psql

PSQL(1)                   PostgreSQL 12.4 Documentation                  PSQL(1)



NAME
       psql - PostgreSQL interactive terminal

SYNOPSIS
       psql [option...] [dbname [username]]

DESCRIPTION
       psql is a terminal-based front-end to PostgreSQL. It enables you to type
       in queries interactively, issue them to PostgreSQL, and see the query
       results. Alternatively, input can be from a file or from command line
       arguments. In addition, psql provides a number of meta-commands and
       various shell-like features to facilitate writing scripts and automating
       a wide variety of tasks.

OPTIONS
       -a
       --echo-all
           Print all nonempty input lines to standard output as they are read.
           (This does not apply to lines read interactively.) This is equivalent
           to setting the variable ECHO to all.

       -A
       --no-align
           Switches to unaligned output mode. (The default output mode is
           aligned.) This is equivalent to \pset format unaligned.

       -b
       --echo-errors
           Print failed SQL commands to standard error output. This is
           equivalent to setting the variable ECHO to errors.

       -c command
       --command=command
           Specifies that psql is to execute the given command string, command.
           This option can be repeated and combined in any order with the -f
           option. When either -c or -f is specified, psql does not read
           commands from standard input; instead it terminates after processing
           all the -c and -f options in sequence.

           command must be either a command string that is completely parsable
           by the server (i.e., it contains no psql-specific features), or a
           single backslash command. Thus you cannot mix SQL and psql
           meta-commands within a -c option. To achieve that, you could use
           repeated -c options or pipe the string into psql, for example:

               psql -c '\x' -c 'SELECT * FROM foo;'

           or

               echo '\x \\ SELECT * FROM foo;' | psql

           (\\ is the separator meta-command.)

           Each SQL command string passed to -c is sent to the server as a
           single request. Because of this, the server executes it as a single
           transaction even if the string contains multiple SQL commands, unless
           there are explicit BEGIN/COMMIT commands included in the string to
           divide it into multiple transactions. (See Section 52.2.2.1 for more
           details about how the server handles multi-query strings.) Also, psql
           only prints the result of the last SQL command in the string. This is
           different from the behavior when the same string is read from a file
           or fed to psql's standard input, because then psql sends each SQL
           command separately.

           Because of this behavior, putting more than one SQL command in a
           single -c string often has unexpected results. It's better to use
           repeated -c commands or feed multiple commands to psql's standard
           input, either using echo as illustrated above, or via a shell
           here-document, for example:

               psql <<EOF
               \x
               SELECT * FROM foo;
               EOF


       --csv
           Switches to CSV (Comma-Separated Values) output mode. This is
           equivalent to \pset format csv.

       -d dbname
       --dbname=dbname
           Specifies the name of the database to connect to. This is equivalent
           to specifying dbname as the first non-option argument on the command
           line.

           If this parameter contains an = sign or starts with a valid URI
           prefix (postgresql:// or postgres://), it is treated as a conninfo
           string. See Section 33.1.1 for more information.

       -e
       --echo-queries
           Copy all SQL commands sent to the server to standard output as well.
           This is equivalent to setting the variable ECHO to queries.

       -E
       --echo-hidden
           Echo the actual queries generated by \d and other backslash commands.
           You can use this to study psql's internal operations. This is
           equivalent to setting the variable ECHO_HIDDEN to on.

       -f filename
       --file=filename
           Read commands from the file filename, rather than standard input.
           This option can be repeated and combined in any order with the -c
           option. When either -c or -f is specified, psql does not read
           commands from standard input; instead it terminates after processing
           all the -c and -f options in sequence. Except for that, this option
           is largely equivalent to the meta-command \i.

           If filename is - (hyphen), then standard input is read until an EOF
           indication or \q meta-command. This can be used to intersperse
           interactive input with input from files. Note however that Readline
           is not used in this case (much as if -n had been specified).

           Using this option is subtly different from writing psql < filename.
           In general, both will do what you expect, but using -f enables some
           nice features such as error messages with line numbers. There is also
           a slight chance that using this option will reduce the start-up
           overhead. On the other hand, the variant using the shell's input
           redirection is (in theory) guaranteed to yield exactly the same
           output you would have received had you entered everything by hand.

       -F separator
       --field-separator=separator
           Use separator as the field separator for unaligned output. This is
           equivalent to \pset fieldsep or \f.

       -h hostname
       --host=hostname
           Specifies the host name of the machine on which the server is
           running. If the value begins with a slash, it is used as the
           directory for the Unix-domain socket.

       -H
       --html
           Switches to HTML output mode. This is equivalent to \pset format html
           or the \H command.

       -l
       --list
           List all available databases, then exit. Other non-connection options
           are ignored. This is similar to the meta-command \list.

           When this option is used, psql will connect to the database postgres,
           unless a different database is named on the command line (option -d
           or non-option argument, possibly via a service entry, but not via an
           environment variable).

       -L filename
       --log-file=filename
           Write all query output into file filename, in addition to the normal
           output destination.

       -n
       --no-readline
           Do not use Readline for line editing and do not use the command
           history. This can be useful to turn off tab expansion when cutting
           and pasting.

       -o filename
       --output=filename
           Put all query output into file filename. This is equivalent to the
           command \o.

       -p port
       --port=port
           Specifies the TCP port or the local Unix-domain socket file extension
           on which the server is listening for connections. Defaults to the
           value of the PGPORT environment variable or, if not set, to the port
           specified at compile time, usually 5432.

       -P assignment
       --pset=assignment
           Specifies printing options, in the style of \pset. Note that here you
           have to separate name and value with an equal sign instead of a
           space. For example, to set the output format to LaTeX, you could
           write -P format=latex.

       -q
       --quiet
           Specifies that psql should do its work quietly. By default, it prints
           welcome messages and various informational output. If this option is
           used, none of this happens. This is useful with the -c option. This
           is equivalent to setting the variable QUIET to on.

       -R separator
       --record-separator=separator
           Use separator as the record separator for unaligned output. This is
           equivalent to \pset recordsep.

       -s
       --single-step
           Run in single-step mode. That means the user is prompted before each
           command is sent to the server, with the option to cancel execution as
           well. Use this to debug scripts.

       -S
       --single-line
           Runs in single-line mode where a newline terminates an SQL command,
           as a semicolon does.

               Note
               This mode is provided for those who insist on it, but you are not
               necessarily encouraged to use it. In particular, if you mix SQL
               and meta-commands on a line the order of execution might not
               always be clear to the inexperienced user.

       -t
       --tuples-only
           Turn off printing of column names and result row count footers, etc.
           This is equivalent to \t or \pset tuples_only.

       -T table_options
       --table-attr=table_options
           Specifies options to be placed within the HTML table tag. See \pset
           tableattr for details.

       -U username
       --username=username
           Connect to the database as the user username instead of the default.
           (You must have permission to do so, of course.)

       -v assignment
       --set=assignment
       --variable=assignment
           Perform a variable assignment, like the \set meta-command. Note that
           you must separate name and value, if any, by an equal sign on the
           command line. To unset a variable, leave off the equal sign. To set a
           variable with an empty value, use the equal sign but leave off the
           value. These assignments are done during command line processing, so
           variables that reflect connection state will get overwritten later.

       -V
       --version
           Print the psql version and exit.

       -w
       --no-password
           Never issue a password prompt. If the server requires password
           authentication and a password is not available by other means such as
           a .pgpass file, the connection attempt will fail. This option can be
           useful in batch jobs and scripts where no user is present to enter a
           password.

           Note that this option will remain set for the entire session, and so
           it affects uses of the meta-command \connect as well as the initial
           connection attempt.

       -W
       --password
           Force psql to prompt for a password before connecting to a database.

           This option is never essential, since psql will automatically prompt
           for a password if the server demands password authentication.
           However, psql will waste a connection attempt finding out that the
           server wants a password. In some cases it is worth typing -W to avoid
           the extra connection attempt.

           Note that this option will remain set for the entire session, and so
           it affects uses of the meta-command \connect as well as the initial
           connection attempt.

       -x
       --expanded
           Turn on the expanded table formatting mode. This is equivalent to \x
           or \pset expanded.

       -X,
       --no-psqlrc
           Do not read the start-up file (neither the system-wide psqlrc file
           nor the user's ~/.psqlrc file).

       -z
       --field-separator-zero
           Set the field separator for unaligned output to a zero byte. This is
           equivalent to \pset fieldsep_zero.

       -0
       --record-separator-zero
           Set the record separator for unaligned output to a zero byte. This is
           useful for interfacing, for example, with xargs -0. This is
           equivalent to \pset recordsep_zero.

       -1
       --single-transaction
           This option can only be used in combination with one or more -c
           and/or -f options. It causes psql to issue a BEGIN command before the
           first such option and a COMMIT command after the last one, thereby
           wrapping all the commands into a single transaction. This ensures
           that either all the commands complete successfully, or no changes are
           applied.

           If the commands themselves contain BEGIN, COMMIT, or ROLLBACK, this
           option will not have the desired effects. Also, if an individual
           command cannot be executed inside a transaction block, specifying
           this option will cause the whole transaction to fail.

       -?
       --help[=topic]
           Show help about psql and exit. The optional topic parameter
           (defaulting to options) selects which part of psql is explained:
           commands describes psql's backslash commands; options describes the
           command-line options that can be passed to psql; and variables shows
           help about psql configuration variables.

EXIT STATUS
       psql returns 0 to the shell if it finished normally, 1 if a fatal error
       of its own occurs (e.g. out of memory, file not found), 2 if the
       connection to the server went bad and the session was not interactive,
       and 3 if an error occurred in a script and the variable ON_ERROR_STOP was
       set.

USAGE
   Connecting to a Database
       psql is a regular PostgreSQL client application. In order to connect to a
       database you need to know the name of your target database, the host name
       and port number of the server, and what user name you want to connect as.
       psql can be told about those parameters via command line options, namely
       -d, -h, -p, and -U respectively. If an argument is found that does not
       belong to any option it will be interpreted as the database name (or the
       user name, if the database name is already given). Not all of these
       options are required; there are useful defaults. If you omit the host
       name, psql will connect via a Unix-domain socket to a server on the local
       host, or via TCP/IP to localhost on machines that don't have Unix-domain
       sockets. The default port number is determined at compile time. Since the
       database server uses the same default, you will not have to specify the
       port in most cases. The default user name is your operating-system user
       name, as is the default database name. Note that you cannot just connect
       to any database under any user name. Your database administrator should
       have informed you about your access rights.

       When the defaults aren't quite right, you can save yourself some typing
       by setting the environment variables PGDATABASE, PGHOST, PGPORT and/or
       PGUSER to appropriate values. (For additional environment variables, see
       Section 33.14.) It is also convenient to have a ~/.pgpass file to avoid
       regularly having to type in passwords. See Section 33.15 for more
       information.

