RA(1)                       General Commands Manual                      RA(1)

       ra - read argus(8) data.

       Copyright (c) 2000-2003 QoSient. All rights reserved.

       ra [raoptions] [- filter-expression]

       Ra reads argus(8) data from either stdin, an argus-file, or from a
       remote argus-server, filters the records it encounters based on an
       optional filter-expression  and either prints the contents of the
       argus(5) records that it encounters to stdout or writes them out into
       an argus(5) datafile.

       -A  When generating ASCII output, print the application byte counts.

       -b  Dump the compiled transaction-matching code to standard output and
           stop.  This is useful for debugging filter expressions.

       -C [host:]<portnum>
           Indicate the optional host and required port number for the remote
           Cisco Netflow record source.  This will cause ra(1) to open a UDP
           socket, binding on the host and supplied port, and attempt to read
           Cisco Netflow records from the open socket.

       -d <bytes>
           Print specified number of <bytes> from the user data capture
           buffer.  The <bytes> value can be a number, or an expression that
           specifies the number of bytes for either the source or destination
           buffer.  Formats include:
              -d 32      print 32 bytes from the src and dst buffer
              -d s24     print 24 bytes from the src buffer
              -d d16     print 16 bytes from the dst buffer
              -d s32:d8  print 32 bytes from the src buffer and
                                8 bytes from the dst buffer

       -D <level>
           Print debug information corresponding to <level> to stderr, if
           program compiled to support debug printing.  As the level
           increases, so does the amount of debug information ra(1) will
           print.  Values range from 1-8.

       -E <file>
           When using a filter expression at the end of the command, this
           option will cause ra(1) to write the records that are rejected by
           the filter into <file>

       -F <conffile>
           Use <conffile> as a source of configuration information.  The
           format of this file is identical to rarc(5).  The data read from
           <conffile> overrides any prior configuration information.

       -h  Print an explanation of all the arguments.

       -n  Do not translate host and service numbers to names. -nn will
           suppress translation of protocol numbers, as well.

       -p <digits>
           Print <digits> number of units of precision for fraction of time.

       -q  Run in quiet mode. Configure Ra to not print out the contents of
           records.  This can be used with the -T and -a options to support
           aggregate activity without printing each input record.

       -r <file file ...> -
           Read data from <files> in the order presented on the commandline.
           '-' denotes stdin.  Because this option can have many arguments, it
           must be terminated with a '-'.  The '-' of subsequent options is
           sufficient.  Ra can read gzip(1), bzip2(1) and compress(1)
           compressed data files.

       -R  Print response data when available. This option applies to ICMP,
           arp and BOOTP traffic to indicate the responses to these protocol
           specific queries.

       -s <[-][[+[#]]field ...> -
           Specify the fields to print. Ra uses a default printing field list,
           by specifying a field you can replace this list completely, or you
           can modify the existing default print list, using the optional '-'
           and '+[#]' form of the command.  The available fields to print are:

              startime, lasttime, count, dur, avgdur,
              saddr, daddr, proto, sport, dport, ipid,
              stos, dtos, sttl, dttl, bytes, sbytes, dbytes,
              pkts, spkts, dpkts, load, loss, rate,
              srcid, ind, mac, dir, jitter, status, user,
              win, trans, seq, vlan, mpls

           Examles are:
              -s srcaddr    print only the source address.
              -s -bytes     removes the bytes field from list.
              -s +2srcid    adds MAC addresses as the 2nd field.
              -s mac pkts   prints MAC addresses and src and dst pkt counts.

       -S <host[:portnum]>
           Specify a remote argus-server <host>. Use the optional

       -t <timerange>
           Specify the <time range> for matching argus(5) records. The syntax
           for the <time range> is:

           timeSpecification: [[[yyyy/]mm/]dd.]hh[:mm[:ss]]

           Examples are:
              -t 14             matches 2pm-3pm any day
              -t 23.11:10-14    11:10:00 - 2pm on the 23rd
              -t 11/23          all records on Nov 23rd
              -t 1999/01/23.10  10-11am on Jan, 23, 1999
              -t -10m           matches 10 minutes before to the present
              -t -2h5m-2h       matches range between 2 hours 5 minutes before
                                until 2 hours before.

       -T <secs>
           Read argus(5) from remote server for <secs> of time.

       -u  Write out time values using UTC time format.

