readelf






readelf − display information about ELF files

readelf [−a|−−all]
        [−h|−−file−header]
        [−l|−−program−headers|−−segments]
        [−S|−−section−headers|−−sections]
        [−g|−−section−groups]
        [−t|−−section−details]
        [−e|−−headers]
        [−s|−−syms|−−symbols]
        [−−dyn−syms]
        [−n|−−notes]
        [−r|−−relocs]
        [−u|−−unwind]
        [−d|−−dynamic]
        [−V|−−version−info]
        [−A|−−arch−specific]
        [−D|−−use−dynamic]
        [−x <number or name>|−−hex−dump=<number or name>]
        [−p <number or name>|−−string−dump=<number or name>]
        [−R <number or name>|−−relocated−dump=<number or
name>]
        [−z|−−decompress]
        [−c|−−archive−index]
        [−w[lLiaprmfFsoRtUuTgAckK]|
         −−debug−dump[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames−interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges,=gdb_index,=addr,=cu_index,=links,=follow−links]]
        [−−dwarf−depth=n]
        [−−dwarf−start=n]
        [−−ctf=section]
        [−−ctf−parent=section]
        [−−ctf−symbols=section]
        [−−ctf−strings=section]
        [−I|−−histogram]
        [−v|−−version]
        [−W|−−wide]
        [−H|−−help]
        elffile...

readelf displays information about one or more ELF format
object files.  The options control what particular
information to display.

     elffile... are the object files to be examined.  32−bit
and 64−bit ELF files are supported, as are archives
containing ELF files.

     This program performs a similar function to objdump but
it goes into more detail and it exists independently of the
BFD library, so if there is a bug in BFD then readelf will
not be affected.













                             ‐2‐


The long and short forms of options, shown here as
alternatives, are equivalent.  At least one option besides
−v or −H must be given.

−a

−−all
    Equivalent to specifying −−file−header,
    −−program−headers, −−sections, −−symbols, −−relocs,
    −−dynamic, −−notes, −−version−info, −−arch−specific,
    −−unwind, −−section−groups and −−histogram.

    Note − this option does not enable −−use−dynamic itself,
    so if that option is not present on the command line
    then dynamic symbols and dynamic relocs will not be
    displayed.

−h

−−file−header
    Displays the information contained in the ELF header at
    the start of the file.

−l

−−program−headers

−−segments
    Displays the information contained in the file’s segment
    headers, if it has any.

−S

−−sections

−−section−headers
    Displays the information contained in the file’s section
    headers, if it has any.

−g

−−section−groups
    Displays the information contained in the file’s section
    groups, if it has any.

−t

−−section−details
    Displays the detailed section information. Implies −S.

−s

−−symbols










                             ‐3‐


−−syms
    Displays the entries in symbol table section of the
    file, if it has one.  If a symbol has version
    information associated with it then this is displayed as
    well.  The version string is displayed as a suffix to
    the symbol name, preceeded by an @ character.  For
    example foo@VER_1.  If the version is the default
    version to be used when resolving unversioned references
    to the symbol then it is displayed as a suffix preceeded
    by two @ characters.  For example foo@@VER_2.

−−dyn−syms
    Displays the entries in dynamic symbol table section of
    the file, if it has one.  The output format is the same
    as the format used by the −−syms option.

−e

−−headers
    Display all the headers in the file.  Equivalent to −h
    −l −S.

−n

−−notes
    Displays the contents of the NOTE segments and/or
    sections, if any.

−r

−−relocs
    Displays the contents of the file’s relocation section,
    if it has one.

−u

−−unwind
    Displays the contents of the file’s unwind section, if
    it has one.  Only the unwind sections for IA64 ELF
    files, as well as ARM unwind tables (".ARM.exidx" /
    ".ARM.extab") are currently supported.  If support is
    not yet implemented for your architecture you could try
    dumping the contents of the .eh_frames section using the
    −−debug−dump=frames or −−debug−dump=frames−interp
    options.

−d

−−dynamic
    Displays the contents of the file’s dynamic section, if
    it has one.

−V










                             ‐4‐


−−version−info
    Displays the contents of the version sections in the
    file, it they exist.

−A

−−arch−specific
    Displays architecture‐specific information in the file,
    if there is any.

−D

−−use−dynamic
    When displaying symbols, this option makes readelf use
    the symbol hash tables in the file’s dynamic section,
    rather than the symbol table sections.

    When displaying relocations, this option makes readelf
    display the dynamic relocations rather than the static
    relocations.

−x <number or name>

−−hex−dump=<number or name>
    Displays the contents of the indicated section as a
    hexadecimal bytes.  A number identifies a particular
    section by index in the section table; any other string
    identifies all sections with that name in the object
    file.

−R <number or name>

−−relocated−dump=<number or name>
    Displays the contents of the indicated section as a
    hexadecimal bytes.  A number identifies a particular
    section by index in the section table; any other string
    identifies all sections with that name in the object
    file.  The contents of the section will be relocated
    before they are displayed.

−p <number or name>

−−string−dump=<number or name>
    Displays the contents of the indicated section as
    printable strings.  A number identifies a particular
    section by index in the section table; any other string
    identifies all sections with that name in the object
    file.

−z

−−decompress
    Requests that the section(s) being dumped by x, R or p
    options are decompressed before being displayed.  If the









                             ‐5‐


    section(s) are not compressed then they are displayed as
    is.

−c

−−archive−index
    Displays the file symbol index information contained in
    the header part of binary archives.  Performs the same
    function as the t command to ar, but without using the
    BFD library.