       An alternative way to specify connection parameters is in a conninfo
       string or a URI, which is used instead of a database name. This mechanism
       give you very wide control over the connection. For example:

           $ psql "service=myservice sslmode=require"
           $ psql postgresql://dbmaster:5433/mydb?sslmode=require

       This way you can also use LDAP for connection parameter lookup as
       described in Section 33.17. See Section 33.1.2 for more information on
       all the available connection options.

       If the connection could not be made for any reason (e.g., insufficient
       privileges, server is not running on the targeted host, etc.), psql will
       return an error and terminate.

       If both standard input and standard output are a terminal, then psql sets
       the client encoding to “auto”, which will detect the appropriate client
       encoding from the locale settings (LC_CTYPE environment variable on Unix
       systems). If this doesn't work out as expected, the client encoding can
       be overridden using the environment variable PGCLIENTENCODING.

   Entering SQL Commands
       In normal operation, psql provides a prompt with the name of the database
       to which psql is currently connected, followed by the string =>. For
       example:

           $ psql testdb
           psql (12.4)
           Type "help" for help.

           testdb=>

       At the prompt, the user can type in SQL commands. Ordinarily, input lines
       are sent to the server when a command-terminating semicolon is reached.
       An end of line does not terminate a command. Thus commands can be spread
       over several lines for clarity. If the command was sent and executed
       without error, the results of the command are displayed on the screen.

       If untrusted users have access to a database that has not adopted a
       secure schema usage pattern, begin your session by removing
       publicly-writable schemas from search_path. One can add
       options=-csearch_path= to the connection string or issue SELECT
       pg_catalog.set_config('search_path', '', false) before other SQL
       commands. This consideration is not specific to psql; it applies to every
       interface for executing arbitrary SQL commands.

       Whenever a command is executed, psql also polls for asynchronous
       notification events generated by LISTEN(7) and NOTIFY(7).

       While C-style block comments are passed to the server for processing and
       removal, SQL-standard comments are removed by psql.

   Meta-Commands
       Anything you enter in psql that begins with an unquoted backslash is a
       psql meta-command that is processed by psql itself. These commands make
       psql more useful for administration or scripting. Meta-commands are often
       called slash or backslash commands.

       The format of a psql command is the backslash, followed immediately by a
       command verb, then any arguments. The arguments are separated from the
       command verb and each other by any number of whitespace characters.

       To include whitespace in an argument you can quote it with single quotes.
       To include a single quote in an argument, write two single quotes within
       single-quoted text. Anything contained in single quotes is furthermore
       subject to C-like substitutions for \n (new line), \t (tab), \b
       (backspace), \r (carriage return), \f (form feed), \digits (octal), and
       \xdigits (hexadecimal). A backslash preceding any other character within
       single-quoted text quotes that single character, whatever it is.

       If an unquoted colon (:) followed by a psql variable name appears within
       an argument, it is replaced by the variable's value, as described in SQL
       Interpolation. The forms :'variable_name' and :"variable_name" described
       there work as well. The :{?variable_name} syntax allows testing whether a
       variable is defined. It is substituted by TRUE or FALSE. Escaping the
       colon with a backslash protects it from substitution.

       Within an argument, text that is enclosed in backquotes (`) is taken as a
       command line that is passed to the shell. The output of the command (with
       any trailing newline removed) replaces the backquoted text. Within the
       text enclosed in backquotes, no special quoting or other processing
       occurs, except that appearances of :variable_name where variable_name is
       a psql variable name are replaced by the variable's value. Also,
       appearances of :'variable_name' are replaced by the variable's value
       suitably quoted to become a single shell command argument. (The latter
       form is almost always preferable, unless you are very sure of what is in
       the variable.) Because carriage return and line feed characters cannot be
       safely quoted on all platforms, the :'variable_name' form prints an error
       message and does not substitute the variable value when such characters
       appear in the value.

       Some commands take an SQL identifier (such as a table name) as argument.
       These arguments follow the syntax rules of SQL: Unquoted letters are
       forced to lowercase, while double quotes (") protect letters from case
       conversion and allow incorporation of whitespace into the identifier.
       Within double quotes, paired double quotes reduce to a single double
       quote in the resulting name. For example, FOO"BAR"BAZ is interpreted as
       fooBARbaz, and "A weird"" name" becomes A weird" name.

       Parsing for arguments stops at the end of the line, or when another
       unquoted backslash is found. An unquoted backslash is taken as the
       beginning of a new meta-command. The special sequence \\ (two
       backslashes) marks the end of arguments and continues parsing SQL
       commands, if any. That way SQL and psql commands can be freely mixed on a
       line. But in any case, the arguments of a meta-command cannot continue
       beyond the end of the line.

       Many of the meta-commands act on the current query buffer. This is simply
       a buffer holding whatever SQL command text has been typed but not yet
       sent to the server for execution. This will include previous input lines
       as well as any text appearing before the meta-command on the same line.

       The following meta-commands are defined:

       \a
           If the current table output format is unaligned, it is switched to
           aligned. If it is not unaligned, it is set to unaligned. This command
           is kept for backwards compatibility. See \pset for a more general
           solution.

       \c or \connect [ -reuse-previous=on|off ] [ dbname [ username ] [ host ]
       [ port ] | conninfo ]
           Establishes a new connection to a PostgreSQL server. The connection
           parameters to use can be specified either using a positional syntax,
           or using conninfo connection strings as detailed in Section 33.1.1.

           Where the command omits database name, user, host, or port, the new
           connection can reuse values from the previous connection. By default,
           values from the previous connection are reused except when processing
           a conninfo string. Passing a first argument of -reuse-previous=on or
           -reuse-previous=off overrides that default. When the command neither
           specifies nor reuses a particular parameter, the libpq default is
           used. Specifying any of dbname, username, host or port as - is
           equivalent to omitting that parameter. If hostaddr was specified in
           the original connection's conninfo, that address is reused for the
           new connection (disregarding any other host specification).

           If the new connection is successfully made, the previous connection
           is closed. If the connection attempt failed (wrong user name, access
           denied, etc.), the previous connection will only be kept if psql is
           in interactive mode. When executing a non-interactive script,
           processing will immediately stop with an error. This distinction was
           chosen as a user convenience against typos on the one hand, and a
           safety mechanism that scripts are not accidentally acting on the
           wrong database on the other hand.

           Examples:

               => \c mydb myuser host.dom 6432
               => \c service=foo
               => \c "host=localhost port=5432 dbname=mydb connect_timeout=10 sslmode=disable"
               => \c postgresql://tom@localhost/mydb?application_name=myapp

       \C [ title ]
           Sets the title of any tables being printed as the result of a query
           or unset any such title. This command is equivalent to \pset title
           title. (The name of this command derives from “caption”, as it was
           previously only used to set the caption in an HTML table.)

       \cd [ directory ]
           Changes the current working directory to directory. Without argument,
           changes to the current user's home directory.

               Tip
               To print your current working directory, use \! pwd.

       \conninfo
           Outputs information about the current database connection.

       \copy { table [ ( column_list ) ] } from { 'filename' | program 'command'
       | stdin | pstdin } [ [ with ] ( option [, ...] ) ] [ where condition ]
       \copy { table [ ( column_list ) ] | ( query ) } to { 'filename' | program
       'command' | stdout | pstdout } [ [ with ] ( option [, ...] ) ]
           Performs a frontend (client) copy. This is an operation that runs an
           SQL COPY(7) command, but instead of the server reading or writing the
           specified file, psql reads or writes the file and routes the data
           between the server and the local file system. This means that file
           accessibility and privileges are those of the local user, not the
           server, and no SQL superuser privileges are required.

           When program is specified, command is executed by psql and the data
           passed from or to command is routed between the server and the
           client. Again, the execution privileges are those of the local user,
           not the server, and no SQL superuser privileges are required.

           For \copy ... from stdin, data rows are read from the same source
           that issued the command, continuing until \.  is read or the stream
           reaches EOF. This option is useful for populating tables in-line
           within a SQL script file. For \copy ... to stdout, output is sent to
           the same place as psql command output, and the COPY count command
           status is not printed (since it might be confused with a data row).
           To read/write psql's standard input or output regardless of the
           current command source or \o option, write from pstdin or to pstdout.

           The syntax of this command is similar to that of the SQL COPY(7)
           command. All options other than the data source/destination are as
           specified for COPY(7). Because of this, special parsing rules apply
           to the \copy meta-command. Unlike most other meta-commands, the
           entire remainder of the line is always taken to be the arguments of
           \copy, and neither variable interpolation nor backquote expansion are
           performed in the arguments.

               Tip
               Another way to obtain the same result as \copy ... to is to use
               the SQL COPY ... TO STDOUT command and terminate it with \g
               filename or \g |program. Unlike \copy, this method allows the
               command to span multiple lines; also, variable interpolation and
               backquote expansion can be used.

               Tip
               These operations are not as efficient as the SQL COPY command
               with a file or program data source or destination, because all
               data must pass through the client/server connection. For large
               amounts of data the SQL command might be preferable.

       \copyright
           Shows the copyright and distribution terms of PostgreSQL.

       \crosstabview [ colV [ colH [ colD [ sortcolH ] ] ] ]
           Executes the current query buffer (like \g) and shows the results in
           a crosstab grid. The query must return at least three columns. The
           output column identified by colV becomes a vertical header and the
           output column identified by colH becomes a horizontal header.  colD
           identifies the output column to display within the grid.  sortcolH
           identifies an optional sort column for the horizontal header.

           Each column specification can be a column number (starting at 1) or a
           column name. The usual SQL case folding and quoting rules apply to
           column names. If omitted, colV is taken as column 1 and colH as
           column 2.  colH must differ from colV. If colD is not specified, then
           there must be exactly three columns in the query result, and the
           column that is neither colV nor colH is taken to be colD.

           The vertical header, displayed as the leftmost column, contains the
           values found in column colV, in the same order as in the query
           results, but with duplicates removed.

           The horizontal header, displayed as the first row, contains the
           values found in column colH, with duplicates removed. By default,
           these appear in the same order as in the query results. But if the
           optional sortcolH argument is given, it identifies a column whose
           values must be integer numbers, and the values from colH will appear
           in the horizontal header sorted according to the corresponding
           sortcolH values.

           Inside the crosstab grid, for each distinct value x of colH and each
           distinct value y of colV, the cell located at the intersection (x,y)
           contains the value of the colD column in the query result row for
           which the value of colH is x and the value of colV is y. If there is
           no such row, the cell is empty. If there are multiple such rows, an
           error is reported.

       \d[S+] [ pattern ]
           For each relation (table, view, materialized view, index, sequence,
           or foreign table) or composite type matching the pattern, show all
           columns, their types, the tablespace (if not the default) and any
           special attributes such as NOT NULL or defaults. Associated indexes,
           constraints, rules, and triggers are also shown. For foreign tables,
           the associated foreign server is shown as well. (“Matching the
           pattern” is defined in Patterns below.)

