PROCESS_VM_READV(2)        Linux Programmer's Manual       PROCESS_VM_READV(2)

       process_vm_readv, process_vm_writev - transfer data between process
       address spaces

       #include <sys/uio.h>

       ssize_t process_vm_readv(pid_t pid,
                                const struct iovec *local_iov,
                                unsigned long liovcnt,
                                const struct iovec *remote_iov,
                                unsigned long riovcnt,
                                unsigned long flags);

       ssize_t process_vm_writev(pid_t pid,
                                 const struct iovec *local_iov,
                                 unsigned long liovcnt,
                                 const struct iovec *remote_iov,
                                 unsigned long riovcnt,
                                 unsigned long flags);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       process_vm_readv(), process_vm_writev():

       These system calls transfer data between the address space of the
       calling process ("the local process") and the process identified by pid
       ("the remote process").  The data moves directly between the address
       spaces of the two processes, without passing through kernel space.

       The process_vm_readv() system call transfers data from the remote
       process to the local process.  The data to be transferred is identified
       by remote_iov and riovcnt: remote_iov is a pointer to an array
       describing address ranges in the process pid, and riovcnt specifies the
       number of elements in remote_iov.  The data is transferred to the
       locations specified by local_iov and liovcnt: local_iov is a pointer to
       an array describing address ranges in the calling process, and liovcnt
       specifies the number of elements in local_iov.

       The process_vm_writev() system call is the converse of
       process_vm_readv()—it transfers data from the local process to the
       remote process.  Other than the direction of the transfer, the
       arguments liovcnt, local_iov, riovcnt, and remote_iov have the same
       meaning as for process_vm_readv().

       The local_iov and remote_iov arguments point to an array of iovec
       structures, defined in <sys/uio.h> as:

           struct iovec {
               void  *iov_base;    /* Starting address */
               size_t iov_len;     /* Number of bytes to transfer */

       Buffers are processed in array order.  This means that
       process_vm_readv() completely fills local_iov[0] before proceeding to
       local_iov[1], and so on.  Likewise, remote_iov[0] is completely read
       before proceeding to remote_iov[1], and so on.

       Similarly, process_vm_writev() writes out the entire contents of
       local_iov[0] before proceeding to local_iov[1], and it completely fills
       remote_iov[0] before proceeding to remote_iov[1].

       The lengths of remote_iov[i].iov_len and local_iov[i].iov_len do not
       have to be the same.  Thus, it is possible to split a single local
       buffer into multiple remote buffers, or vice versa.

       The flags argument is currently unused and must be set to 0.

       The values specified in the liovcnt and riovcnt arguments must be less
       than or equal to IOV_MAX (defined in <limits.h> or accessible via the
       call sysconf(_SC_IOV_MAX)).

       The count arguments and local_iov are checked before doing any
       transfers.  If the counts are too big, or local_iov is invalid, or the
       addresses refer to regions that are inaccessible to the local process,
       none of the vectors will be processed and an error will be returned

       Note, however, that these system calls do not check the memory regions
       in the remote process until just before doing the read/write.
       Consequently, a partial read/write (see RETURN VALUE) may result if one
       of the remote_iov elements points to an invalid memory region in the
       remote process.  No further reads/writes will be attempted beyond that
       point.  Keep this in mind when attempting to read data of unknown
       length (such as C strings that are null-terminated) from a remote
       process, by avoiding spanning memory pages (typically 4 KiB) in a
       single remote iovec element.  (Instead, split the remote read into two
       remote_iov elements and have them merge back into a single write
       local_iov entry.  The first read entry goes up to the page boundary,
       while the second starts on the next page boundary.)

       Permission to read from or write to another process is governed by a
       ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH_REALCREDS check; see ptrace(2).

       On success, process_vm_readv() returns the number of bytes read and
       process_vm_writev() returns the number of bytes written.  This return
       value may be less than the total number of requested bytes, if a
       partial read/write occurred.  (Partial transfers apply at the
       granularity of iovec elements.  These system calls won't perform a
       partial transfer that splits a single iovec element.)  The caller
       should check the return value to determine whether a partial read/write

       On error, -1 is returned and errno is set appropriately.

       EFAULT The memory described by local_iov is outside the caller's
              accessible address space.

       EFAULT The memory described by remote_iov is outside the accessible
              address space of the process pid.

       EINVAL The sum of the iov_len values of either local_iov or remote_iov
              overflows a ssize_t value.

       EINVAL flags is not 0.

       EINVAL liovcnt or riovcnt is too large.

       ENOMEM Could not allocate memory for internal copies of the iovec

       EPERM  The caller does not have permission to access the address space
              of the process pid.

       ESRCH  No process with ID pid exists.

       These system calls were added in Linux 3.2.  Support is provided in
       glibc since version 2.15.

       These system calls are nonstandard Linux extensions.

       The data transfers performed by process_vm_readv() and
       process_vm_writev() are not guaranteed to be atomic in any way.

       These system calls were designed to permit fast message passing by
       allowing messages to be exchanged with a single copy operation (rather
       than the double copy that would be required when using, for example,
       shared memory or pipes).

       The following code sample demonstrates the use of process_vm_readv().
       It reads 20 bytes at the address 0x10000 from the process with PID 10
       and writes the first 10 bytes into buf1 and the second 10 bytes into

       #include <sys/uio.h>

           struct iovec local[2];
           struct iovec remote[1];
           char buf1[10];
           char buf2[10];
           ssize_t nread;
           pid_t pid = 10;             /* PID of remote process */

           local[0].iov_base = buf1;
           local[0].iov_len = 10;
           local[1].iov_base = buf2;
           local[1].iov_len = 10;
           remote[0].iov_base = (void *) 0x10000;
           remote[0].iov_len = 20;

           nread = process_vm_readv(pid, local, 2, remote, 1, 0);
           if (nread != 20)
               return 1;
               return 0;

       readv(2), writev(2)

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       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                             2020-06-09               PROCESS_VM_READV(2)