rect_in_rect

rect_in_rect(1)             General Commands Manual            rect_in_rect(1)



NAME
       rect_in_rect - bitmap generator for rectangular conductor inside
       rectangular conductor (part of atlc)

SYNOPSIS
       rect_in_rect [options... ] W H a b c d w h Er1 Er2

WARNING
       This man page is not a complete set of documentation. See the html
       files for more complete information. So far, I've not managed to
       install the html files into /usr/local, so you will have to look into
       the atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs directory for them.

DESCRIPTION
       rect_in_rect is a pre-processor for atlc, the finite difference
       programme that is used to calculate the properties of a two-conductor
       electrical transmission line of arbitrary cross section. The programme
       rect_in_rect is used as a fast way of generating bitmaps (there is no
       need to use a graphics programme), for a rectangular conductor inside a
       rectangular conductor, like this:

       -----------------------------------------------------  ^
       |                                                   |  |
       |     <--------------d------------------->          |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |         <----------w----------->                  |  |
       |         ------------------------   ^              |  |
       |         |                      |   |              |  |
       |         |  Metallic conductor  |   |              |  H
       |<----b-->|  conductor (can be   |   c   Er1        |  |
       |         |  off-centre)         |   |              |  |
       |         |                      |   |              |  |
       |     ------------------------------------ ^        |  |
       |     |..................................| |        |  |
       |     |...Dielectric, permittivity=Er2...| |        |  |
       |<-a->|.....(can be off centre ).........| h        |  |
       |     |..................................| |        |  |
       |     |..................................| |        |  |
       -----------------------------------------------------  |
       <---------------------------W----------------------->

       The parameters 'W' and 'H' and the inner dimensions of the outer
       conductor.  The outer dimensions of the inner conductor are 'w' and
       'c'. The inner conductor is assumed to rest on a dielectric (Er2) which
       is 'd' wide and outer conductor an the inner conductor is offset 'b'
       from the left hand sidewall of the outer conductor. The whole region is
       surrounded by a dielectric of relative permittivity 'Er1'. The
       dielectrics 'Er1' and then 'Er1' and 'Er2' will both be 1.0

       The bitmap is printed to standard output, which MUST be re-directed to
       either a file, or piped into the standard input of atlc, in one of the
       following two ways.

       rect_in_rect W H a b c d w h Er1 Er2 > filename.bmp OR
       rect_in_rect -f filename.bmp W H a b c d w h Er1 Er2

       The bitmaps produced by rect_in_rect are 24-bit bit colour bitmaps, as
       are required by atlc.

       The permittivities of the bitmap, set by 'Er1' and 'Er2', determine the
       colours in the bitmap. If Er1 or Er2 is 1.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.33, 2.5, 3.3,
       3.335, 4.8 or 10.2, then the colour corresponding to that permittivity
       will be set according to the colours defined in COLOURS below. If Er1
       is not one of those permittivities, the region of permittivity Er1 will
       be set to the colour 0xCAFF00. If Er2 is not one of those values, then
       the region of the image will be set to the colour 0xAC82AC. The
       programme atlc does not know what these permittivites are, so they
       atlc, must be told with the comand line option -d, as in example 4
       below.

OPTIONS
       -b bitmapsize
       is used to set the size of the bitmap, and so the accuracy to which
       atlc is able to calculate the transmission line's properties. The
       default value for 'bitmapsize' is normally 4, although this is set at
       compile time. The value can be set anywhere from 1 to 15, but more than
       8 is probably not sensible.

       -f outfile
       Set the output filename. By default, the bitmap is sent to stdout, but
       it *must* be sent to a file, with this option, or as described above.

       -v
       Causes rect_in_rect to print some data to stderr. Note, nothing extra
       goes to standard output, as that is expected to be redirected to a
       bitmap file.