           For some types of relation, \d shows additional information for each
           column: column values for sequences, indexed expressions for indexes,
           and foreign data wrapper options for foreign tables.

           The command form \d+ is identical, except that more information is
           displayed: any comments associated with the columns of the table are
           shown, as is the presence of OIDs in the table, the view definition
           if the relation is a view, a non-default replica identity setting.

           By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or
           the S modifier to include system objects.

               Note
               If \d is used without a pattern argument, it is equivalent to
               \dtvmsE which will show a list of all visible tables, views,
               materialized views, sequences and foreign tables. This is purely
               a convenience measure.

       \da[S] [ pattern ]
           Lists aggregate functions, together with their return type and the
           data types they operate on. If pattern is specified, only aggregates
           whose names match the pattern are shown. By default, only
           user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to
           include system objects.

       \dA[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists access methods. If pattern is specified, only access methods
           whose names match the pattern are shown. If + is appended to the
           command name, each access method is listed with its associated
           handler function and description.

       \db[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists tablespaces. If pattern is specified, only tablespaces whose
           names match the pattern are shown. If + is appended to the command
           name, each tablespace is listed with its associated options, on-disk
           size, permissions and description.

       \dc[S+] [ pattern ]
           Lists conversions between character-set encodings. If pattern is
           specified, only conversions whose names match the pattern are listed.
           By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or
           the S modifier to include system objects. If + is appended to the
           command name, each object is listed with its associated description.

       \dC[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists type casts. If pattern is specified, only casts whose source or
           target types match the pattern are listed. If + is appended to the
           command name, each object is listed with its associated description.

       \dd[S] [ pattern ]
           Shows the descriptions of objects of type constraint, operator class,
           operator family, rule, and trigger. All other comments may be viewed
           by the respective backslash commands for those object types.

           \dd displays descriptions for objects matching the pattern, or of
           visible objects of the appropriate type if no argument is given. But
           in either case, only objects that have a description are listed. By
           default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the
           S modifier to include system objects.

           Descriptions for objects can be created with the COMMENT(7) SQL
           command.

       \dD[S+] [ pattern ]
           Lists domains. If pattern is specified, only domains whose names
           match the pattern are shown. By default, only user-created objects
           are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system
           objects. If + is appended to the command name, each object is listed
           with its associated permissions and description.

       \ddp [ pattern ]
           Lists default access privilege settings. An entry is shown for each
           role (and schema, if applicable) for which the default privilege
           settings have been changed from the built-in defaults. If pattern is
           specified, only entries whose role name or schema name matches the
           pattern are listed.

           The ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES (ALTER_DEFAULT_PRIVILEGES(7)) command is
           used to set default access privileges. The meaning of the privilege
           display is explained in Section 5.7.

       \dE[S+] [ pattern ]
       \di[S+] [ pattern ]
       \dm[S+] [ pattern ]
       \ds[S+] [ pattern ]
       \dt[S+] [ pattern ]
       \dv[S+] [ pattern ]
           In this group of commands, the letters E, i, m, s, t, and v stand for
           foreign table, index, materialized view, sequence, table, and view,
           respectively. You can specify any or all of these letters, in any
           order, to obtain a listing of objects of these types. For example,
           \dit lists indexes and tables. If + is appended to the command name,
           each object is listed with its physical size on disk and its
           associated description, if any. If pattern is specified, only objects
           whose names match the pattern are listed. By default, only
           user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to
           include system objects.

       \des[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists foreign servers (mnemonic: “external servers”). If pattern is
           specified, only those servers whose name matches the pattern are
           listed. If the form \des+ is used, a full description of each server
           is shown, including the server's access privileges, type, version,
           options, and description.

       \det[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists foreign tables (mnemonic: “external tables”). If pattern is
           specified, only entries whose table name or schema name matches the
           pattern are listed. If the form \det+ is used, generic options and
           the foreign table description are also displayed.

       \deu[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists user mappings (mnemonic: “external users”). If pattern is
           specified, only those mappings whose user names match the pattern are
           listed. If the form \deu+ is used, additional information about each
           mapping is shown.

               Caution
               \deu+ might also display the user name and password of the remote
               user, so care should be taken not to disclose them.

       \dew[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists foreign-data wrappers (mnemonic: “external wrappers”). If
           pattern is specified, only those foreign-data wrappers whose name
           matches the pattern are listed. If the form \dew+ is used, the access
           privileges, options, and description of the foreign-data wrapper are
           also shown.

       \df[anptwS+] [ pattern ]
           Lists functions, together with their result data types, argument data
           types, and function types, which are classified as “agg” (aggregate),
           “normal”, “procedure”, “trigger”, or “window”. To display only
           functions of specific type(s), add the corresponding letters a, n, p,
           t, or w to the command. If pattern is specified, only functions whose
           names match the pattern are shown. By default, only user-created
           objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include
           system objects. If the form \df+ is used, additional information
           about each function is shown, including volatility, parallel safety,
           owner, security classification, access privileges, language, source
           code and description.

               Tip
               To look up functions taking arguments or returning values of a
               specific data type, use your pager's search capability to scroll
               through the \df output.

       \dF[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists text search configurations. If pattern is specified, only
           configurations whose names match the pattern are shown. If the form
           \dF+ is used, a full description of each configuration is shown,
           including the underlying text search parser and the dictionary list
           for each parser token type.

       \dFd[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists text search dictionaries. If pattern is specified, only
           dictionaries whose names match the pattern are shown. If the form
           \dFd+ is used, additional information is shown about each selected
           dictionary, including the underlying text search template and the
           option values.

       \dFp[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists text search parsers. If pattern is specified, only parsers
           whose names match the pattern are shown. If the form \dFp+ is used, a
           full description of each parser is shown, including the underlying
           functions and the list of recognized token types.

       \dFt[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists text search templates. If pattern is specified, only templates
           whose names match the pattern are shown. If the form \dFt+ is used,
           additional information is shown about each template, including the
           underlying function names.

       \dg[S+] [ pattern ]
           Lists database roles. (Since the concepts of “users” and “groups”
           have been unified into “roles”, this command is now equivalent to
           \du.) By default, only user-created roles are shown; supply the S
           modifier to include system roles. If pattern is specified, only those
           roles whose names match the pattern are listed. If the form \dg+ is
           used, additional information is shown about each role; currently this
           adds the comment for each role.

       \dl
           This is an alias for \lo_list, which shows a list of large objects.

       \dL[S+] [ pattern ]
           Lists procedural languages. If pattern is specified, only languages
           whose names match the pattern are listed. By default, only
           user-created languages are shown; supply the S modifier to include
           system objects. If + is appended to the command name, each language
           is listed with its call handler, validator, access privileges, and
           whether it is a system object.

       \dn[S+] [ pattern ]
           Lists schemas (namespaces). If pattern is specified, only schemas
           whose names match the pattern are listed. By default, only
           user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to
           include system objects. If + is appended to the command name, each
           object is listed with its associated permissions and description, if
           any.

       \do[S+] [ pattern ]
           Lists operators with their operand and result types. If pattern is
           specified, only operators whose names match the pattern are listed.
           By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or
           the S modifier to include system objects. If + is appended to the
           command name, additional information about each operator is shown,
           currently just the name of the underlying function.

       \dO[S+] [ pattern ]
           Lists collations. If pattern is specified, only collations whose
           names match the pattern are listed. By default, only user-created
           objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include
           system objects. If + is appended to the command name, each collation
           is listed with its associated description, if any. Note that only
           collations usable with the current database's encoding are shown, so
           the results may vary in different databases of the same installation.

       \dp [ pattern ]
           Lists tables, views and sequences with their associated access
           privileges. If pattern is specified, only tables, views and sequences
           whose names match the pattern are listed.

           The GRANT(7) and REVOKE(7) commands are used to set access
           privileges. The meaning of the privilege display is explained in
           Section 5.7.

       \dP[itn+] [ pattern ]
           Lists partitioned relations. If pattern is specified, only entries
           whose name matches the pattern are listed. The modifiers t (tables)
           and i (indexes) can be appended to the command, filtering the kind of
           relations to list. By default, partitioned tables and indexes are
           listed.

           If the modifier n (“nested”) is used, or a pattern is specified, then
           non-root partitioned relations are included, and a column is shown
           displaying the parent of each partitioned relation.

           If + is appended to the command name, the sum of the sizes of each
           relation's partitions is also displayed, along with the relation's
           description. If n is combined with +, two sizes are shown: one
           including the total size of directly-attached leaf partitions, and
           another showing the total size of all partitions, including
           indirectly attached sub-partitions.

       \drds [ role-pattern [ database-pattern ] ]
           Lists defined configuration settings. These settings can be
           role-specific, database-specific, or both.  role-pattern and
           database-pattern are used to select specific roles and databases to
           list, respectively. If omitted, or if * is specified, all settings
           are listed, including those not role-specific or database-specific,
           respectively.

           The ALTER ROLE (ALTER_ROLE(7)) and ALTER DATABASE (ALTER_DATABASE(7))
           commands are used to define per-role and per-database configuration
           settings.

       \dRp[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists replication publications. If pattern is specified, only those
           publications whose names match the pattern are listed. If + is
           appended to the command name, the tables associated with each
           publication are shown as well.

       \dRs[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists replication subscriptions. If pattern is specified, only those
           subscriptions whose names match the pattern are listed. If + is
           appended to the command name, additional properties of the
           subscriptions are shown.

       \dT[S+] [ pattern ]
           Lists data types. If pattern is specified, only types whose names
           match the pattern are listed. If + is appended to the command name,
           each type is listed with its internal name and size, its allowed
           values if it is an enum type, and its associated permissions. By
           default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the
           S modifier to include system objects.

       \du[S+] [ pattern ]
           Lists database roles. (Since the concepts of “users” and “groups”
           have been unified into “roles”, this command is now equivalent to
           \dg.) By default, only user-created roles are shown; supply the S
           modifier to include system roles. If pattern is specified, only those
           roles whose names match the pattern are listed. If the form \du+ is
           used, additional information is shown about each role; currently this
           adds the comment for each role.

       \dx[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists installed extensions. If pattern is specified, only those
           extensions whose names match the pattern are listed. If the form \dx+
           is used, all the objects belonging to each matching extension are
           listed.

       \dy[+] [ pattern ]
           Lists event triggers. If pattern is specified, only those event
           triggers whose names match the pattern are listed. If + is appended
           to the command name, each object is listed with its associated
           description.

       \e or \edit [ filename ] [ line_number ]
           If filename is specified, the file is edited; after the editor exits,
           the file's content is copied into the current query buffer. If no
           filename is given, the current query buffer is copied to a temporary
           file which is then edited in the same fashion. Or, if the current
           query buffer is empty, the most recently executed query is copied to
           a temporary file and edited in the same fashion.

