [-rand file...]  [-writerand
       file] [-CAfile file] [-CApath dir] [-no-CAfile] [-no-CApath] [-CSP name]

       The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as PFX
       files) to be created and parsed. PKCS#12 files are used by several
       programs including Netscape, MSIE and MS Outlook.

       There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a
       PKCS#12 file is being created or parsed. By default a PKCS#12 file is
       parsed. A PKCS#12 file can be created by using the -export option (see

           Print out a usage message.

       -in filename
           This specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard
           input is used by default.

       -out filename
           The filename to write certificates and private keys to, standard
           output by default.  They are all written in PEM format.

       -passin arg
           The PKCS#12 file (i.e. input file) password source. For more
           information about the format of arg see "Pass Phrase Options" in

       -passout arg
           Pass phrase source to encrypt any outputted private keys with. For
           more information about the format of arg see "Pass Phrase Options" in

       -password arg
           With -export, -password is equivalent to -passout.  Otherwise,
           -password is equivalent to -passin.

           This option inhibits output of the keys and certificates to the
           output file version of the PKCS#12 file.

           Only output client certificates (not CA certificates).

           Only output CA certificates (not client certificates).

           No certificates at all will be output.

           No private keys will be output.

           Output additional information about the PKCS#12 file structure,
           algorithms used and iteration counts.

           Use DES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

           Use triple DES to encrypt private keys before outputting, this is the

           Use IDEA to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -aes128, -aes192, -aes256
           Use AES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -aria128, -aria192, -aria256
           Use ARIA to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -camellia128, -camellia192, -camellia256
           Use Camellia to encrypt private keys before outputting.

           Don't encrypt the private keys at all.

           Don't attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading the file.

           Prompt for separate integrity and encryption passwords: most software
           always assumes these are the same so this option will render such
           PKCS#12 files unreadable. Cannot be used in combination with the
           options -password, -passin (if importing) or -passout (if exporting).

           This option specifies that a PKCS#12 file will be created rather than

       -out filename
           This specifies filename to write the PKCS#12 file to. Standard output
           is used by default.

       -in filename
           The filename to read certificates and private keys from, standard
           input by default.  They must all be in PEM format. The order doesn't
           matter but one private key and its corresponding certificate should
           be present. If additional certificates are present they will also be
           included in the PKCS#12 file.

       -inkey file_or_id
           File to read private key from. If not present then a private key must
           be present in the input file.  If no engine is used, the argument is
           taken as a file; if an engine is specified, the argument is given to
           the engine as a key identifier.

       -name friendlyname
           This specifies the "friendly name" for the certificate and private
           key. This name is typically displayed in list boxes by software
           importing the file.

       -certfile filename
           A filename to read additional certificates from.

       -caname friendlyname
           This specifies the "friendly name" for other certificates. This
           option may be used multiple times to specify names for all
           certificates in the order they appear. Netscape ignores friendly
           names on other certificates whereas MSIE displays them.

       -pass arg, -passout arg
           The PKCS#12 file (i.e. output file) password source. For more
           information about the format of arg see "Pass Phrase Options" in

       -passin password
           Pass phrase source to decrypt any input private keys with. For more
           information about the format of arg see "Pass Phrase Options" in

           If this option is present then an attempt is made to include the
           entire certificate chain of the user certificate. The standard CA
           store is used for this search. If the search fails it is considered a
           fatal error.

           Encrypt the certificate using triple DES, this may render the PKCS#12
           file unreadable by some "export grade" software. By default the
           private key is encrypted using triple DES and the certificate using
           40 bit RC2 unless RC2 is disabled in which case triple DES is used.

       -keypbe alg, -certpbe alg
           These options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key and
           certificates to be selected. Any PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 PBE algorithm
           name can be used (see NOTES section for more information). If a
           cipher name (as output by the list-cipher-algorithms command is
           specified then it is used with PKCS#5 v2.0. For interoperability
           reasons it is advisable to only use PKCS#12 algorithms.

