pthread_mutexattr_destroy

PTHREAD_MUTEXATTR_DESTROY(3POSIX Programmer's ManPTHREAD_MUTEXATTR_DESTROY(3P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding
       Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.


NAME
       pthread_mutexattr_destroy, pthread_mutexattr_init — destroy and
       initialize the mutex attributes object

SYNOPSIS
       #include <pthread.h>

       int pthread_mutexattr_destroy(pthread_mutexattr_t *attr);
       int pthread_mutexattr_init(pthread_mutexattr_t *attr);

DESCRIPTION
       The pthread_mutexattr_destroy() function shall destroy a mutex
       attributes object; the object becomes, in effect, uninitialized. An
       implementation may cause pthread_mutexattr_destroy() to set the object
       referenced by attr to an invalid value.

       A destroyed attr attributes object can be reinitialized using
       pthread_mutexattr_init(); the results of otherwise referencing the
       object after it has been destroyed are undefined.

       The pthread_mutexattr_init() function shall initialize a mutex
       attributes object attr with the default value for all of the attributes
       defined by the implementation.

       Results are undefined if pthread_mutexattr_init() is called specifying
       an already initialized attr attributes object.

       After a mutex attributes object has been used to initialize one or more
       mutexes, any function affecting the attributes object (including
       destruction) shall not affect any previously initialized mutexes.

       The behavior is undefined if the value specified by the attr argument
       to pthread_mutexattr_destroy() does not refer to an initialized mutex
       attributes object.

RETURN VALUE
       Upon successful completion, pthread_mutexattr_destroy() and
       pthread_mutexattr_init() shall return zero; otherwise, an error number
       shall be returned to indicate the error.

ERRORS
       The pthread_mutexattr_init() function shall fail if:

       ENOMEM Insufficient memory exists to initialize the mutex attributes
              object.

       These functions shall not return an error code of [EINTR].

       The following sections are informative.

EXAMPLES
       None.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

RATIONALE
       If an implementation detects that the value specified by the attr
       argument to pthread_mutexattr_destroy() does not refer to an
       initialized mutex attributes object, it is recommended that the
       function should fail and report an [EINVAL] error.

       See pthread_attr_destroy() for a general explanation of attributes.
       Attributes objects allow implementations to experiment with useful
       extensions and permit extension of this volume of POSIX.1‐2008 without
       changing the existing functions. Thus, they provide for future
       extensibility of this volume of POSIX.1‐2008 and reduce the temptation
       to standardize prematurely on semantics that are not yet widely
       implemented or understood.

       Examples of possible additional mutex attributes that have been
       discussed are spin_only, limited_spin, no_spin, recursive, and metered.
       (To explain what the latter attributes might mean: recursive mutexes
       would allow for multiple re-locking by the current owner; metered
       mutexes would transparently keep records of queue length, wait time,
       and so on.) Since there is not yet wide agreement on the usefulness of
       these resulting from shared implementation and usage experience, they
       are not yet specified in this volume of POSIX.1‐2008. Mutex attributes
       objects, however, make it possible to test out these concepts for
       possible standardization at a later time.

   Mutex Attributes and Performance
       Care has been taken to ensure that the default values of the mutex
       attributes have been defined such that mutexes initialized with the
       defaults have simple enough semantics so that the locking and unlocking
       can be done with the equivalent of a test-and-set instruction (plus
       possibly a few other basic instructions).

       There is at least one implementation method that can be used to reduce
       the cost of testing at lock-time if a mutex has non-default attributes.
       One such method that an implementation can employ (and this can be made
       fully transparent to fully conforming POSIX applications) is to
       secretly pre-lock any mutexes that are initialized to non-default
       attributes. Any later attempt to lock such a mutex causes the
       implementation to branch to the ``slow path'' as if the mutex were
       unavailable; then, on the slow path, the implementation can do the
       ``real work'' to lock a non-default mutex. The underlying unlock
       operation is more complicated since the implementation never really
       wants to release the pre-lock on this kind of mutex. This illustrates
       that, depending on the hardware, there may be certain optimizations
       that can be used so that whatever mutex attributes are considered
       ``most frequently used'' can be processed most efficiently.

   Process Shared Memory and Synchronization
       The existence of memory mapping functions in this volume of
       POSIX.1‐2008 leads to the possibility that an application may allocate
       the synchronization objects from this section in memory that is
       accessed by multiple processes (and therefore, by threads of multiple
       processes).

       In order to permit such usage, while at the same time keeping the usual
       case (that is, usage within a single process) efficient, a process-
       shared option has been defined.

       If an implementation supports the _POSIX_THREAD_PROCESS_SHARED option,
       then the process-shared attribute can be used to indicate that mutexes
       or condition variables may be accessed by threads of multiple
       processes.