           The new contents of the query buffer are then re-parsed according to
           the normal rules of psql, treating the whole buffer as a single line.
           Any complete queries are immediately executed; that is, if the query
           buffer contains or ends with a semicolon, everything up to that point
           is executed. Whatever remains will wait in the query buffer; type
           semicolon or \g to send it, or \r to cancel it by clearing the query
           buffer. Treating the buffer as a single line primarily affects
           meta-commands: whatever is in the buffer after a meta-command will be
           taken as argument(s) to the meta-command, even if it spans multiple
           lines. (Thus you cannot make meta-command-using scripts this way. Use
           \i for that.)

           If a line number is specified, psql will position the cursor on the
           specified line of the file or query buffer. Note that if a single
           all-digits argument is given, psql assumes it is a line number, not a
           file name.

               Tip
               See under ENVIRONMENT for how to configure and customize your
               editor.

       \echo text [ ... ]
           Prints the arguments to the standard output, separated by one space
           and followed by a newline. This can be useful to intersperse
           information in the output of scripts. For example:

               => \echo `date`
               Tue Oct 26 21:40:57 CEST 1999

           If the first argument is an unquoted -n the trailing newline is not
           written.

               Tip
               If you use the \o command to redirect your query output you might
               wish to use \qecho instead of this command.

       \ef [ function_description [ line_number ] ]
           This command fetches and edits the definition of the named function
           or procedure, in the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION or CREATE
           OR REPLACE PROCEDURE command. Editing is done in the same way as for
           \edit. After the editor exits, the updated command waits in the query
           buffer; type semicolon or \g to send it, or \r to cancel.

           The target function can be specified by name alone, or by name and
           arguments, for example foo(integer, text). The argument types must be
           given if there is more than one function of the same name.

           If no function is specified, a blank CREATE FUNCTION template is
           presented for editing.

           If a line number is specified, psql will position the cursor on the
           specified line of the function body. (Note that the function body
           typically does not begin on the first line of the file.)

           Unlike most other meta-commands, the entire remainder of the line is
           always taken to be the argument(s) of \ef, and neither variable
           interpolation nor backquote expansion are performed in the arguments.

               Tip
               See under ENVIRONMENT for how to configure and customize your
               editor.

       \encoding [ encoding ]
           Sets the client character set encoding. Without an argument, this
           command shows the current encoding.

       \errverbose
           Repeats the most recent server error message at maximum verbosity, as
           though VERBOSITY were set to verbose and SHOW_CONTEXT were set to
           always.

       \ev [ view_name [ line_number ] ]
           This command fetches and edits the definition of the named view, in
           the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW command. Editing is done in the
           same way as for \edit. After the editor exits, the updated command
           waits in the query buffer; type semicolon or \g to send it, or \r to
           cancel.

           If no view is specified, a blank CREATE VIEW template is presented
           for editing.

           If a line number is specified, psql will position the cursor on the
           specified line of the view definition.

           Unlike most other meta-commands, the entire remainder of the line is
           always taken to be the argument(s) of \ev, and neither variable
           interpolation nor backquote expansion are performed in the arguments.

       \f [ string ]
           Sets the field separator for unaligned query output. The default is
           the vertical bar (|). It is equivalent to \pset fieldsep.

       \g [ filename ]
       \g [ |command ]
           Sends the current query buffer to the server for execution. If an
           argument is given, the query's output is written to the named file or
           piped to the given shell command, instead of displaying it as usual.
           The file or command is written to only if the query successfully
           returns zero or more tuples, not if the query fails or is a
           non-data-returning SQL command.

           If the current query buffer is empty, the most recently sent query is
           re-executed instead. Except for that behavior, \g without an argument
           is essentially equivalent to a semicolon. A \g with argument is a
           “one-shot” alternative to the \o command.

           If the argument begins with |, then the entire remainder of the line
           is taken to be the command to execute, and neither variable
           interpolation nor backquote expansion are performed in it. The rest
           of the line is simply passed literally to the shell.

       \gdesc
           Shows the description (that is, the column names and data types) of
           the result of the current query buffer. The query is not actually
           executed; however, if it contains some type of syntax error, that
           error will be reported in the normal way.

           If the current query buffer is empty, the most recently sent query is
           described instead.

       \gexec
           Sends the current query buffer to the server, then treats each column
           of each row of the query's output (if any) as a SQL statement to be
           executed. For example, to create an index on each column of my_table:

               => SELECT format('create index on my_table(%I)', attname)
               -> FROM pg_attribute
               -> WHERE attrelid = 'my_table'::regclass AND attnum > 0
               -> ORDER BY attnum
               -> \gexec
               CREATE INDEX
               CREATE INDEX
               CREATE INDEX
               CREATE INDEX

           The generated queries are executed in the order in which the rows are
           returned, and left-to-right within each row if there is more than one
           column. NULL fields are ignored. The generated queries are sent
           literally to the server for processing, so they cannot be psql
           meta-commands nor contain psql variable references. If any individual
           query fails, execution of the remaining queries continues unless
           ON_ERROR_STOP is set. Execution of each query is subject to ECHO
           processing. (Setting ECHO to all or queries is often advisable when
           using \gexec.) Query logging, single-step mode, timing, and other
           query execution features apply to each generated query as well.

           If the current query buffer is empty, the most recently sent query is
           re-executed instead.

       \gset [ prefix ]
           Sends the current query buffer to the server and stores the query's
           output into psql variables (see Variables). The query to be executed
           must return exactly one row. Each column of the row is stored into a
           separate variable, named the same as the column. For example:

               => SELECT 'hello' AS var1, 10 AS var2
               -> \gset
               => \echo :var1 :var2
               hello 10

           If you specify a prefix, that string is prepended to the query's
           column names to create the variable names to use:

               => SELECT 'hello' AS var1, 10 AS var2
               -> \gset result_
               => \echo :result_var1 :result_var2
               hello 10

           If a column result is NULL, the corresponding variable is unset
           rather than being set.

           If the query fails or does not return one row, no variables are
           changed.

           If the current query buffer is empty, the most recently sent query is
           re-executed instead.

       \gx [ filename ]
       \gx [ |command ]
           \gx is equivalent to \g, but forces expanded output mode for this
           query. See \x.

       \h or \help [ command ]
           Gives syntax help on the specified SQL command. If command is not
           specified, then psql will list all the commands for which syntax help
           is available. If command is an asterisk (*), then syntax help on all
           SQL commands is shown.

           Unlike most other meta-commands, the entire remainder of the line is
           always taken to be the argument(s) of \help, and neither variable
           interpolation nor backquote expansion are performed in the arguments.

               Note
               To simplify typing, commands that consists of several words do
               not have to be quoted. Thus it is fine to type \help alter table.

       \H or \html
           Turns on HTML query output format. If the HTML format is already on,
           it is switched back to the default aligned text format. This command
           is for compatibility and convenience, but see \pset about setting
           other output options.

       \i or \include filename
           Reads input from the file filename and executes it as though it had
           been typed on the keyboard.

           If filename is - (hyphen), then standard input is read until an EOF
           indication or \q meta-command. This can be used to intersperse
           interactive input with input from files. Note that Readline behavior
           will be used only if it is active at the outermost level.

               Note
               If you want to see the lines on the screen as they are read you
               must set the variable ECHO to all.

       \if expression
       \elif expression
       \else
       \endif
           This group of commands implements nestable conditional blocks. A
           conditional block must begin with an \if and end with an \endif. In
           between there may be any number of \elif clauses, which may
           optionally be followed by a single \else clause. Ordinary queries and
           other types of backslash commands may (and usually do) appear between
           the commands forming a conditional block.

           The \if and \elif commands read their argument(s) and evaluate them
           as a boolean expression. If the expression yields true then
           processing continues normally; otherwise, lines are skipped until a
           matching \elif, \else, or \endif is reached. Once an \if or \elif
           test has succeeded, the arguments of later \elif commands in the same
           block are not evaluated but are treated as false. Lines following an
           \else are processed only if no earlier matching \if or \elif
           succeeded.

           The expression argument of an \if or \elif command is subject to
           variable interpolation and backquote expansion, just like any other
           backslash command argument. After that it is evaluated like the value
           of an on/off option variable. So a valid value is any unambiguous
           case-insensitive match for one of: true, false, 1, 0, on, off, yes,
           no. For example, t, T, and tR will all be considered to be true.

           Expressions that do not properly evaluate to true or false will
           generate a warning and be treated as false.

           Lines being skipped are parsed normally to identify queries and
           backslash commands, but queries are not sent to the server, and
           backslash commands other than conditionals (\if, \elif, \else,
           \endif) are ignored. Conditional commands are checked only for valid
           nesting. Variable references in skipped lines are not expanded, and
           backquote expansion is not performed either.

           All the backslash commands of a given conditional block must appear
           in the same source file. If EOF is reached on the main input file or
           an \include-ed file before all local \if-blocks have been closed,
           then psql will raise an error.

           Here is an example:

               -- check for the existence of two separate records in the database and store
               -- the results in separate psql variables
               SELECT
                   EXISTS(SELECT 1 FROM customer WHERE customer_id = 123) as is_customer,
                   EXISTS(SELECT 1 FROM employee WHERE employee_id = 456) as is_employee
               \gset
               \if :is_customer
                   SELECT * FROM customer WHERE customer_id = 123;
               \elif :is_employee
                   \echo 'is not a customer but is an employee'
                   SELECT * FROM employee WHERE employee_id = 456;
               \else
                   \if yes
                       \echo 'not a customer or employee'
                   \else
                       \echo 'this will never print'
                   \endif
               \endif

       \ir or \include_relative filename
           The \ir command is similar to \i, but resolves relative file names
           differently. When executing in interactive mode, the two commands
           behave identically. However, when invoked from a script, \ir
           interprets file names relative to the directory in which the script
           is located, rather than the current working directory.

       \l[+] or \list[+] [ pattern ]
           List the databases in the server and show their names, owners,
           character set encodings, and access privileges. If pattern is
           specified, only databases whose names match the pattern are listed.
           If + is appended to the command name, database sizes, default
           tablespaces, and descriptions are also displayed. (Size information
           is only available for databases that the current user can connect
           to.)

       \lo_export loid filename
           Reads the large object with OID loid from the database and writes it
           to filename. Note that this is subtly different from the server
           function lo_export, which acts with the permissions of the user that
           the database server runs as and on the server's file system.

               Tip
               Use \lo_list to find out the large object's OID.

       \lo_import filename [ comment ]
           Stores the file into a PostgreSQL large object. Optionally, it
           associates the given comment with the object. Example:

               foo=> \lo_import '/home/peter/pictures/photo.xcf' 'a picture of me'
               lo_import 152801

           The response indicates that the large object received object ID
           152801, which can be used to access the newly-created large object in
           the future. For the sake of readability, it is recommended to always
           associate a human-readable comment with every object. Both OIDs and
           comments can be viewed with the \lo_list command.

