rndc

RNDC(8)                              BIND 9                              RNDC(8)



NAME
       rndc - name server control utility

SYNOPSIS
       rndc [-b source-address] [-c config-file] [-k key-file] [-s server] [-p
       port] [-q] [-r] [-V] [-y key_id] [[-4] | [-6]] {command}

DESCRIPTION
       rndc controls the operation of a name server; it supersedes the ndc
       utility. If rndc is invoked with no command line options or arguments, it
       prints a short summary of the supported commands and the available
       options and their arguments.

       rndc communicates with the name server over a TCP connection, sending
       commands authenticated with digital signatures. In the current versions
       of rndc and named, the only supported authentication algorithms are
       HMAC-MD5 (for compatibility), HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224, HMAC-SHA256
       (default), HMAC-SHA384, and HMAC-SHA512. They use a shared secret on each
       end of the connection, which provides TSIG-style authentication for the
       command request and the name server's response.  All commands sent over
       the channel must be signed by a key_id known to the server.

       rndc reads a configuration file to determine how to contact the name
       server and decide what algorithm and key it should use.

OPTIONS
       -4     This option indicates use of IPv4 only.

       -6     This option indicates use of IPv6 only.

       -b source-address
              This option indicates source-address as the source address for the
              connection to the server. Multiple instances are permitted, to
              allow setting of both the IPv4 and IPv6 source addresses.

       -c config-file
              This option indicates config-file as the configuration file
              instead of the default, /etc/rndc.conf.

       -k key-file
              This option indicates key-file as the key file instead of the
              default, /etc/rndc.key. The key in /etc/rndc.key is used to
              authenticate commands sent to the server if the config-file does
              not exist.

       -s server
              server is the name or address of the server which matches a server
              statement in the configuration file for rndc. If no server is
              supplied on the command line, the host named by the default-server
              clause in the options statement of the rndc configuration file is
              used.

       -p port
              This option instructs BIND 9 to send commands to TCP port port
              instead of its default control channel port, 953.

       -q     This option sets quiet mode, where message text returned by the
              server is not printed unless there is an error.

       -r     This option instructs rndc to print the result code returned by
              named after executing the requested command (e.g., ISC_R_SUCCESS,
              ISC_R_FAILURE, etc.).

       -V     This option enables verbose logging.

       -y key_id
              This option indicates use of the key key_id from the configuration
              file. For control message validation to succeed, key_id must be
              known by named with the same algorithm and secret string. If no
              key_id is specified, rndc first looks for a key clause in the
              server statement of the server being used, or if no server
              statement is present for that host, then in the default-key clause
              of the options statement. Note that the configuration file
              contains shared secrets which are used to send authenticated
              control commands to name servers, and should therefore not have
              general read or write access.

COMMANDS
       A list of commands supported by rndc can be seen by running rndc without
       arguments.

       Currently supported commands are:

       addzone zone [class [view]] configuration
              This command adds a zone while the server is running. This command
              requires the allow-new-zones option to be set to yes. The
              configuration string specified on the command line is the zone
              configuration text that would ordinarily be placed in named.conf.

              The configuration is saved in a file called viewname.nzf (or, if
              named is compiled with liblmdb, an LMDB database file called
              viewname.nzd). viewname is the name of the view, unless the view
              name contains characters that are incompatible with use as a file
              name, in which case a cryptographic hash of the view name is used
              instead. When named is restarted, the file is loaded into the view
              configuration so that zones that were added can persist after a
              restart.

              This sample addzone command adds the zone example.com to the
              default view:

              $ \ rndc addzone example.com '{ type master; file
              "example.com.db"; };'

              (Note the brackets around and semi-colon after the zone
              configuration text.)

              See also rndc delzone and rndc modzone.

       delzone [-clean] zone [class [view]]
              This command deletes a zone while the server is running.

              If the -clean argument is specified, the zone's master file (and
              journal file, if any) are deleted along with the zone. Without the
              -clean option, zone files must be deleted manually. (If the zone
              is of type secondary or stub, the files needing to be removed are
              reported in the output of the rndc delzone command.)

              If the zone was originally added via rndc addzone, then it is
              removed permanently. However, if it was originally configured in
              named.conf, then that original configuration remains in place;
              when the server is restarted or reconfigured, the zone is
              recreated. To remove it permanently, it must also be removed from
              named.conf.