       The default setting of PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE has been chosen for the
       process-shared attribute so that the most efficient forms of these
       synchronization objects are created by default.

       Synchronization variables that are initialized with the
       PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE process-shared attribute may only be operated
       on by threads in the process that initialized them. Synchronization
       variables that are initialized with the PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED process-
       shared attribute may be operated on by any thread in any process that
       has access to it. In particular, these processes may exist beyond the
       lifetime of the initializing process. For example, the following code
       implements a simple counting semaphore in a mapped file that may be
       used by many processes.

           /* sem.h */
           struct semaphore {
               pthread_mutex_t lock;
               pthread_cond_t nonzero;
               unsigned count;
           };
           typedef struct semaphore semaphore_t;

           semaphore_t *semaphore_create(char *semaphore_name);
           semaphore_t *semaphore_open(char *semaphore_name);
           void semaphore_post(semaphore_t *semap);
           void semaphore_wait(semaphore_t *semap);
           void semaphore_close(semaphore_t *semap);

           /* sem.c */
           #include <sys/types.h>
           #include <sys/stat.h>
           #include <sys/mman.h>
           #include <fcntl.h>
           #include <pthread.h>
           #include "sem.h"

           semaphore_t *
           semaphore_create(char *semaphore_name)
           {
           int fd;
               semaphore_t *semap;
               pthread_mutexattr_t psharedm;
               pthread_condattr_t psharedc;

               fd = open(semaphore_name, O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_EXCL, 0666);
               if (fd < 0)
                   return (NULL);
               (void) ftruncate(fd, sizeof(semaphore_t));
               (void) pthread_mutexattr_init(&psharedm);
               (void) pthread_mutexattr_setpshared(&psharedm,
                   PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED);
               (void) pthread_condattr_init(&psharedc);
               (void) pthread_condattr_setpshared(&psharedc,
                   PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED);
               semap = (semaphore_t *) mmap(NULL, sizeof(semaphore_t),
                       PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED,
                       fd, 0);
               close (fd);
               (void) pthread_mutex_init(&semap->lock, &psharedm);
               (void) pthread_cond_init(&semap->nonzero, &psharedc);
               semap->count = 0;
               return (semap);
           }

           semaphore_t *
           semaphore_open(char *semaphore_name)
           {
               int fd;
               semaphore_t *semap;

               fd = open(semaphore_name, O_RDWR, 0666);
               if (fd < 0)
                   return (NULL);
               semap = (semaphore_t *) mmap(NULL, sizeof(semaphore_t),
                       PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED,
                       fd, 0);
               close (fd);
               return (semap);
           }

           void
           semaphore_post(semaphore_t *semap)
           {
               pthread_mutex_lock(&semap->lock);
               if (semap->count == 0)
                   pthread_cond_signal(&semapx->nonzero);
               semap->count++;
               pthread_mutex_unlock(&semap->lock);
           }

           void
           semaphore_wait(semaphore_t *semap)
           {
               pthread_mutex_lock(&semap->lock);
               while (semap->count == 0)
                   pthread_cond_wait(&semap->nonzero, &semap->lock);
               semap->count--;
               pthread_mutex_unlock(&semap->lock);
           }

           void
           semaphore_close(semaphore_t *semap)
           {
               munmap((void *) semap, sizeof(semaphore_t));
           }

       The following code is for three separate processes that create, post,
       and wait on a semaphore in the file /tmp/semaphore.  Once the file is
       created, the post and wait programs increment and decrement the
       counting semaphore (waiting and waking as required) even though they
       did not initialize the semaphore.

           /* create.c */
           #include "pthread.h"
           #include "sem.h"

           int
           main()
           {
               semaphore_t *semap;

               semap = semaphore_create("/tmp/semaphore");
               if (semap == NULL)
                   exit(1);
               semaphore_close(semap);
               return (0);
           }

           /* post */
           #include "pthread.h"
           #include "sem.h"

           int
           main()
           {
               semaphore_t *semap;

               semap = semaphore_open("/tmp/semaphore");
               if (semap == NULL)
                   exit(1);
               semaphore_post(semap);
               semaphore_close(semap);
               return (0);
           }

           /* wait */
           #include "pthread.h"
           #include "sem.h"

           int
           main()
           {
               semaphore_t *semap;

               semap = semaphore_open("/tmp/semaphore");
               if (semap == NULL)
                   exit(1);
               semaphore_wait(semap);
               semaphore_close(semap);
               return (0);
           }

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       pthread_cond_destroy(), pthread_create(), pthread_mutex_destroy()

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, <pthread.h>

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of
       Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group.  (This is
       POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
       is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online
       at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source
       files to man page format. To report such errors, see
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2013        PTHREAD_MUTEXATTR_DESTROY(3P)