           Specifies that the private key is to be used for key exchange or just
           signing.  This option is only interpreted by MSIE and similar MS
           software. Normally "export grade" software will only allow 512 bit
           RSA keys to be used for encryption purposes but arbitrary length keys
           for signing. The -keysig option marks the key for signing only.
           Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME signing, authenticode
           (ActiveX control signing)  and SSL client authentication, however,
           due to a bug only MSIE 5.0 and later support the use of signing only
           keys for SSL client authentication.

       -macalg digest
           Specify the MAC digest algorithm. If not included them SHA1 will be

       -nomaciter, -noiter
           These options affect the iteration counts on the MAC and key
           algorithms.  Unless you wish to produce files compatible with MSIE
           4.0 you should leave these options alone.

           To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of common passwords
           the algorithm that derives keys from passwords can have an iteration
           count applied to it: this causes a certain part of the algorithm to
           be repeated and slows it down. The MAC is used to check the file
           integrity but since it will normally have the same password as the
           keys and certificates it could also be attacked.  By default both MAC
           and encryption iteration counts are set to 2048, using these options
           the MAC and encryption iteration counts can be set to 1, since this
           reduces the file security you should not use these options unless you
           really have to. Most software supports both MAC and key iteration
           counts.  MSIE 4.0 doesn't support MAC iteration counts so it needs
           the -nomaciter option.

           This option is included for compatibility with previous versions, it
           used to be needed to use MAC iterations counts but they are now used
           by default.

           Don't attempt to provide the MAC integrity.

       -rand file...
           A file or files containing random data used to seed the random number
           generator.  Multiple files can be specified separated by an OS-
           dependent character.  The separator is ; for MS-Windows, , for
           OpenVMS, and : for all others.

       [-writerand file]
           Writes random data to the specified file upon exit.  This can be used
           with a subsequent -rand flag.

       -CAfile file
           CA storage as a file.

       -CApath dir
           CA storage as a directory. This directory must be a standard
           certificate directory: that is a hash of each subject name (using
           x509 -hash) should be linked to each certificate.

           Do not load the trusted CA certificates from the default file

           Do not load the trusted CA certificates from the default directory

       -CSP name
           Write name as a Microsoft CSP name.

       Although there are a large number of options most of them are very rarely
       used. For PKCS#12 file parsing only -in and -out need to be used for
       PKCS#12 file creation -export and -name are also used.

       If none of the -clcerts, -cacerts or -nocerts options are present then
       all certificates will be output in the order they appear in the input
       PKCS#12 files. There is no guarantee that the first certificate present
       is the one corresponding to the private key. Certain software which
       requires a private key and certificate and assumes the first certificate
       in the file is the one corresponding to the private key: this may not
       always be the case. Using the -clcerts option will solve this problem by
       only outputting the certificate corresponding to the private key. If the
       CA certificates are required then they can be output to a separate file
       using the -nokeys -cacerts options to just output CA certificates.

       The -keypbe and -certpbe algorithms allow the precise encryption
       algorithms for private keys and certificates to be specified. Normally
       the defaults are fine but occasionally software can't handle triple DES
       encrypted private keys, then the option -keypbe PBE-SHA1-RC2-40 can be
       used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit RC2. A complete
       description of all algorithms is contained in the pkcs8 manual page.

       Prior 1.1 release passwords containing non-ASCII characters were encoded
       in non-compliant manner, which limited interoperability, in first hand
       with Windows. But switching to standard-compliant password encoding poses
       problem accessing old data protected with broken encoding. For this
       reason even legacy encodings is attempted when reading the data. If you
       use PKCS#12 files in production application you are advised to convert
       the data, because implemented heuristic approach is not MT-safe, its sole
       goal is to facilitate the data upgrade with this utility.

       Parse a PKCS#12 file and output it to a file:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem

       Output only client certificates to a file:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem

       Don't encrypt the private key:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes

       Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout

       Create a PKCS#12 file:

        openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate"

       Include some extra certificates:

        openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate" \
         -certfile othercerts.pem


       Copyright 2000-2021 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.

       Licensed under the OpenSSL license (the "License").  You may not use this
       file except in compliance with the License.  You can obtain a copy in the
       file LICENSE in the source distribution or at

1.1.1j                             2021-02-16                          PKCS12(1)