       -w <file>
           Write out matching data to <file>, in argus file format. An output-
           file of '-' directs ra to write the argus(5) records to stdout,
           allowing for "chaining" ra* style commands together.

       -z  Print Argus TCP state changes for each tcp transaction. Values are
             's' - Syn Transmitted
             'S' - Syn Acknowledged
             'E' - TCP Established
             'f' - Fin Transmitted  (FIN Wait State 1)
             'F' - Fin Acknowledged (FIN Wait State 2)
             'R' - TCP Reset

       -Z <s|d|b>
           Print actual TCP flag values. <'s'rc | 'd'st | 'b'oth>.
             'F' - Fin
             'S' - Syn
             'R' - Reset
             'P' - Push
             'A' - Ack
             'U' - Urgent Pointer
             '7' - Undefined 7th bit set
             '8' - Undefined 8th bit set

       If arguments remain after option processing, the collection is
       interpreted as a single filter expression.  In order to indicate the
       end of arguments, a '-' is recommended before the filter expression is
       added to the command line.
       The filter expression specifies which argus(5) records will be selected
       for processing.  If no expression is given, all records are selected,
       otherwise, only those records for which expression is `true' will be

       The syntax is very similar to the expression syntax for tcpdump(1), as
       the tcpdump compiler was the basis for the argus(5) filter expression
       compiler.  The semantics for tcpdump(1)'s packet filter expression are
       different when applied to transaction record filtering, so there are
       some major differences.

       The expression consists of one or more primitives.  Primitives usually
       consist of an id (name or number) preceded by one or more qualifiers.
       There are three different kinds of qualifier:

       type   qualifiers say what kind of thing the id name or number refers
              to.  Possible types are srcid, host, net, port, tos, ttl, vid,
              and mid.

              E.g., `srcid isis`, `host sphynx', `net 192.168', `port domain',
              `ttl 1'.  If there is no type qualifier, host is assumed.

       dir    qualifiers specify a particular transfer direction to and/or
              from an id.  Possible directions are src, dst, src or dst and
              src and dst.  E.g., `src sphynx', `dst net 192.168', `src or dst
              port ftp', `src and dst tos 0x0a', `src or dst vid 0x12`.  If
              there is no dir qualifier, src or dst is assumed.

       proto  qualifiers restrict the match to a particular protocol.
              Possible values are those specified in the /etc/protocols system
              file.  When preceeded by ether, the protocol names and numbers
              that are valid are specified in ./include/ethernames.h.

       In addition to the above, there are some special `primitive' keywords
       that don't follow the pattern: gateway, multicast, and broadcast.  All
       of these are described below.

       More complex filter expressions are built up by using the words and, or
       and not to combine primitives.  E.g., `host foo and not port ftp and
       not port ftp-data'.  To save typing, identical qualifier lists can be
       omitted.  E.g., `tcp dst port ftp or ftp-data or domain' is exactly the
       same as `tcp dst port ftp or tcp dst port ftp-data or tcp dst port

       Allowable primitives are:

       srcid argusid
              True if the argus identifier field of the Argus record is srcid,
              which may be an IP address, a name or a decimal/hexidecimal

       dst host host
              True if the IP destination field of the Argus record is host,
              which may be either an address or a name.

       src host host
              True if the IP source field of the Argus record is host.

       host host
              True if either the IP source or destination of the Argus record
              is host.  Any of the above host expressions can be prepended
              with the keywords, ip, arp, or rarp as in:
                   ip host host
              which is equivalent to:
                   ether proto \ip and host host
              If host is a name with multiple IP addresses, each address will
              be checked for a match.

       ether dst ehost
              True if the ethernet destination address is ehost.  Ehost may be
              either a name from /etc/ethers or a number (see ethers(3N) for
              numeric format).

       ether src ehost
              True if the ethernet source address is ehost.

       ether host ehost
              True if either the ethernet source or destination address is

       gateway host
              True if the transaction used host as a gateway.  I.e., the
              ethernet source or destination address was host but neither the
              IP source nor the IP destination was host.  Host must be a name
              and must be found in both /etc/hosts and /etc/ethers.  (An
              equivalent expression is
                   ether host ehost and not host host
              which can be used with either names or numbers for host /

       dst net net
              True if the IP destination address of the Argus record has a
              network number of net, which may be either an address or a name.

       src net net
              True if the IP source address of the Argus record has a network
              number of net.

