circ_in_circ(1)                Dr. David Kirkby                circ_in_circ(1)

       rect_cen_in_rect - bitmap generator for rectangular conductor inside
       rectangular conductor (part of atlc)

       rect_cen_in_rect [options... ] W H w h Er

       This man page is not a complete set of documentation. See the html
       files for more complete information. So far, I've not managed to
       install the html files into /usr/local, so you will have to look into
       the atlc-2.X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs directory for them.

       rect_cen_in_rect is a pre-processor for atlc, the finite difference
       programme that is used to calculate the properties of a two-conductor
       electrical transmission line of arbitrary cross section. The programme
       rect_cen_in_rect is used as a fast way of generating bitmaps (there is
       no need to use a graphics programme), for a rectangular conductor
       placed centrally inside another rectangular conductor, like this:

       -----------------------------------------------------  ^
       |                                                   |  |
       |            Dielectric, permittivity=Er            |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |             <----------w----------->              |  |
       |             ------------------------   ^          |  |
       |             |                      |   |          |  |
       |             |  Metallic conductor  |   |          |  H
       |             |  conductor (must be  |   h          |  |
       |             |  in  the centre)     |   |          |  |
       |             |                      |   |          |  |
       |             ------------------------   ^          |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       -----------------------------------------------------  |

       The parameters 'W' and 'H' and the inner dimensions of the outer
       conductor.  The outer dimensions of the inner conductor are 'w' and
       'h'. The inner conductor is assumed be be placed centrally inside the
       outer conductor. The spaced between the two conductors is filled with a
       dielectric of relative permittivity Er

       The bitmap is printed to standard output, which MUST be re-directed to
       either a file, or piped into the standard input of atlc, in one of the
       following two ways.

       rect_cen_in_rect W H w h Er > filename.bmp OR
       rect_cen_in_rect -f filename.bmp W H w h Er

       The bitmaps produced by rect_cen_in_rect are 24-bit bit colour bitmaps,
       as required by atlc.

       The permittivity of the bitmap, set by 'Er', determine the colours in
       the bitmap. If Er is 1.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.33, 2.5, 3.3, 3.335, 4.8 or 10.2,
       then the colour corresponding to that permittivity will be set
       according to the colours defined in COLOURS below. If Er is not one of
       those permittivities, the region of permittivity Er will be set to the
       colour 0xCAFF00.  The programme atlc does not know what these
       permittivites are, so they atlc, must be told with the comand line
       option -d, as in example 4 below.

       -b bitmapsize
       is used to set the size of the bitmap, and so the accuracy to which
       atlc is able to calculate the transmission line's properties. The
       default value for 'bitmapsize' is normally 4, although this is set at
       compile time. The value can be set anywhere from 1 to 15, but more than
       8 is probably not sensible.

       -f outfile
       Set the output filename. By default, the bitmap is sent to stdout, but
       it *must* be sent to a file, with this option, or as described above.

       Causes rect_cen_in_rect to print some data to stderr. Note, nothing
       extra goes to standard output, as that is expected to be redirected to
       a bitmap file.

       The 24-bit bitmaps that atlc expects, have 8 bits assigned to represent
       the amount of red, 8 for blue and 8 for green. Hence there are 256
       levels of red, green and blue, making a total of 256*256*256=16777216
       colours.  Every one of the possible 16777216 colours can be defined
       precisely by the stating the exact amount of red, green and blue, as

       red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
       green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
       blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
       black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
       white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
       Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
       gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

       Some colours, such as pink, turquiose, sandy, brown, gray etc may mean
       slightly different things to different people. This is not so with
       atlc, as the programme expects the colours below to be EXACTLY defined
       as given. Whether you feel the colour is sandy or yellow is up to you,
       but if you use it in your bitmap, then it either needs to be a colour
       recognised by atlc, or you must define it with a command line option
       (see OPTIONS and example 5 below).
       The following conductors are recognised by atlc:
       red    = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000 is the live conductor.
       green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00 is the grounded conductor.
       blue   = 000,000,000 or 0x000000 is the negative conductor

       All bitmaps must have the live (red) and grounded (green) conductor.
       The blue conductor is not currently supported, but it will be used to
       indicate a negative conductor, which will be needed if/when the
       programme gets extended to analyse directional couplers.

       The following dielectrics are recognised by atlc and so are produced by

       white      255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0   (vacuum)
       pink       255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
       light blue 130,052,255 or 0x8235Ef as Er=2.1   (PTFE)
       Mid gray   142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2   (duroid 5880)
       mauve      255.000,255 or 0xFF00FF as Er=2.33  (polyethylene) yellow
       255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5   (polystyrene)
       sandy      239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3   (PVC)
       brown      188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335 (epoxy resin)
       Terquoise  026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8   (glass PCB)
       Dark gray  142,142,142 or ox696969 as Er=6.15  (duroid 6006)
       L. gray    240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)
       D. orange  213,130,067 or 0xD5A04D as Er=100.0 (mainly for test
       If the permittivity is one not in the above list, then those parts of
       the image with Er will be set to 0xCAFF00.

       Here are a few examples of the use of rect_cen_in_rect. Again, see the
       html documentation in atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-doc/index.html for more

       1) In the first example, there is just a vacuum dielectric, so Er=1.0.
       The inner of 1x1 inches (or mm, miles etc) is placed centrally in an
       outer with dimensions 3.3 x 3.9 inches.

       % rect_cen_in_rect 3.3 3.9 1 1 1 > 1.bmp
       % atlc 1.bmp

       2) In this second example, an inner of 15.0 mm x 5.0 mm is surrounded
       by an outer with internal dimensions of 71.5 x 60.0 mm. There is a
       material with permittivity 2.1 (Er of PTFE) around the inner conductor.
       The output from rect_cen_in_rect is sent to a file 2.bmp, which is then
       processed by atlc

       % rect_cen_in_rect 71.5 60.0 15.0 5.0 2.1 > 2.bmp
       % atlc 2.bmp

       3) In example 3, the bitmap is made larger, to increase accuracy, but
       otherwise this is identical to the second example.  % rect_cen_in_rect
       -b7 71.5 60 15 5 2.1 > 3.bmp
       % atlc 3.bmp

       In the fourth example, instead of re-directing rect_cen_in_rect's
       output to a file with the > sign, it is done using the -f option.
       % rect_cen_in_rect -f 4.bmp 61.5 28.1 5 22 2.1
       % atlc 4.bmp

       atlc(1), circ_in_circ(1). rect_in_rect(1), circ_in_rect(1).
       rect_in_circ(1), readbin(1) and sym_strip(1).                - Home page       - Download area
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
       atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples              - my home page          - ham radio pages

3/4/02                            atlc-3.0.6                   circ_in_circ(1)