              See also rndc addzone and rndc modzone.

       dnssec ( -status | -rollover -key id [-alg algorithm] [-when time] |
       -checkds [-key id [-alg algorithm]] [-when time] ( published | withdrawn
       )) zone [class [view]]
              This command allows you to interact with the "dnssec-policy" of a
              given zone.

              rndc dnssec -status show the DNSSEC signing state for the
              specified zone.

              rndc dnssec -rollover allows you to schedule key rollover for a
              specific key (overriding the original key lifetime).

              rndc dnssec -checkds will let named know that the DS for the given
              key has been seen published into or withdrawn from the parent.
              This is required in order to complete a KSK rollover.  If the -key
              id argument is specified, look for the key with the given
              identifier, otherwise if there is only one key acting as a KSK in
              the zone, assume the DS of that key (if there are multiple keys
              with the same tag, use -alg algorithm to select the correct
              algorithm).  The time that the DS has been published or withdrawn
              is set to now, unless otherwise specified with the argument -when
              time.

       dnstap ( -reopen | -roll [number] )
              This command closes and re-opens DNSTAP output files. rndc dnstap
              -reopen allows the output file to be renamed externally, so that
              named can truncate and re-open it. rndc dnstap -roll causes the
              output file to be rolled automatically, similar to log files. The
              most recent output file has ".0" appended to its name; the
              previous most recent output file is moved to ".1", and so on. If
              number is specified, then the number of backup log files is
              limited to that number.

       dumpdb [-all | -cache | -zones | -adb | -bad | -expired | -fail] [view
       ...]
              This command dumps the server's caches (default) and/or zones to
              the dump file for the specified views. If no view is specified,
              all views are dumped.  (See the dump-file option in the BIND 9
              Administrator Reference Manual.)

       flush  This command flushes the server's cache.

       flushname name [view]
              This command flushes the given name from the view's DNS cache and,
              if applicable, from the view's nameserver address database, bad
              server cache, and SERVFAIL cache.

       flushtree name [view]
              This command flushes the given name, and all of its subdomains,
              from the view's DNS cache, address database, bad server cache, and
              SERVFAIL cache.

       freeze [zone [class [view]]]
              This command suspends updates to a dynamic zone. If no zone is
              specified, then all zones are suspended. This allows manual edits
              to be made to a zone normally updated by dynamic update, and
              causes changes in the journal file to be synced into the master
              file. All dynamic update attempts are refused while the zone is
              frozen.

              See also rndc thaw.

       halt [-p]
              This command stops the server immediately. Recent changes made
              through dynamic update or IXFR are not saved to the master files,
              but are rolled forward from the journal files when the server is
              restarted. If -p is specified, named's process ID is returned.
              This allows an external process to determine when named has
              completed halting.

              See also rndc stop.

       loadkeys [zone [class [view]]]
              This command fetches all DNSSEC keys for the given zone from the
              key directory. If they are within their publication period, they
              are merged into the zone's DNSKEY RRset. Unlike rndc sign,
              however, the zone is not immediately re-signed by the new keys,
              but is allowed to incrementally re-sign over time.

              This command requires that the zone be configured with a
              dnssec-policy, or that the auto-dnssec zone option be set to
              maintain, and also requires the zone to be configured to allow
              dynamic DNS. (See "Dynamic Update Policies" in the Administrator
              Reference Manual for more details.)

       managed-keys (status | refresh | sync | destroy) [class [view]]
              This command inspects and controls the "managed-keys" database
              which handles RFC 5011 DNSSEC trust anchor maintenance. If a view
              is specified, these commands are applied to that view; otherwise,
              they are applied to all views.

              • When run with the status keyword, this prints the current status
                of the managed-keys database.

              • When run with the refresh keyword, this forces an immediate
                refresh query to be sent for all the managed keys, updating the
                managed-keys database if any new keys are found, without waiting
                the normal refresh interval.

              • When run with the sync keyword, this forces an immediate dump of
                the managed-keys database to disk (in the file managed-keys.bind
                or (viewname.mkeys). This synchronizes the database with its
                journal file, so that the database's current contents can be
                inspected visually.

              • When run with the destroy keyword, the managed-keys database is
                shut down and deleted, and all key maintenance is terminated.
                This command should be used only with extreme caution.

                Existing keys that are already trusted are not deleted from
                memory; DNSSEC validation can continue after this command is
                used.  However, key maintenance operations cease until named is
                restarted or reconfigured, and all existing key maintenance
                states are deleted.

                Running rndc reconfig or restarting named immediately after this
                command causes key maintenance to be reinitialized from scratch,
                just as if the server were being started for the first time.
                This is primarily intended for testing, but it may also be used,
                for example, to jumpstart the acquisition of new keys in the
                event of a trust anchor rollover, or as a brute-force repair for
                key maintenance problems.

       modzone zone [class [view]] configuration
              This command modifies the configuration of a zone while the server
              is running. This command requires the allow-new-zones option to be
              set to yes.  As with addzone, the configuration string specified
              on the command line is the zone configuration text that would
              ordinarily be placed in named.conf.

              If the zone was originally added via rndc addzone, the
              configuration changes are recorded permanently and are still in
              effect after the server is restarted or reconfigured. However, if
              it was originally configured in named.conf, then that original
              configuration remains in place; when the server is restarted or
              reconfigured, the zone reverts to its original configuration. To
              make the changes permanent, it must also be modified in
              named.conf.