       net net
              True if either the IP source or destination address of the Argus
              record has a network number of net.

       dst port port
              True if the network transaction is ip/tcp or ip/udp and has a
              destination port value of port.  The port can be a number or a
              name used in /etc/services (see tcp(4P) and udp(4P)).  If a name
              is used, both the port number and protocol are checked.  If a
              number or ambiguous name is used, only the port number is
              checked (e.g., dst port 513 will print both tcp/login traffic
              and udp/who traffic, and port domain will print both tcp/domain
              and udp/domain traffic).

       src port port
              True if the network transaction has a source port value of port.

       port port
              True if either the source or destination port of the Argus
              record is port.  Any of the above port expressions can be
              prepended with the keywords, tcp or udp, as in:
                   tcp src port port
              which matches only tcp connections.

       ip proto protocol
              True if the Argus record is an ip transaction (see ip(4P)) of
              protocol type protocol.  Protocol can be a number or any of the
              string values found in /etc/protocolsk.

              True if the network transaction involved an ip multicast
              address.  By specifing ether multicast, you can select argus
              records that involve an ethernet multicast address.

              True if the network transaction involved an ip broadcast
              address.  By specifing ether broadcast, you can select argus
              records that involve an ethernet broadcast address.

       ether proto protocol
              True if the Argus record is of ether type protocol.  Protocol
              can be a number or a name like ip, arp, or rarp.  Note these
              identifiers are also keywords and must be escaped via backslash

       dst ttl number
              True if the destination TTL of the Argus record equals number.

       src ttl number
              True if the source TTL of the Argus record equals number.

       ttl number
              True if either the source or destination TTL of the Argus record
              equals number.

       dst tos number
              True if the destination TOS of the Argus record equals number.

       src tos number
              True if the source TOS of the Argus record equals number.

       tos number
              True if either the source or destination TOS of the Argus record
              equals number.

       dst vid number
              True if the destination VLAN id of the Argus record equals

       src vid number
              True if the source VLAN id of the Argus record equals number.

       vid number
              True if either the source or destination VLAN id of the Argus
              record equals number.

       dst mid number
              True if the destination MPLS Label of the Argus record equals

       src mid number
              True if the source MPLS Label of the Argus record equals number.

       mid number
              True if either the source or destination MPLS Label of the Argus
              record equals number.

       Ra filter expressions support primitives that are specific to flow
       states and can be used to select flow records that were in these states
       at the time they were generated.  normal, wait, timeout, est or con

       Primitives that select flows that experienced fragmentation.  frag and

       Support for selecting flows that used multiple pairs of MAC addresses
       during their lifetime.  multipath

       Primitives specific to TCP flows are supported.  syn, synack, data,
       ecn, fin, finack, reset, retrans, outoforder and winshut

       Primitives specific to ICMP flows are supported.  echo, unreach,
       redirect and timexed

       For some primitives, a direction qualifier is appropriate.  These are
       frag, reset, retrans, outoforder and winshut

       Primitives may be combined using:

              A parenthesized group of primitives and operators (parentheses
              are special to the Shell and must be escaped).

              Negation (`!' or `not').

              Concatenation (`and').

              Alternation (`or').

       Negation has highest precedence.  Alternation and concatenation have
       equal precedence and associate left to right.  Note that explicit and
       tokens, not juxtaposition, are now required for concatenation.

       If an identifier is given without a keyword, the most recent keyword is
       assumed.  For example,
            not host sphynx and anubis
       is short for
            not host sphynx and host anubis
       which should not be confused with
            not ( host sphynx or anubis )

       Expression arguments can be passed to ra(1) as either a single argument
       or as multiple arguments, whichever is more convenient.  Generally, if
       the expression contains Shell metacharacters, it is easier to pass it
       as a single, quoted argument.  Multiple arguments are concatenated with
       spaces before being parsed.

   Startup Processing
       Ra begins by searching for the configuration file .rarc first in the
       directory, $ARGUSHOME and then $HOME.  If a .rarc is found, all
       variables specified in the file are set.

       Ra then parses its command line options and set its internal variables

       If a configuration file is specified on the command-line, using the "-f
       <confile>" option, the values in this .rarc formatted file superceed
       all other values.