           Note that this command is subtly different from the server-side
           lo_import because it acts as the local user on the local file system,
           rather than the server's user and file system.

       \lo_list
           Shows a list of all PostgreSQL large objects currently stored in the
           database, along with any comments provided for them.

       \lo_unlink loid
           Deletes the large object with OID loid from the database.

               Tip
               Use \lo_list to find out the large object's OID.

       \o or \out [ filename ]
       \o or \out [ |command ]
           Arranges to save future query results to the file filename or pipe
           future results to the shell command command. If no argument is
           specified, the query output is reset to the standard output.

           If the argument begins with |, then the entire remainder of the line
           is taken to be the command to execute, and neither variable
           interpolation nor backquote expansion are performed in it. The rest
           of the line is simply passed literally to the shell.

           “Query results” includes all tables, command responses, and notices
           obtained from the database server, as well as output of various
           backslash commands that query the database (such as \d); but not
           error messages.

               Tip
               To intersperse text output in between query results, use \qecho.

       \p or \print
           Print the current query buffer to the standard output. If the current
           query buffer is empty, the most recently executed query is printed
           instead.

       \password [ username ]
           Changes the password of the specified user (by default, the current
           user). This command prompts for the new password, encrypts it, and
           sends it to the server as an ALTER ROLE command. This makes sure that
           the new password does not appear in cleartext in the command history,
           the server log, or elsewhere.

       \prompt [ text ] name
           Prompts the user to supply text, which is assigned to the variable
           name. An optional prompt string, text, can be specified. (For
           multiword prompts, surround the text with single quotes.)

           By default, \prompt uses the terminal for input and output. However,
           if the -f command line switch was used, \prompt uses standard input
           and standard output.

       \pset [ option [ value ] ]
           This command sets options affecting the output of query result
           tables.  option indicates which option is to be set. The semantics of
           value vary depending on the selected option. For some options,
           omitting value causes the option to be toggled or unset, as described
           under the particular option. If no such behavior is mentioned, then
           omitting value just results in the current setting being displayed.

           \pset without any arguments displays the current status of all
           printing options.

           Adjustable printing options are:

           border
               The value must be a number. In general, the higher the number the
               more borders and lines the tables will have, but details depend
               on the particular format. In HTML format, this will translate
               directly into the border=...  attribute. In most other formats
               only values 0 (no border), 1 (internal dividing lines), and 2
               (table frame) make sense, and values above 2 will be treated the
               same as border = 2. The latex and latex-longtable formats
               additionally allow a value of 3 to add dividing lines between
               data rows.

           columns
               Sets the target width for the wrapped format, and also the width
               limit for determining whether output is wide enough to require
               the pager or switch to the vertical display in expanded auto
               mode. Zero (the default) causes the target width to be controlled
               by the environment variable COLUMNS, or the detected screen width
               if COLUMNS is not set. In addition, if columns is zero then the
               wrapped format only affects screen output. If columns is nonzero
               then file and pipe output is wrapped to that width as well.

           csv_fieldsep
               Specifies the field separator to be used in CSV output format. If
               the separator character appears in a field's value, that field is
               output within double quotes, following standard CSV rules. The
               default is a comma.

           expanded (or x)
               If value is specified it must be either on or off, which will
               enable or disable expanded mode, or auto. If value is omitted the
               command toggles between the on and off settings. When expanded
               mode is enabled, query results are displayed in two columns, with
               the column name on the left and the data on the right. This mode
               is useful if the data wouldn't fit on the screen in the normal
               “horizontal” mode. In the auto setting, the expanded mode is used
               whenever the query output has more than one column and is wider
               than the screen; otherwise, the regular mode is used. The auto
               setting is only effective in the aligned and wrapped formats. In
               other formats, it always behaves as if the expanded mode is off.

           fieldsep
               Specifies the field separator to be used in unaligned output
               format. That way one can create, for example, tab-separated
               output, which other programs might prefer. To set a tab as field
               separator, type \pset fieldsep '\t'. The default field separator
               is '|' (a vertical bar).

           fieldsep_zero
               Sets the field separator to use in unaligned output format to a
               zero byte.

           footer
               If value is specified it must be either on or off which will
               enable or disable display of the table footer (the (n rows)
               count). If value is omitted the command toggles footer display on
               or off.

           format
               Sets the output format to one of aligned, asciidoc, csv, html,
               latex, latex-longtable, troff-ms, unaligned, or wrapped. Unique
               abbreviations are allowed.

               aligned format is the standard, human-readable, nicely formatted
               text output; this is the default.

               unaligned format writes all columns of a row on one line,
               separated by the currently active field separator. This is useful
               for creating output that might be intended to be read in by other
               programs, for example, tab-separated or comma-separated format.
               However, the field separator character is not treated specially
               if it appears in a column's value; so CSV format may be better
               suited for such purposes.

               csv format

               writes column values separated by commas, applying the quoting
               rules described in RFC 4180. This output is compatible with the
               CSV format of the server's COPY command. A header line with
               column names is generated unless the tuples_only parameter is on.
               Titles and footers are not printed. Each row is terminated by the
               system-dependent end-of-line character, which is typically a
               single newline (\n) for Unix-like systems or a carriage return
               and newline sequence (\r\n) for Microsoft Windows. Field
               separator characters other than comma can be selected with \pset
               csv_fieldsep.

               wrapped format is like aligned but wraps wide data values across
               lines to make the output fit in the target column width. The
               target width is determined as described under the columns option.
               Note that psql will not attempt to wrap column header titles;
               therefore, wrapped format behaves the same as aligned if the
               total width needed for column headers exceeds the target.

               The asciidoc, html, latex, latex-longtable, and troff-ms formats
               put out tables that are intended to be included in documents
               using the respective mark-up language. They are not complete
               documents! This might not be necessary in HTML, but in LaTeX you
               must have a complete document wrapper. The latex format uses
               LaTeX's tabular environment. The latex-longtable format requires
               the LaTeX longtable and booktabs packages.

           linestyle
               Sets the border line drawing style to one of ascii, old-ascii, or
               unicode. Unique abbreviations are allowed. (That would mean one
               letter is enough.) The default setting is ascii. This option only
               affects the aligned and wrapped output formats.

               ascii style uses plain ASCII characters. Newlines in data are
               shown using a + symbol in the right-hand margin. When the wrapped
               format wraps data from one line to the next without a newline
               character, a dot (.) is shown in the right-hand margin of the
               first line, and again in the left-hand margin of the following
               line.

               old-ascii style uses plain ASCII characters, using the formatting
               style used in PostgreSQL 8.4 and earlier. Newlines in data are
               shown using a : symbol in place of the left-hand column
               separator. When the data is wrapped from one line to the next
               without a newline character, a ; symbol is used in place of the
               left-hand column separator.

               unicode style uses Unicode box-drawing characters. Newlines in
               data are shown using a carriage return symbol in the right-hand
               margin. When the data is wrapped from one line to the next
               without a newline character, an ellipsis symbol is shown in the
               right-hand margin of the first line, and again in the left-hand
               margin of the following line.

               When the border setting is greater than zero, the linestyle
               option also determines the characters with which the border lines
               are drawn. Plain ASCII characters work everywhere, but Unicode
               characters look nicer on displays that recognize them.

           null
               Sets the string to be printed in place of a null value. The
               default is to print nothing, which can easily be mistaken for an
               empty string. For example, one might prefer \pset null '(null)'.

           numericlocale
               If value is specified it must be either on or off which will
               enable or disable display of a locale-specific character to
               separate groups of digits to the left of the decimal marker. If
               value is omitted the command toggles between regular and
               locale-specific numeric output.

           pager
               Controls use of a pager program for query and psql help output.
               If the environment variable PSQL_PAGER or PAGER is set, the
               output is piped to the specified program. Otherwise a
               platform-dependent default program (such as more) is used.

               When the pager option is off, the pager program is not used. When
               the pager option is on, the pager is used when appropriate, i.e.,
               when the output is to a terminal and will not fit on the screen.
               The pager option can also be set to always, which causes the
               pager to be used for all terminal output regardless of whether it
               fits on the screen.  \pset pager without a value toggles pager
               use on and off.

           pager_min_lines
               If pager_min_lines is set to a number greater than the page
               height, the pager program will not be called unless there are at
               least this many lines of output to show. The default setting is
               0.

           recordsep
               Specifies the record (line) separator to use in unaligned output
               format. The default is a newline character.

           recordsep_zero
               Sets the record separator to use in unaligned output format to a
               zero byte.

           tableattr (or T)
               In HTML format, this specifies attributes to be placed inside the
               table tag. This could for example be cellpadding or bgcolor. Note
               that you probably don't want to specify border here, as that is
               already taken care of by \pset border. If no value is given, the
               table attributes are unset.

               In latex-longtable format, this controls the proportional width
               of each column containing a left-aligned data type. It is
               specified as a whitespace-separated list of values, e.g.  '0.2
               0.2 0.6'. Unspecified output columns use the last specified
               value.

           title (or C)
               Sets the table title for any subsequently printed tables. This
               can be used to give your output descriptive tags. If no value is
               given, the title is unset.

           tuples_only (or t)
               If value is specified it must be either on or off which will
               enable or disable tuples-only mode. If value is omitted the
               command toggles between regular and tuples-only output. Regular
               output includes extra information such as column headers, titles,
               and various footers. In tuples-only mode, only actual table data
               is shown.

           unicode_border_linestyle
               Sets the border drawing style for the unicode line style to one
               of single or double.

           unicode_column_linestyle
               Sets the column drawing style for the unicode line style to one
               of single or double.

           unicode_header_linestyle
               Sets the header drawing style for the unicode line style to one
               of single or double.

           Illustrations of how these different formats look can be seen in the
           EXAMPLES section.

               Tip
               There are various shortcut commands for \pset. See \a, \C, \f,
               \H, \t, \T, and \x.

       \q or \quit
           Quits the psql program. In a script file, only execution of that
           script is terminated.

       \qecho text [ ... ]
           This command is identical to \echo except that the output will be
           written to the query output channel, as set by \o.

       \r or \reset
           Resets (clears) the query buffer.

       \s [ filename ]
           Print psql's command line history to filename. If filename is
           omitted, the history is written to the standard output (using the
           pager if appropriate). This command is not available if psql was
           built without Readline support.

       \set [ name [ value [ ... ] ] ]
           Sets the psql variable name to value, or if more than one value is
           given, to the concatenation of all of them. If only one argument is
           given, the variable is set to an empty-string value. To unset a
           variable, use the \unset command.

           \set without any arguments displays the names and values of all
           currently-set psql variables.