−w[lLiaprmfFsoRtUuTgAckK]

−−debug−dump[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames−interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges,=gdb_index,=addr,=cu_index,=links,=follow−links]

    Displays the contents of the DWARF debug sections in the
    file, if any are present.  Compressed debug sections are
    automatically decompressed (temporarily) before they are
    displayed.  If one or more of the optional letters or
    words follows the switch then only those type(s) of data
    will be dumped.  The letters and words refer to the
    following information:

    "a"

    "=abbrev"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_abbrev section.

    "A"

    "=addr"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_addr section.

    "c"

    "=cu_index"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_cu_index and/or
        .debug_tu_index sections.

    "f"

    "=frames"
        Display the raw contents of a .debug_frame section.

    "F"

    "=frame−interp"
        Display the interpreted contents of a .debug_frame
        section.

    "g"

    "=gdb_index"
        Displays the contents of the .gdb_index and/or









                             ‐6‐


        .debug_names sections.

    "i"

    "=info"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_info section.
        Note: the output from this option can also be
        restricted by the use of the −−dwarf−depth and
        −−dwarf−start options.

    "k"

    "=links"
        Displays the contents of the .gnu_debuglink and/or
        .gnu_debugaltlink sections.  Also displays any links
        to separate dwarf object files (dwo), if they are
        specified by the DW_AT_GNU_dwo_name or
        DW_AT_dwo_name attributes in the .debug_info
        section.

    "K"

    "=follow−links"
        Display the contents of any selected debug sections
        that are found in linked, separate debug info
        file(s).  This can result in multiple versions of
        the same debug section being displayed if it exists
        in more than one file.

        In addition, when displaying DWARF attributes, if a
        form is found that references the separate debug
        info file, then the referenced contents will also be
        displayed.

    "l"

    "=rawline"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_line section in
        a raw format.

    "L"

    "=decodedline"
        Displays the interpreted contents of the .debug_line
        section.

    "m"

    "=macro"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_macro and/or
        .debug_macinfo sections.

    "o"










                             ‐7‐


    "=loc"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_loc and/or
        .debug_loclists sections.

    "p"

    "=pubnames"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_pubnames and/or
        .debug_gnu_pubnames sections.

    "r"

    "=aranges"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_aranges section.

    "R"

    "=Ranges"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_ranges and/or
        .debug_rnglists sections.

    "s"

    "=str"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_str,
        .debug_line_str and/or .debug_str_offsets sections.

    "t"

    "=pubtype"
        Displays the contents of the .debug_pubtypes and/or
        .debug_gnu_pubtypes sections.

    "T"

    "=trace_aranges"
        Displays the contents of the .trace_aranges section.

    "u"

    "=trace_abbrev"
        Displays the contents of the .trace_abbrev section.

    "U"

    "=trace_info"
        Displays the contents of the .trace_info section.

        Note: displaying the contents of
        .debug_static_funcs, .debug_static_vars and
        debug_weaknames sections is not currently supported.

−−dwarf−depth=n
    Limit the dump of the ".debug_info" section to n









                             ‐8‐


    children.  This is only useful with −−debug−dump=info.
    The default is to print all DIEs; the special value 0
    for n will also have this effect.

    With a non‐zero value for n, DIEs at or deeper than n
    levels will not be printed.  The range for n is zero‐
    based.

−−dwarf−start=n
    Print only DIEs beginning with the DIE numbered n.  This
    is only useful with −−debug−dump=info.

    If specified, this option will suppress printing of any
    header information and all DIEs before the DIE numbered
    n.  Only siblings and children of the specified DIE will
    be printed.

    This can be used in conjunction with −−dwarf−depth.

−−ctf=section
    Display the contents of the specified CTF section.  CTF
    sections themselves contain many subsections, all of
    which are displayed in order.

−−ctf−parent=section
    Specify the name of another section from which the CTF
    dictionary can inherit types.  (If none is specified, we
    assume the CTF dictionary inherits types from the
    default‐named member of the archive contained within
    this section.)

−−ctf−symbols=section

−−ctf−strings=section
    Specify the name of another section from which the CTF
    file can inherit strings and symbols.  By default, the
    ".symtab" and its linked string table are used.

    If either of −−ctf−symbols or −−ctf−strings is
    specified, the other must be specified as well.

−I

−−histogram
    Display a histogram of bucket list lengths when
    displaying the contents of the symbol tables.

−v

−−version
    Display the version number of readelf.

−W










                             ‐9‐


−−wide
    Don’t break output lines to fit into 80 columns. By
    default readelf breaks section header and segment
    listing lines for 64−bit ELF files, so that they fit
    into 80 columns. This option causes readelf to print
    each section header resp. each segment one a single
    line, which is far more readable on terminals wider than
    80 columns.

−H

−−help
    Display the command‐line options understood by readelf.

@file
    Read command‐line options from file.  The options read
    are inserted in place of the original @file option.  If
    file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option
    will be treated literally, and not removed.

    Options in file are separated by whitespace.  A
    whitespace character may be included in an option by
    surrounding the entire option in either single or double
    quotes.  Any character (including a backslash) may be
    included by prefixing the character to be included with
    a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional
    @file options; any such options will be processed
    recursively.

objdump(1), and the Info entries for binutils.

Copyright (c) 1991−2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify
this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the
Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with
no Front‐Cover Texts, and with no Back‐Cover Texts.  A copy
of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
Documentation License".