       To report all TCP transactions from and to host 'narly.wave.com',
       reading transaction data from argus-file argus.data:
              ra -r argus.data - tcp and host narly.wave.com

       Create the argus-file icmp.log with all ICMP events involving the host
       nimrod, using data from argus-file, but reading the transaction data
       from stdin:
              cat argus-file | ra -r - -w icmp.log - icmp and host nimrod

       The following is a brief description of the output format of ra which
       reports transaction data in various levels of detail.  The general
       format is:
                time proto  srchost  dir  dsthost  [count] status

           The format of the time field is specified by the .rarc file, using
           syntax supported by the routine localtime(3V).  The default is
           Argus transaction data contains both starting and ending
           transaction times, with precision to the microsecond. However, ra
           prints out only one of these dates depending on the status of the
           argus server.  When the argus server is running in default mode, ra
           reports the transaction starting time.  When the server is in
           DETAIL mode, the transaction ending time is reported.

           mac.addr is an optional field, specified using the -m flag.
           mac.addr represents the first source and destination MAC addresses
           seen for a particular transaction.  These addresses are paired with
           the host.port fields, so the direction indicator is needed to
           distinguish between the source and destination MAC addresses.

       proto [options protocol]
           The proto indicator consists of two fields. The first is protocol
           specific and the designations are:
             m       -  MPLS encapsulated flow
             q       -  802.1Q encapsulated flow
             p       -  PPP over Enternet encapsulated flow
             E       -  Multiple encapsulations/tags
              s      -  Src TCP packet retransmissions
              d      -  Dst TCP packet retransmissions
              *      -  Both Src and Dst TCP retransmissions
              i      -  Src TCP packets out of order
              r      -  Dst TCP packets out of order
              &      -  Both Src and Dst packet out of order
               S     -  Src TCP Window Closure
               D     -  Dst TCP Window Closure
               @     -  Both Src and Dst Window Closure
               x     -  Src TCP Explicit Congestion Notification
               t     -  Dst TCP ECN
               E     -  Both Src and Dst ECN
                M    -  Multiple physical layer paths
                 I   -  ICMP event mapped to this flow
                  S  -  IP option Strict Source Route
                  L  -  IP option Loose Source Route
                  T  -  IP option Time Stamp
                  +  -  IP option Security
                  R  -  IP option Record Route
                  A  -  IP option Router Alert
                  O  -  multiple IP options set
                  E  -  unknown IP options set
                   F -  Fragments seen
                   f -  Partial Fragment
                   V -  Fragment overlap seen

           The second field indicates the upper protocol used in the
           transaction.  This field will contain the first 4 characters of the
           official name for the protocol used, as defined in RFC-1700.  Argus
           attempts to discovery the Realtime Transport Protocol, when it is
           being used.  When it encounters RTP, it will indicate its use in
           this field, with the string 'rtp'.  Use of the -n option, twice
           (-nn), will cause the actual protocol number to be displayed.

           The host field is protocol dependent, and for all protocols will
           contain the IP address/name.  For TCP and UDP, the field will also
           contain the port number/name, separated by a period.

          The dir field will have the direction of the transaction, as can be
          best determined from the datum, and is used to indicate which hosts
          are transmitting. For TCP, the dir field indicates the actual source
          of the TCP connection, and the center character indicating the state
          of the transaction.
               -  - transaction was NORMAL
               |  - transaction was RESET
               o  - transaction TIMED OUT.
               ?  - direction of transaction is unknown.

           count is an optional field, specified using the -c option.  There
           are 4 fields that are produced.  The first 2 are the packet counts
           and the last 2 are the byte counts for the specific transaction.
           The fields are paired with the previous host fields, and represent
           the packets transmitted by the respective host.

           The status field indicates the principle status for the transaction
           report, and is protocol dependent.  For all the protocols, except
           ICMP, this field reports on the basic state of a transaction.

         REQ|INT (requested|initial)
           This indicates that this is the initial status report for a
           transaction and is seen only when the argus-server is in DETAIL
           mode.  For TCP connections this is REQ, indicating that a
           connection is being requested.  For the connectionless protocols,
           such as UDP, this is INT.

         ACC (accepted)
           This indicates that a request/response condition has occurred, and
           that a transaction has been detected between two hosts.  For TCP,
           this indicates that a connection request has been answered, and the
           connection will be accepted.  This is only seen when the argus-
           server is in DETAIL mode.  For the connectionless protocols, this
           state indicates that there has been a single packet exchange
           between two hosts, and could qualify as a request/response

         EST|CON (established|connected)
           This record type indicates that the reported transaction is active,
           and has been established or is continuing.  This should be
           interpreted as a status report of a currently active transaction.
           For TCP, the EST status is only seen in DETAIL mode, and indicates
           that the three way handshake has been completed for a connection.