           Valid variable names can contain letters, digits, and underscores.
           See the section Variables below for details. Variable names are
           case-sensitive.

           Certain variables are special, in that they control psql's behavior
           or are automatically set to reflect connection state. These variables
           are documented in Variables, below.

               Note
               This command is unrelated to the SQL command SET(7).

       \setenv name [ value ]
           Sets the environment variable name to value, or if the value is not
           supplied, unsets the environment variable. Example:

               testdb=> \setenv PAGER less
               testdb=> \setenv LESS -imx4F

       \sf[+] function_description
           This command fetches and shows the definition of the named function
           or procedure, in the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION or CREATE
           OR REPLACE PROCEDURE command. The definition is printed to the
           current query output channel, as set by \o.

           The target function can be specified by name alone, or by name and
           arguments, for example foo(integer, text). The argument types must be
           given if there is more than one function of the same name.

           If + is appended to the command name, then the output lines are
           numbered, with the first line of the function body being line 1.

           Unlike most other meta-commands, the entire remainder of the line is
           always taken to be the argument(s) of \sf, and neither variable
           interpolation nor backquote expansion are performed in the arguments.

       \sv[+] view_name
           This command fetches and shows the definition of the named view, in
           the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW command. The definition is
           printed to the current query output channel, as set by \o.

           If + is appended to the command name, then the output lines are
           numbered from 1.

           Unlike most other meta-commands, the entire remainder of the line is
           always taken to be the argument(s) of \sv, and neither variable
           interpolation nor backquote expansion are performed in the arguments.

       \t
           Toggles the display of output column name headings and row count
           footer. This command is equivalent to \pset tuples_only and is
           provided for convenience.

       \T table_options
           Specifies attributes to be placed within the table tag in HTML output
           format. This command is equivalent to \pset tableattr table_options.

       \timing [ on | off ]
           With a parameter, turns displaying of how long each SQL statement
           takes on or off. Without a parameter, toggles the display between on
           and off. The display is in milliseconds; intervals longer than 1
           second are also shown in minutes:seconds format, with hours and days
           fields added if needed.

       \unset name
           Unsets (deletes) the psql variable name.

           Most variables that control psql's behavior cannot be unset; instead,
           an \unset command is interpreted as setting them to their default
           values. See Variables, below.

       \w or \write filename
       \w or \write |command
           Writes the current query buffer to the file filename or pipes it to
           the shell command command. If the current query buffer is empty, the
           most recently executed query is written instead.

           If the argument begins with |, then the entire remainder of the line
           is taken to be the command to execute, and neither variable
           interpolation nor backquote expansion are performed in it. The rest
           of the line is simply passed literally to the shell.

       \watch [ seconds ]
           Repeatedly execute the current query buffer (as \g does) until
           interrupted or the query fails. Wait the specified number of seconds
           (default 2) between executions. Each query result is displayed with a
           header that includes the \pset title string (if any), the time as of
           query start, and the delay interval.

           If the current query buffer is empty, the most recently sent query is
           re-executed instead.

       \x [ on | off | auto ]
           Sets or toggles expanded table formatting mode. As such it is
           equivalent to \pset expanded.

       \z [ pattern ]
           Lists tables, views and sequences with their associated access
           privileges. If a pattern is specified, only tables, views and
           sequences whose names match the pattern are listed.

           This is an alias for \dp (“display privileges”).

       \! [ command ]
           With no argument, escapes to a sub-shell; psql resumes when the
           sub-shell exits. With an argument, executes the shell command
           command.

           Unlike most other meta-commands, the entire remainder of the line is
           always taken to be the argument(s) of \!, and neither variable
           interpolation nor backquote expansion are performed in the arguments.
           The rest of the line is simply passed literally to the shell.

       \? [ topic ]
           Shows help information. The optional topic parameter (defaulting to
           commands) selects which part of psql is explained: commands describes
           psql's backslash commands; options describes the command-line options
           that can be passed to psql; and variables shows help about psql
           configuration variables.

       \;
           Backslash-semicolon is not a meta-command in the same way as the
           preceding commands; rather, it simply causes a semicolon to be added
           to the query buffer without any further processing.

           Normally, psql will dispatch a SQL command to the server as soon as
           it reaches the command-ending semicolon, even if more input remains
           on the current line. Thus for example entering

               select 1; select 2; select 3;

           will result in the three SQL commands being individually sent to the
           server, with each one's results being displayed before continuing to
           the next command. However, a semicolon entered as \; will not trigger
           command processing, so that the command before it and the one after
           are effectively combined and sent to the server in one request. So
           for example

               select 1\; select 2\; select 3;

           results in sending the three SQL commands to the server in a single
           request, when the non-backslashed semicolon is reached. The server
           executes such a request as a single transaction, unless there are
           explicit BEGIN/COMMIT commands included in the string to divide it
           into multiple transactions. (See Section 52.2.2.1 for more details
           about how the server handles multi-query strings.)  psql prints only
           the last query result it receives for each request; in this example,
           although all three SELECTs are indeed executed, psql only prints the
           3.

       Patterns
           The various \d commands accept a pattern parameter to specify the
           object name(s) to be displayed. In the simplest case, a pattern is
           just the exact name of the object. The characters within a pattern
           are normally folded to lower case, just as in SQL names; for example,
           \dt FOO will display the table named foo. As in SQL names, placing
           double quotes around a pattern stops folding to lower case. Should
           you need to include an actual double quote character in a pattern,
           write it as a pair of double quotes within a double-quote sequence;
           again this is in accord with the rules for SQL quoted identifiers.
           For example, \dt "FOO""BAR" will display the table named FOO"BAR (not
           foo"bar). Unlike the normal rules for SQL names, you can put double
           quotes around just part of a pattern, for instance \dt FOO"FOO"BAR
           will display the table named fooFOObar.

           Whenever the pattern parameter is omitted completely, the \d commands
           display all objects that are visible in the current schema search
           path — this is equivalent to using * as the pattern. (An object is
           said to be visible if its containing schema is in the search path and
           no object of the same kind and name appears earlier in the search
           path. This is equivalent to the statement that the object can be
           referenced by name without explicit schema qualification.) To see all
           objects in the database regardless of visibility, use *.*  as the
           pattern.

           Within a pattern, * matches any sequence of characters (including no
           characters) and ?  matches any single character. (This notation is
           comparable to Unix shell file name patterns.) For example, \dt int*
           displays tables whose names begin with int. But within double quotes,
           * and ?  lose these special meanings and are just matched literally.

           A pattern that contains a dot (.) is interpreted as a schema name
           pattern followed by an object name pattern. For example, \dt
           foo*.*bar* displays all tables whose table name includes bar that are
           in schemas whose schema name starts with foo. When no dot appears,
           then the pattern matches only objects that are visible in the current
           schema search path. Again, a dot within double quotes loses its
           special meaning and is matched literally.

           Advanced users can use regular-expression notations such as character
           classes, for example [0-9] to match any digit. All regular expression
           special characters work as specified in Section 9.7.3, except for .
           which is taken as a separator as mentioned above, * which is
           translated to the regular-expression notation .*, ?  which is
           translated to ., and $ which is matched literally. You can emulate
           these pattern characters at need by writing ?  for ., (R+|) for R*,
           or (R|) for R?.  $ is not needed as a regular-expression character
           since the pattern must match the whole name, unlike the usual
           interpretation of regular expressions (in other words, $ is
           automatically appended to your pattern). Write * at the beginning
           and/or end if you don't wish the pattern to be anchored. Note that
           within double quotes, all regular expression special characters lose
           their special meanings and are matched literally. Also, the regular
           expression special characters are matched literally in operator name
           patterns (i.e., the argument of \do).

   Advanced Features
       Variables
           psql provides variable substitution features similar to common Unix
           command shells. Variables are simply name/value pairs, where the
           value can be any string of any length. The name must consist of
           letters (including non-Latin letters), digits, and underscores.

           To set a variable, use the psql meta-command \set. For example,

               testdb=> \set foo bar

           sets the variable foo to the value bar. To retrieve the content of
           the variable, precede the name with a colon, for example:

               testdb=> \echo :foo
               bar

           This works in both regular SQL commands and meta-commands; there is
           more detail in SQL Interpolation, below.

           If you call \set without a second argument, the variable is set to an
           empty-string value. To unset (i.e., delete) a variable, use the
           command \unset. To show the values of all variables, call \set
           without any argument.

               Note
               The arguments of \set are subject to the same substitution rules
               as with other commands. Thus you can construct interesting
               references such as \set :foo 'something' and get “soft links” or
               “variable variables” of Perl or PHP fame, respectively.
               Unfortunately (or fortunately?), there is no way to do anything
               useful with these constructs. On the other hand, \set bar :foo is
               a perfectly valid way to copy a variable.

           A number of these variables are treated specially by psql. They
           represent certain option settings that can be changed at run time by
           altering the value of the variable, or in some cases represent
           changeable state of psql. By convention, all specially treated
           variables' names consist of all upper-case ASCII letters (and
           possibly digits and underscores). To ensure maximum compatibility in
           the future, avoid using such variable names for your own purposes.

           Variables that control psql's behavior generally cannot be unset or
           set to invalid values. An \unset command is allowed but is
           interpreted as setting the variable to its default value. A \set
           command without a second argument is interpreted as setting the
           variable to on, for control variables that accept that value, and is
           rejected for others. Also, control variables that accept the values
           on and off will also accept other common spellings of Boolean values,
           such as true and false.

           The specially treated variables are:

           AUTOCOMMIT
               When on (the default), each SQL command is automatically
               committed upon successful completion. To postpone commit in this
               mode, you must enter a BEGIN or START TRANSACTION SQL command.
               When off or unset, SQL commands are not committed until you
               explicitly issue COMMIT or END. The autocommit-off mode works by
               issuing an implicit BEGIN for you, just before any command that
               is not already in a transaction block and is not itself a BEGIN
               or other transaction-control command, nor a command that cannot
               be executed inside a transaction block (such as VACUUM).

                   Note
                   In autocommit-off mode, you must explicitly abandon any
                   failed transaction by entering ABORT or ROLLBACK. Also keep
                   in mind that if you exit the session without committing, your
                   work will be lost.

                   Note
                   The autocommit-on mode is PostgreSQL's traditional behavior,
                   but autocommit-off is closer to the SQL spec. If you prefer
                   autocommit-off, you might wish to set it in the system-wide
                   psqlrc file or your ~/.psqlrc file.

           COMP_KEYWORD_CASE
               Determines which letter case to use when completing an SQL key
               word. If set to lower or upper, the completed word will be in
               lower or upper case, respectively. If set to preserve-lower or
               preserve-upper (the default), the completed word will be in the
               case of the word already entered, but words being completed
               without anything entered will be in lower or upper case,
               respectively.

           DBNAME
               The name of the database you are currently connected to. This is
               set every time you connect to a database (including program
               start-up), but can be changed or unset.