COLOURS
       The 24-bit bitmaps that atlc expects, have 8 bits assigned to represent
       the amount of red, 8 for blue and 8 for green. Hence there are 256
       levels of red, green and blue, making a total of 256*256*256=16777216
       colours.  Every one of the possible 16777216 colours can be defined
       precisely by the stating the exact amount of red, green and blue, as
       in:

       red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
       green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
       blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
       black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
       white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
       Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
       gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

       Some colours, such as pink, turquiose, sandy, brown, gray etc may mean
       slightly different things to different people. This is not so with
       atlc, as the programme expects the colours below to be EXACTLY defined
       as given. Whether you feel the colour is sandy or yellow is up to you,
       but if you use it in your bitmap, then it either needs to be a colour
       recognised by atlc, or you must define it with a command line option
       (see OPTIONS and example 5 below).
       red    = 255,000,000 or 0xFF0000 is the live conductor.
       green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00FF00 is the grounded conductor.
       blue   = 000,000,000 or 0x0000FF is the negative conductor

       All bitmaps must have the live (red) and grounded (green) conductor.
       The blue conductor is not currently supported, but it will be used to
       indicate a negative conductor, which will be needed if/when the
       programme gets extended to analyse directional couplers.

       The following dielectrics are recognised by atlc and so are produced by
       rect_cen_in_rect.

       white     255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0    (vacuum)
       pink      255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
       L. blue   130,052,255 or 0x8235EF as Er=2.1    (PTFE)
       Mid gray  142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2    (duroid 5880)
       mauve     255.000,255 or 0xFF00FF as Er=2.33  (polyethylene)
       yellow    255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5    (polystyrene)
       sandy     239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3    (PVC)
       brown     188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335  (epoxy resin)
       Terquoise 026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8    (glass PCB)
       Dark gray 142,142,142 or 0x696969 as Er=6.15   (duroid 6006)
       L. gray   240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)
       D. orange 213,160,067 or 0xD5A04D as Er=100.0 (mainly for test
       purposes)

EXAMPLES
       Here are a few examples of the use of rect_in_rect. Again, see the html
       documentation in atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html for more
       examples.

       In the first example, there is just an air dielectric, so Er1=Er2=1.0.
       The inner of 1x1 inches (or mm, miles etc) is placed centrally in an
       outer with dimensions 3 x 3 inches.

       The exact place where the dielectric starts (a) and its width (d) are
       unimportant, but they must still be entered.

       % rect_in_rect 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 > ex1.bmp
       % atlc ex1.bmp

       In this second example, an inner of 15.0 mm x 0.5 mm is surrounded by
       an outer with internal dimensions of 61.5 x 20.1 mm. There is a
       material with permittivity 2.1 (Er of PTFE) below the inner conductor.
       The output from rect_in_rect is sent to a file ex1.bmp, which is then
       processed by atlc

       % rect_in_rect 61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5 1.0 2.1 > ex2.bmp
       % atlc ex2.bmp

       In example 3, the bitmap is made larger, to increase accuracy, but
       otherwise this is identical to the second example.  % rect_in_rect -b7
       61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5 1.0 2.1 > ex3.bmp
       % atlc ex3.bmp

       In the fourth example, materials with permittivites 2.78 and 7.89 are
       used. While there is no change in how to use rect_in_rect, since these
       permittivities are not known, we must tell atlc what they are.  %
       rect_in_rect 61 20 1 4 22 0.5 50 15 5 2.78 7.89 > ex5.bmp % atlc -d
       CAFF00=2.78 -d AC82AC=7.89 ex5.bmp In the sixth and final example, the
       -v option is used to print some extra data to stderr from rect_in_rect.

SEE ALSO
       atlc(1), rect_cen_in_rect(1), circ_in_circ(1). rect_in_circ(1),
       circ_in_rect(1).  rect_in_circ(1), readbin(1) and sym_strip(1).

       http://atlc.sourceforge.net                - Home page
       http://sourceforge.net/projects/atlc       - Download area
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
       atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples
       http://www.david-kirkby.co.uk              - my home page
       http://www.david-kirkby.co.uk/ham          - ham radio pages



Dr. David Kirkby              atlc-3.0.1 29/3/02               rect_in_rect(1)