PROCESS_VM_READV(2)         Linux Programmer's Manual        PROCESS_VM_READV(2)

       process_vm_readv, process_vm_writev - transfer data between process
       address spaces

       #include <sys/uio.h>

       ssize_t process_vm_readv(pid_t pid,
                                const struct iovec *local_iov,
                                unsigned long liovcnt,
                                const struct iovec *remote_iov,
                                unsigned long riovcnt,
                                unsigned long flags);

       ssize_t process_vm_writev(pid_t pid,
                                 const struct iovec *local_iov,
                                 unsigned long liovcnt,
                                 const struct iovec *remote_iov,
                                 unsigned long riovcnt,
                                 unsigned long flags);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       process_vm_readv(), process_vm_writev():

       These system calls transfer data between the address space of the calling
       process ("the local process") and the process identified by pid ("the
       remote process").  The data moves directly between the address spaces of
       the two processes, without passing through kernel space.

       The process_vm_readv() system call transfers data from the remote process
       to the local process.  The data to be transferred is identified by
       remote_iov and riovcnt: remote_iov is a pointer to an array describing
       address ranges in the process pid, and riovcnt specifies the number of
       elements in remote_iov.  The data is transferred to the locations
       specified by local_iov and liovcnt: local_iov is a pointer to an array
       describing address ranges in the calling process, and liovcnt specifies
       the number of elements in local_iov.

       The process_vm_writev() system call is the converse of
       process_vm_readv()—it transfers data from the local process to the remote
       process.  Other than the direction of the transfer, the arguments
       liovcnt, local_iov, riovcnt, and remote_iov have the same meaning as for

       The local_iov and remote_iov arguments point to an array of iovec
       structures, defined in <sys/uio.h> as:

           struct iovec {
               void  *iov_base;    /* Starting address */
               size_t iov_len;     /* Number of bytes to transfer */

       Buffers are processed in array order.  This means that process_vm_readv()
       completely fills local_iov[0] before proceeding to local_iov[1], and so
       on.  Likewise, remote_iov[0] is completely read before proceeding to
       remote_iov[1], and so on.

       Similarly, process_vm_writev() writes out the entire contents of
       local_iov[0] before proceeding to local_iov[1], and it completely fills
       remote_iov[0] before proceeding to remote_iov[1].

       The lengths of remote_iov[i].iov_len and local_iov[i].iov_len do not have
       to be the same.  Thus, it is possible to split a single local buffer into
       multiple remote buffers, or vice versa.

       The flags argument is currently unused and must be set to 0.

       The values specified in the liovcnt and riovcnt arguments must be less
       than or equal to IOV_MAX (defined in <limits.h> or accessible via the
       call sysconf(_SC_IOV_MAX)).

       The count arguments and local_iov are checked before doing any transfers.
       If the counts are too big, or local_iov is invalid, or the addresses
       refer to regions that are inaccessible to the local process, none of the
       vectors will be processed and an error will be returned immediately.

       Note, however, that these system calls do not check the memory regions in
       the remote process until just before doing the read/write.  Consequently,
       a partial read/write (see RETURN VALUE) may result if one of the
       remote_iov elements points to an invalid memory region in the remote
       process.  No further reads/writes will be attempted beyond that point.
       Keep this in mind when attempting to read data of unknown length (such as
       C strings that are null-terminated) from a remote process, by avoiding
       spanning memory pages (typically 4 KiB) in a single remote iovec element.
       (Instead, split the remote read into two remote_iov elements and have
       them merge back into a single write local_iov entry.  The first read
       entry goes up to the page boundary, while the second starts on the next
       page boundary.)

       Permission to read from or write to another process is governed by a
       ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH_REALCREDS check; see ptrace(2).

       On success, process_vm_readv() returns the number of bytes read and
       process_vm_writev() returns the number of bytes written.  This return
       value may be less than the total number of requested bytes, if a partial
       read/write occurred.  (Partial transfers apply at the granularity of
       iovec elements.  These system calls won't perform a partial transfer that
       splits a single iovec element.)  The caller should check the return value
       to determine whether a partial read/write occurred.

       On error, -1 is returned and errno is set appropriately.

       EFAULT The memory described by local_iov is outside the caller's
              accessible address space.

       EFAULT The memory described by remote_iov is outside the accessible
              address space of the process pid.

       EINVAL The sum of the iov_len values of either local_iov or remote_iov
              overflows a ssize_t value.

       EINVAL flags is not 0.

       EINVAL liovcnt or riovcnt is too large.

       ENOMEM Could not allocate memory for internal copies of the iovec

       EPERM  The caller does not have permission to access the address space of
              the process pid.

       ESRCH  No process with ID pid exists.

       These system calls were added in Linux 3.2.  Support is provided in glibc
       since version 2.15.

       These system calls are nonstandard Linux extensions.

       The data transfers performed by process_vm_readv() and
       process_vm_writev() are not guaranteed to be atomic in any way.

       These system calls were designed to permit fast message passing by
       allowing messages to be exchanged with a single copy operation (rather
       than the double copy that would be required when using, for example,
       shared memory or pipes).

       The following code sample demonstrates the use of process_vm_readv().  It
       reads 20 bytes at the address 0x10000 from the process with PID 10 and
       writes the first 10 bytes into buf1 and the second 10 bytes into buf2.

       #include <sys/uio.h>

           struct iovec local[2];
           struct iovec remote[1];
           char buf1[10];
           char buf2[10];
           ssize_t nread;
           pid_t pid = 10;             /* PID of remote process */

           local[0].iov_base = buf1;
           local[0].iov_len = 10;
           local[1].iov_base = buf2;
           local[1].iov_len = 10;
           remote[0].iov_base = (void *) 0x10000;
           remote[0].iov_len = 20;

           nread = process_vm_readv(pid, local, 2, remote, 1, 0);
           if (nread != 20)
               return 1;
               return 0;

       readv(2), writev(2)

       This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                              2020-06-09                PROCESS_VM_READV(2)