           ECHO
               If set to all, all nonempty input lines are printed to standard
               output as they are read. (This does not apply to lines read
               interactively.) To select this behavior on program start-up, use
               the switch -a. If set to queries, psql prints each query to
               standard output as it is sent to the server. The switch to select
               this behavior is -e. If set to errors, then only failed queries
               are displayed on standard error output. The switch for this
               behavior is -b. If set to none (the default), then no queries are
               displayed.

           ECHO_HIDDEN
               When this variable is set to on and a backslash command queries
               the database, the query is first shown. This feature helps you to
               study PostgreSQL internals and provide similar functionality in
               your own programs. (To select this behavior on program start-up,
               use the switch -E.) If you set this variable to the value noexec,
               the queries are just shown but are not actually sent to the
               server and executed. The default value is off.

           ENCODING
               The current client character set encoding. This is set every time
               you connect to a database (including program start-up), and when
               you change the encoding with \encoding, but it can be changed or
               unset.

           ERROR
               true if the last SQL query failed, false if it succeeded. See
               also SQLSTATE.

           FETCH_COUNT
               If this variable is set to an integer value greater than zero,
               the results of SELECT queries are fetched and displayed in groups
               of that many rows, rather than the default behavior of collecting
               the entire result set before display. Therefore only a limited
               amount of memory is used, regardless of the size of the result
               set. Settings of 100 to 1000 are commonly used when enabling this
               feature. Keep in mind that when using this feature, a query might
               fail after having already displayed some rows.

                   Tip
                   Although you can use any output format with this feature, the
                   default aligned format tends to look bad because each group
                   of FETCH_COUNT rows will be formatted separately, leading to
                   varying column widths across the row groups. The other output
                   formats work better.

           HIDE_TABLEAM
               If this variable is set to true, a table's access method details
               are not displayed. This is mainly useful for regression tests.

           HISTCONTROL
               If this variable is set to ignorespace, lines which begin with a
               space are not entered into the history list. If set to a value of
               ignoredups, lines matching the previous history line are not
               entered. A value of ignoreboth combines the two options. If set
               to none (the default), all lines read in interactive mode are
               saved on the history list.

                   Note
                   This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.

           HISTFILE
               The file name that will be used to store the history list. If
               unset, the file name is taken from the PSQL_HISTORY environment
               variable. If that is not set either, the default is
               ~/.psql_history, or %APPDATA%\postgresql\psql_history on Windows.
               For example, putting:

                   \set HISTFILE ~/.psql_history- :DBNAME

               in ~/.psqlrc will cause psql to maintain a separate history for
               each database.

                   Note
                   This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.

           HISTSIZE
               The maximum number of commands to store in the command history
               (default 500). If set to a negative value, no limit is applied.

                   Note
                   This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.

           HOST
               The database server host you are currently connected to. This is
               set every time you connect to a database (including program
               start-up), but can be changed or unset.

           IGNOREEOF
               If set to 1 or less, sending an EOF character (usually Control+D)
               to an interactive session of psql will terminate the application.
               If set to a larger numeric value, that many consecutive EOF
               characters must be typed to make an interactive session
               terminate. If the variable is set to a non-numeric value, it is
               interpreted as 10. The default is 0.

                   Note
                   This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.

           LASTOID
               The value of the last affected OID, as returned from an INSERT or
               \lo_import command. This variable is only guaranteed to be valid
               until after the result of the next SQL command has been
               displayed.  PostgreSQL servers since version 12 do not support
               OID system columns anymore, thus LASTOID will always be 0
               following INSERT when targeting such servers.

           LAST_ERROR_MESSAGE
           LAST_ERROR_SQLSTATE
               The primary error message and associated SQLSTATE code for the
               most recent failed query in the current psql session, or an empty
               string and 00000 if no error has occurred in the current session.

           ON_ERROR_ROLLBACK
               When set to on, if a statement in a transaction block generates
               an error, the error is ignored and the transaction continues.
               When set to interactive, such errors are only ignored in
               interactive sessions, and not when reading script files. When set
               to off (the default), a statement in a transaction block that
               generates an error aborts the entire transaction. The error
               rollback mode works by issuing an implicit SAVEPOINT for you,
               just before each command that is in a transaction block, and then
               rolling back to the savepoint if the command fails.

           ON_ERROR_STOP
               By default, command processing continues after an error. When
               this variable is set to on, processing will instead stop
               immediately. In interactive mode, psql will return to the command
               prompt; otherwise, psql will exit, returning error code 3 to
               distinguish this case from fatal error conditions, which are
               reported using error code 1. In either case, any currently
               running scripts (the top-level script, if any, and any other
               scripts which it may have in invoked) will be terminated
               immediately. If the top-level command string contained multiple
               SQL commands, processing will stop with the current command.

           PORT
               The database server port to which you are currently connected.
               This is set every time you connect to a database (including
               program start-up), but can be changed or unset.

           PROMPT1
           PROMPT2
           PROMPT3
               These specify what the prompts psql issues should look like. See
               Prompting below.

           QUIET
               Setting this variable to on is equivalent to the command line
               option -q. It is probably not too useful in interactive mode.

           ROW_COUNT
               The number of rows returned or affected by the last SQL query, or
               0 if the query failed or did not report a row count.

           SERVER_VERSION_NAME
           SERVER_VERSION_NUM
               The server's version number as a string, for example 9.6.2, 10.1
               or 11beta1, and in numeric form, for example 90602 or 100001.
               These are set every time you connect to a database (including
               program start-up), but can be changed or unset.

           SHOW_CONTEXT
               This variable can be set to the values never, errors, or always
               to control whether CONTEXT fields are displayed in messages from
               the server. The default is errors (meaning that context will be
               shown in error messages, but not in notice or warning messages).
               This setting has no effect when VERBOSITY is set to terse or
               sqlstate. (See also \errverbose, for use when you want a verbose
               version of the error you just got.)

           SINGLELINE
               Setting this variable to on is equivalent to the command line
               option -S.

           SINGLESTEP
               Setting this variable to on is equivalent to the command line
               option -s.

           SQLSTATE
               The error code (see Appendix A) associated with the last SQL
               query's failure, or 00000 if it succeeded.

           USER
               The database user you are currently connected as. This is set
               every time you connect to a database (including program
               start-up), but can be changed or unset.

           VERBOSITY
               This variable can be set to the values default, verbose, terse,
               or sqlstate to control the verbosity of error reports. (See also
               \errverbose, for use when you want a verbose version of the error
               you just got.)

           VERSION
           VERSION_NAME
           VERSION_NUM
               These variables are set at program start-up to reflect psql's
               version, respectively as a verbose string, a short string (e.g.,
               9.6.2, 10.1, or 11beta1), and a number (e.g., 90602 or 100001).
               They can be changed or unset.

       SQL Interpolation
           A key feature of psql variables is that you can substitute
           (“interpolate”) them into regular SQL statements, as well as the
           arguments of meta-commands. Furthermore, psql provides facilities for
           ensuring that variable values used as SQL literals and identifiers
           are properly quoted. The syntax for interpolating a value without any
           quoting is to prepend the variable name with a colon (:). For
           example,

               testdb=> \set foo 'my_table'
               testdb=> SELECT * FROM :foo;

           would query the table my_table. Note that this may be unsafe: the
           value of the variable is copied literally, so it can contain
           unbalanced quotes, or even backslash commands. You must make sure
           that it makes sense where you put it.

           When a value is to be used as an SQL literal or identifier, it is
           safest to arrange for it to be quoted. To quote the value of a
           variable as an SQL literal, write a colon followed by the variable
           name in single quotes. To quote the value as an SQL identifier, write
           a colon followed by the variable name in double quotes. These
           constructs deal correctly with quotes and other special characters
           embedded within the variable value. The previous example would be
           more safely written this way:

               testdb=> \set foo 'my_table'
               testdb=> SELECT * FROM :"foo";

           Variable interpolation will not be performed within quoted SQL
           literals and identifiers. Therefore, a construction such as ':foo'
           doesn't work to produce a quoted literal from a variable's value (and
           it would be unsafe if it did work, since it wouldn't correctly handle
           quotes embedded in the value).

           One example use of this mechanism is to copy the contents of a file
           into a table column. First load the file into a variable and then
           interpolate the variable's value as a quoted string:

               testdb=> \set content `cat my_file.txt`
               testdb=> INSERT INTO my_table VALUES (:'content');

           (Note that this still won't work if my_file.txt contains NUL bytes.
           psql does not support embedded NUL bytes in variable values.)

           Since colons can legally appear in SQL commands, an apparent attempt
           at interpolation (that is, :name, :'name', or :"name") is not
           replaced unless the named variable is currently set. In any case, you
           can escape a colon with a backslash to protect it from substitution.

           The :{?name} special syntax returns TRUE or FALSE depending on
           whether the variable exists or not, and is thus always substituted,
           unless the colon is backslash-escaped.

           The colon syntax for variables is standard SQL for embedded query
           languages, such as ECPG. The colon syntaxes for array slices and type
           casts are PostgreSQL extensions, which can sometimes conflict with
           the standard usage. The colon-quote syntax for escaping a variable's
           value as an SQL literal or identifier is a psql extension.

       Prompting
           The prompts psql issues can be customized to your preference. The
           three variables PROMPT1, PROMPT2, and PROMPT3 contain strings and
           special escape sequences that describe the appearance of the prompt.
           Prompt 1 is the normal prompt that is issued when psql requests a new
           command. Prompt 2 is issued when more input is expected during
           command entry, for example because the command was not terminated
           with a semicolon or a quote was not closed. Prompt 3 is issued when
           you are running an SQL COPY FROM STDIN command and you need to type
           in a row value on the terminal.

           The value of the selected prompt variable is printed literally,
           except where a percent sign (%) is encountered. Depending on the next
           character, certain other text is substituted instead. Defined
           substitutions are:

           %M
               The full host name (with domain name) of the database server, or
               [local] if the connection is over a Unix domain socket, or
               [local:/dir/name], if the Unix domain socket is not at the
               compiled in default location.

           %m
               The host name of the database server, truncated at the first dot,
               or [local] if the connection is over a Unix domain socket.

           %>
               The port number at which the database server is listening.

           %n
               The database session user name. (The expansion of this value
               might change during a database session as the result of the
               command SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION.)

           %/
               The name of the current database.

           %~
               Like %/, but the output is ~ (tilde) if the database is your
               default database.

           %#
               If the session user is a database superuser, then a #, otherwise
               a >. (The expansion of this value might change during a database
               session as the result of the command SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION.)

           %p
               The process ID of the backend currently connected to.

