rect_in_rect(1)              General Commands Manual             rect_in_rect(1)

       rect_in_rect - bitmap generator for rectangular conductor inside
       rectangular conductor (part of atlc)

       rect_in_rect [options... ] W H a b c d w h Er1 Er2

       This man page is not a complete set of documentation. See the html files
       for more complete information. So far, I've not managed to install the
       html files into /usr/local, so you will have to look into the atlc-
       X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs directory for them.

       rect_in_rect is a pre-processor for atlc, the finite difference programme
       that is used to calculate the properties of a two-conductor electrical
       transmission line of arbitrary cross section. The programme rect_in_rect
       is used as a fast way of generating bitmaps (there is no need to use a
       graphics programme), for a rectangular conductor inside a rectangular
       conductor, like this:

       -----------------------------------------------------  ^
       |                                                   |  |
       |     <--------------d------------------->          |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |         <----------w----------->                  |  |
       |         ------------------------   ^              |  |
       |         |                      |   |              |  |
       |         |  Metallic conductor  |   |              |  H
       |<----b-->|  conductor (can be   |   c   Er1        |  |
       |         |  off-centre)         |   |              |  |
       |         |                      |   |              |  |
       |     ------------------------------------ ^        |  |
       |     |..................................| |        |  |
       |     |...Dielectric, permittivity=Er2...| |        |  |
       |<-a->|.....(can be off centre ).........| h        |  |
       |     |..................................| |        |  |
       |     |..................................| |        |  |
       -----------------------------------------------------  |

       The parameters 'W' and 'H' and the inner dimensions of the outer
       conductor.  The outer dimensions of the inner conductor are 'w' and 'c'.
       The inner conductor is assumed to rest on a dielectric (Er2) which is 'd'
       wide and outer conductor an the inner conductor is offset 'b' from the
       left hand sidewall of the outer conductor. The whole region is surrounded
       by a dielectric of relative permittivity 'Er1'. The dielectrics 'Er1' and
       then 'Er1' and 'Er2' will both be 1.0

       The bitmap is printed to standard output, which MUST be re-directed to
       either a file, or piped into the standard input of atlc, in one of the
       following two ways.

       rect_in_rect W H a b c d w h Er1 Er2 > filename.bmp OR
       rect_in_rect -f filename.bmp W H a b c d w h Er1 Er2

       The bitmaps produced by rect_in_rect are 24-bit bit colour bitmaps, as
       are required by atlc.

       The permittivities of the bitmap, set by 'Er1' and 'Er2', determine the
       colours in the bitmap. If Er1 or Er2 is 1.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.33, 2.5, 3.3,
       3.335, 4.8 or 10.2, then the colour corresponding to that permittivity
       will be set according to the colours defined in COLOURS below. If Er1 is
       not one of those permittivities, the region of permittivity Er1 will be
       set to the colour 0xCAFF00. If Er2 is not one of those values, then the
       region of the image will be set to the colour 0xAC82AC. The programme
       atlc does not know what these permittivites are, so they atlc, must be
       told with the comand line option -d, as in example 4 below.

       -b bitmapsize
       is used to set the size of the bitmap, and so the accuracy to which atlc
       is able to calculate the transmission line's properties. The default
       value for 'bitmapsize' is normally 4, although this is set at compile
       time. The value can be set anywhere from 1 to 15, but more than 8 is
       probably not sensible.

       -f outfile
       Set the output filename. By default, the bitmap is sent to stdout, but it
       *must* be sent to a file, with this option, or as described above.

       Causes rect_in_rect to print some data to stderr. Note, nothing extra
       goes to standard output, as that is expected to be redirected to a bitmap

       The 24-bit bitmaps that atlc expects, have 8 bits assigned to represent
       the amount of red, 8 for blue and 8 for green. Hence there are 256 levels
       of red, green and blue, making a total of 256*256*256=16777216 colours.
       Every one of the possible 16777216 colours can be defined precisely by
       the stating the exact amount of red, green and blue, as in:

       red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
       green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
       blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
       black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
       white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
       Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
       gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

       Some colours, such as pink, turquiose, sandy, brown, gray etc may mean
       slightly different things to different people. This is not so with atlc,
       as the programme expects the colours below to be EXACTLY defined as
       given. Whether you feel the colour is sandy or yellow is up to you, but
       if you use it in your bitmap, then it either needs to be a colour
       recognised by atlc, or you must define it with a command line option (see
       OPTIONS and example 5 below).
       red    = 255,000,000 or 0xFF0000 is the live conductor.
       green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00FF00 is the grounded conductor.
       blue   = 000,000,000 or 0x0000FF is the negative conductor

       All bitmaps must have the live (red) and grounded (green) conductor. The
       blue conductor is not currently supported, but it will be used to
       indicate a negative conductor, which will be needed if/when the programme
       gets extended to analyse directional couplers.

       The following dielectrics are recognised by atlc and so are produced by

       white     255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0    (vacuum)
       pink      255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
       L. blue   130,052,255 or 0x8235EF as Er=2.1    (PTFE)
       Mid gray  142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2    (duroid 5880)
       mauve     255.000,255 or 0xFF00FF as Er=2.33  (polyethylene)
       yellow    255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5    (polystyrene)
       sandy     239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3    (PVC)
       brown     188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335  (epoxy resin)
       Terquoise 026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8    (glass PCB)
       Dark gray 142,142,142 or 0x696969 as Er=6.15   (duroid 6006)
       L. gray   240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)
       D. orange 213,160,067 or 0xD5A04D as Er=100.0 (mainly for test purposes)

       Here are a few examples of the use of rect_in_rect. Again, see the html
       documentation in atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html for more examples.

       In the first example, there is just an air dielectric, so Er1=Er2=1.0.
       The inner of 1x1 inches (or mm, miles etc) is placed centrally in an
       outer with dimensions 3 x 3 inches.

       The exact place where the dielectric starts (a) and its width (d) are
       unimportant, but they must still be entered.

       % rect_in_rect 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 > ex1.bmp
       % atlc ex1.bmp

       In this second example, an inner of 15.0 mm x 0.5 mm is surrounded by an
       outer with internal dimensions of 61.5 x 20.1 mm. There is a material
       with permittivity 2.1 (Er of PTFE) below the inner conductor. The output
       from rect_in_rect is sent to a file ex1.bmp, which is then processed by

       % rect_in_rect 61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5 1.0 2.1 > ex2.bmp
       % atlc ex2.bmp

       In example 3, the bitmap is made larger, to increase accuracy, but
       otherwise this is identical to the second example.  % rect_in_rect -b7
       61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5 1.0 2.1 > ex3.bmp
       % atlc ex3.bmp

       In the fourth example, materials with permittivites 2.78 and 7.89 are
       used. While there is no change in how to use rect_in_rect, since these
       permittivities are not known, we must tell atlc what they are.  %
       rect_in_rect 61 20 1 4 22 0.5 50 15 5 2.78 7.89 > ex5.bmp % atlc -d
       CAFF00=2.78 -d AC82AC=7.89 ex5.bmp In the sixth and final example, the -v
       option is used to print some extra data to stderr from rect_in_rect.

       atlc(1), rect_cen_in_rect(1), circ_in_circ(1). rect_in_circ(1),
       circ_in_rect(1).  rect_in_circ(1), readbin(1) and sym_strip(1).                - Home page       - Download area
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
       atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples              - my home page          - ham radio pages

Dr. David Kirkby               atlc-3.0.1 29/3/02                rect_in_rect(1)