         CLO (closed)
           TCP specific, this record type indicates that the TCP connection
           has closed normally.

         TIM (timeout)
           Activity was not seen relating to this transaction, during the
           argus server's timeout period for this protocol.  This status is
           seen only when there were packets recorded since the last report
           for this transaction.

       For the ICMP protocol, the status field displays specific aspects of
       the ICMP type.  ICMP status can have the values:

          ECO     Echo Request
          ECR     Echo Reply
          SRC     Source Quench
          RED     Redirect
          RTA     Router Advertisement
          RTS     Router Solicitation
          TXD     Time Exceeded
          PAR     Parameter Problem
          TST     Time Stamp Request
          TSR     Time Stamp Reply
          IRQ     Information Request
          IRR     Information Reply
          MAS     Mask Request
          MSR     Mask Reply
          URN     Unreachable network
          URH     Unreachable host
          URP     Unreachable port
          URF     Unreachable need fragmentation
          URS     Unreachable source failed
          URNU    Unreachable dst network unknown
          URHU    Unreachable dst host unknown
          URISO   Unreachable source host isolated
          URNPRO  Unreachable network administrative prohibited
          URHPRO  Unreachable host administrative prohibited
          URNTOS  Unreachable network TOS prohibited
          URHTOS  Unreachable host TOS prohibited
          URFIL   Unreachable administrative filter
          URPRE   Unreachable precedence violation
          URCUT   Unreachable precedence cutoff

       These examples show typical ra output, and demonstrates a number of
       variations seen in argus data.  This ra output was generated using the
       -n option to suppress number translation.

 Thu 12/29 06:40:32   S tcp   ->   CLO
       This is a normal tcp transaction to the telnet port on host  The IP Option strict source route was seen.

 Thu 12/29 06:40:32     tcp  <|   RST
       This tcp transaction from the smtp port of host was RESET,
       indicating that the transaction was denied.

 Thu 12/29 03:39:05  M  igmp       <->       CON
       This is an igmp transaction status report, usually seen with MBONE
       traffic.  There was more than one source and destination MAC address
       pair used to support the transaction, suggesting a possible routing

 Thu 12/29 06:40:05 *   tcp  <-> TIM
       This is an X-windows transaction, that has TIMEDOUT.   Packets were
       retransmitted during the connection.

 Thu 12/29 07:42:09     udp   ->  INT
       This is an initial netbios UDP transaction status report, indicating
       that this is the first datagram encountered for this transaction.

 Thu 12/29 06:42:09     icmp       <->      ECO
       This example represents a "ping" of host, and its response.

 This next example shows the ra output of a complete TCP transaction, with the
 preceeding Arp and DNS requests, while reading from a remote argus-server.
 The '*' in the CLO report indicates that at least one TCP packet was
 retransmitted during the transaction.  The hostnames in this example are

 % ra -S argus-server and host i.qosient.com
 ra: Trying argus-server port 561
 ra: connected Argus Version 2.0
 Sat 12/03 15:29:38     arp  i.qosient.com     who-has  dsn.qosient.com  INT
 Sat 12/03 15:29:39     udp  i.qosient.com.1542  <->    dns.qosient.53   INT
 Sat 12/03 15:29:39     arp  i.qosient.com     who-has  qosient.com      INT
 Sat 12/03 15:29:39 *   tcp  i.qosient.com.1543   ->    qosient.com.smtp CLO

       Carter Bullard (carter@qosient.com).


       argus(8) tcpdump(1),

       Postel, Jon, Internet Protocol, RFC 791, Network Information Center, SRI
       International, Menlo Park, Calif., May 1981.

       Postel, Jon, Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC 792, Network
       Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., May 1981.

       Postel, Jon, Transmission Control Protocol, RFC 793, Network Information
       Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., May 1981.

       Postel, Jon, User Datagram Protocol, RFC 768, Network Information
       Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., May 1980.

       McCanne, Steven, and Van Jacobson, The BSD Packet Filter: A New
       Architecture for User-level Capture, Lawrwnce Berkeley Laboratory, One
       Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Calif., 94720, December 1992.

ra 2.0                         12 November 2000                          RA(1)