           %R
               In prompt 1 normally =, but @ if the session is in an inactive
               branch of a conditional block, or ^ if in single-line mode, or !
               if the session is disconnected from the database (which can
               happen if \connect fails). In prompt 2 %R is replaced by a
               character that depends on why psql expects more input: - if the
               command simply wasn't terminated yet, but * if there is an
               unfinished /* ... */ comment, a single quote if there is an
               unfinished quoted string, a double quote if there is an
               unfinished quoted identifier, a dollar sign if there is an
               unfinished dollar-quoted string, or ( if there is an unmatched
               left parenthesis. In prompt 3 %R doesn't produce anything.

           %x
               Transaction status: an empty string when not in a transaction
               block, or * when in a transaction block, or !  when in a failed
               transaction block, or ?  when the transaction state is
               indeterminate (for example, because there is no connection).

           %l
               The line number inside the current statement, starting from 1.

           %digits
               The character with the indicated octal code is substituted.

           %:name:
               The value of the psql variable name. See the section Variables
               for details.

           %`command`
               The output of command, similar to ordinary “back-tick”
               substitution.

           %[ ... %]
               Prompts can contain terminal control characters which, for
               example, change the color, background, or style of the prompt
               text, or change the title of the terminal window. In order for
               the line editing features of Readline to work properly, these
               non-printing control characters must be designated as invisible
               by surrounding them with %[ and %]. Multiple pairs of these can
               occur within the prompt. For example:

                   testdb=> \set PROMPT1 '%[%033[1;33;40m%]%n@%/%R%[%033[0m%]%# '

               results in a boldfaced (1;) yellow-on-black (33;40) prompt on
               VT100-compatible, color-capable terminals.
           To insert a percent sign into your prompt, write %%. The default
           prompts are '%/%R%# ' for prompts 1 and 2, and '>> ' for prompt 3.

               Note
               This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from tcsh.

       Command-Line Editing
           psql supports the Readline library for convenient line editing and
           retrieval. The command history is automatically saved when psql exits
           and is reloaded when psql starts up. Tab-completion is also
           supported, although the completion logic makes no claim to be an SQL
           parser. The queries generated by tab-completion can also interfere
           with other SQL commands, e.g.  SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL. If
           for some reason you do not like the tab completion, you can turn it
           off by putting this in a file named .inputrc in your home directory:

               $if psql
               set disable-completion on
               $endif

           (This is not a psql but a Readline feature. Read its documentation
           for further details.)

ENVIRONMENT
       COLUMNS
           If \pset columns is zero, controls the width for the wrapped format
           and width for determining if wide output requires the pager or should
           be switched to the vertical format in expanded auto mode.

       PGDATABASE
       PGHOST
       PGPORT
       PGUSER
           Default connection parameters (see Section 33.14).

       PG_COLOR
           Specifies whether to use color in diagnostic messages. Possible
           values are always, auto and never.

       PSQL_EDITOR
       EDITOR
       VISUAL
           Editor used by the \e, \ef, and \ev commands. These variables are
           examined in the order listed; the first that is set is used. If none
           of them is set, the default is to use vi on Unix systems or
           notepad.exe on Windows systems.

       PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG
           When \e, \ef, or \ev is used with a line number argument, this
           variable specifies the command-line argument used to pass the
           starting line number to the user's editor. For editors such as Emacs
           or vi, this is a plus sign. Include a trailing space in the value of
           the variable if there needs to be space between the option name and
           the line number. Examples:

               PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG='+'
               PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG='--line '

           The default is + on Unix systems (corresponding to the default editor
           vi, and useful for many other common editors); but there is no
           default on Windows systems.

       PSQL_HISTORY
           Alternative location for the command history file. Tilde (~)
           expansion is performed.

       PSQL_PAGER
       PAGER
           If a query's results do not fit on the screen, they are piped through
           this command. Typical values are more or less. Use of the pager can
           be disabled by setting PSQL_PAGER or PAGER to an empty string, or by
           adjusting the pager-related options of the \pset command. These
           variables are examined in the order listed; the first that is set is
           used. If none of them is set, the default is to use more on most
           platforms, but less on Cygwin.

       PSQLRC
           Alternative location of the user's .psqlrc file. Tilde (~) expansion
           is performed.

       SHELL
           Command executed by the \!  command.

       TMPDIR
           Directory for storing temporary files. The default is /tmp.

       This utility, like most other PostgreSQL utilities, also uses the
       environment variables supported by libpq (see Section 33.14).

FILES
       psqlrc and ~/.psqlrc
           Unless it is passed an -X option, psql attempts to read and execute
           commands from the system-wide startup file (psqlrc) and then the
           user's personal startup file (~/.psqlrc), after connecting to the
           database but before accepting normal commands. These files can be
           used to set up the client and/or the server to taste, typically with
           \set and SET commands.

           The system-wide startup file is named psqlrc and is sought in the
           installation's “system configuration” directory, which is most
           reliably identified by running pg_config --sysconfdir. By default
           this directory will be ../etc/ relative to the directory containing
           the PostgreSQL executables. The name of this directory can be set
           explicitly via the PGSYSCONFDIR environment variable.

           The user's personal startup file is named .psqlrc and is sought in
           the invoking user's home directory. On Windows, which lacks such a
           concept, the personal startup file is named
           %APPDATA%\postgresql\psqlrc.conf. The location of the user's startup
           file can be set explicitly via the PSQLRC environment variable.

           Both the system-wide startup file and the user's personal startup
           file can be made psql-version-specific by appending a dash and the
           PostgreSQL major or minor release number to the file name, for
           example ~/.psqlrc-9.2 or ~/.psqlrc-9.2.5. The most specific
           version-matching file will be read in preference to a
           non-version-specific file.

       .psql_history
           The command-line history is stored in the file ~/.psql_history, or
           %APPDATA%\postgresql\psql_history on Windows.

           The location of the history file can be set explicitly via the
           HISTFILE psql variable or the PSQL_HISTORY environment variable.

NOTES
       •   psql works best with servers of the same or an older major version.
           Backslash commands are particularly likely to fail if the server is
           of a newer version than psql itself. However, backslash commands of
           the \d family should work with servers of versions back to 7.4,
           though not necessarily with servers newer than psql itself. The
           general functionality of running SQL commands and displaying query
           results should also work with servers of a newer major version, but
           this cannot be guaranteed in all cases.

           If you want to use psql to connect to several servers of different
           major versions, it is recommended that you use the newest version of
           psql. Alternatively, you can keep around a copy of psql from each
           major version and be sure to use the version that matches the
           respective server. But in practice, this additional complication
           should not be necessary.

       •   Before PostgreSQL 9.6, the -c option implied -X (--no-psqlrc); this
           is no longer the case.

       •   Before PostgreSQL 8.4, psql allowed the first argument of a
           single-letter backslash command to start directly after the command,
           without intervening whitespace. Now, some whitespace is required.

NOTES FOR WINDOWS USERS
       psql is built as a “console application”. Since the Windows console
       windows use a different encoding than the rest of the system, you must
       take special care when using 8-bit characters within psql. If psql
       detects a problematic console code page, it will warn you at startup. To
       change the console code page, two things are necessary:

       •   Set the code page by entering cmd.exe /c chcp 1252. (1252 is a code
           page that is appropriate for German; replace it with your value.) If
           you are using Cygwin, you can put this command in /etc/profile.

       •   Set the console font to Lucida Console, because the raster font does
           not work with the ANSI code page.

EXAMPLES
       The first example shows how to spread a command over several lines of
       input. Notice the changing prompt:

           testdb=> CREATE TABLE my_table (
           testdb(>  first integer not null default 0,
           testdb(>  second text)
           testdb-> ;
           CREATE TABLE

       Now look at the table definition again:

           testdb=> \d my_table
                         Table "public.my_table"
            Column |  Type   | Collation | Nullable | Default
           --------+---------+-----------+----------+---------
            first  | integer |           | not null | 0
            second | text    |           |          |

       Now we change the prompt to something more interesting:

           testdb=> \set PROMPT1 '%n@%m %~%R%# '
           peter@localhost testdb=>

       Let's assume you have filled the table with data and want to take a look
       at it:

           peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
            first | second
           -------+--------
                1 | one
                2 | two
                3 | three
                4 | four
           (4 rows)


       You can display tables in different ways by using the \pset command:

           peter@localhost testdb=> \pset border 2
           Border style is 2.
           peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
           +-------+--------+
           | first | second |
           +-------+--------+
           |     1 | one    |
           |     2 | two    |
           |     3 | three  |
           |     4 | four   |
           +-------+--------+
           (4 rows)

           peter@localhost testdb=> \pset border 0
           Border style is 0.
           peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
           first second
           ----- ------
               1 one
               2 two
               3 three
               4 four
           (4 rows)

           peter@localhost testdb=> \pset border 1
           Border style is 1.
           peter@localhost testdb=> \pset format csv
           Output format is csv.
           peter@localhost testdb=> \pset tuples_only
           Tuples only is on.
           peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT second, first FROM my_table;
           one,1
           two,2
           three,3
           four,4
           peter@localhost testdb=> \pset format unaligned
           Output format is unaligned.
           peter@localhost testdb=> \pset fieldsep '\t'
           Field separator is "    ".
           peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT second, first FROM my_table;
           one     1
           two     2
           three   3
           four    4

       Alternatively, use the short commands:

           peter@localhost testdb=> \a \t \x
           Output format is aligned.
           Tuples only is off.
           Expanded display is on.
           peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
           -[ RECORD 1 ]-
           first  | 1
           second | one
           -[ RECORD 2 ]-
           first  | 2
           second | two
           -[ RECORD 3 ]-
           first  | 3
           second | three
           -[ RECORD 4 ]-
           first  | 4
           second | four

       When suitable, query results can be shown in a crosstab representation
       with the \crosstabview command:

           testdb=> SELECT first, second, first > 2 AS gt2 FROM my_table;
            first | second | gt2
           -------+--------+-----
                1 | one    | f
                2 | two    | f
                3 | three  | t
                4 | four   | t
           (4 rows)

           testdb=> \crosstabview first second
            first | one | two | three | four
           -------+-----+-----+-------+------
                1 | f   |     |       |
                2 |     | f   |       |
                3 |     |     | t     |
                4 |     |     |       | t
           (4 rows)

       This second example shows a multiplication table with rows sorted in
       reverse numerical order and columns with an independent, ascending
       numerical order.

           testdb=> SELECT t1.first as "A", t2.first+100 AS "B", t1.first*(t2.first+100) as "AxB",
           testdb(> row_number() over(order by t2.first) AS ord
           testdb(> FROM my_table t1 CROSS JOIN my_table t2 ORDER BY 1 DESC
           testdb(> \crosstabview "A" "B" "AxB" ord
            A | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104
           ---+-----+-----+-----+-----
            4 | 404 | 408 | 412 | 416
            3 | 303 | 306 | 309 | 312
            2 | 202 | 204 | 206 | 208
            1 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104
           (4 rows)





PostgreSQL 12.4                       2020                               PSQL(1)