              See also rndc addzone and rndc delzone.

       notify zone [class [view]]
              This command resends NOTIFY messages for the zone.

       notrace
              This command sets the server's debugging level to 0.

              See also rndc trace.

       nta [( -class class | -dump | -force | -remove | -lifetime duration)]
       domain [view]
              This command sets a DNSSEC negative trust anchor (NTA) for domain,
              with a lifetime of duration. The default lifetime is configured in
              named.conf via the nta-lifetime option, and defaults to one hour.
              The lifetime cannot exceed one week.

              A negative trust anchor selectively disables DNSSEC validation for
              zones that are known to be failing because of misconfiguration
              rather than an attack. When data to be validated is at or below an
              active NTA (and above any other configured trust anchors), named
              aborts the DNSSEC validation process and treats the data as
              insecure rather than bogus. This continues until the NTA's
              lifetime has elapsed.

              NTAs persist across restarts of the named server. The NTAs for a
              view are saved in a file called name.nta, where name is the name
              of the view; if it contains characters that are incompatible with
              use as a file name, a cryptographic hash is generated from the
              name of the view.

              An existing NTA can be removed by using the -remove option.

              An NTA's lifetime can be specified with the -lifetime option.
              TTL-style suffixes can be used to specify the lifetime in seconds,
              minutes, or hours. If the specified NTA already exists, its
              lifetime is updated to the new value. Setting lifetime to zero is
              equivalent to -remove.

              If -dump is used, any other arguments are ignored and a list of
              existing NTAs is printed. Note that this may include NTAs that are
              expired but have not yet been cleaned up.

              Normally, named periodically tests to see whether data below an
              NTA can now be validated (see the nta-recheck option in the
              Administrator Reference Manual for details). If data can be
              validated, then the NTA is regarded as no longer necessary and is
              allowed to expire early. The -force parameter overrides this
              behavior and forces an NTA to persist for its entire lifetime,
              regardless of whether data could be validated if the NTA were not
              present.

              The view class can be specified with -class. The default is class
              IN, which is the only class for which DNSSEC is currently
              supported.

              All of these options can be shortened, i.e., to -l, -r, -d, -f,
              and -c.

              Unrecognized options are treated as errors. To refer to a domain
              or view name that begins with a hyphen, use a double-hyphen (--)
              on the command line to indicate the end of options.

       querylog [(on | off)]
              This command enables or disables query logging. For backward
              compatibility, this command can also be used without an argument
              to toggle query logging on and off.

              Query logging can also be enabled by explicitly directing the
              queries category to a channel in the logging section of
              named.conf, or by specifying querylog yes; in the options section
              of named.conf.

       reconfig
              This command reloads the configuration file and loads new zones,
              but does not reload existing zone files even if they have changed.
              This is faster than a full reload when there is a large number of
              zones, because it avoids the need to examine the modification
              times of the zone files.

       recursing
              This command dumps the list of queries named is currently
              recursing on, and the list of domains to which iterative queries
              are currently being sent.  The second list includes the number of
              fetches currently active for the given domain, and how many have
              been passed or dropped because of the fetches-per-zone option.

       refresh zone [class [view]]
              This command schedules zone maintenance for the given zone.

       reload This command reloads the configuration file and zones.

       reload zone [class [view]]
              This command reloads the given zone.

       retransfer zone [class [view]]
              This command retransfers the given secondary zone from the primary
              server.

              If the zone is configured to use inline-signing, the signed
              version of the zone is discarded; after the retransfer of the
              unsigned version is complete, the signed version is regenerated
              with new signatures.

       scan   This command scans the list of available network interfaces for
              changes, without performing a full reconfig or waiting for the
              interface-interval timer.

       secroots [-] [view ...]
              This command dumps the security roots (i.e., trust anchors
              configured via trust-anchors, or the managed-keys or trusted-keys
              statements [both deprecated], or dnssec-validation auto) and
              negative trust anchors for the specified views. If no view is
              specified, all views are dumped. Security roots indicate whether
              they are configured as trusted keys, managed keys, or initializing
              managed keys (managed keys that have not yet been updated by a
              successful key refresh query).

              If the first argument is -, then the output is returned via the
              rndc response channel and printed to the standard output.
              Otherwise, it is written to the secroots dump file, which defaults
              to named.secroots, but can be overridden via the secroots-file
              option in named.conf.

              See also rndc managed-keys.

       serve-stale (on | off | reset | status) [class [view]]
              This command enables, disables, resets, or reports the current
              status of the serving of stale answers as configured in
              named.conf.

              If serving of stale answers is disabled by rndc-serve-stale off,
              then it remains disabled even if named is reloaded or
              reconfigured. rndc serve-stale reset restores the setting as
              configured in named.conf.

              rndc serve-stale status reports whether serving of stale answers
              is currently enabled, disabled by the configuration, or disabled
              by rndc. It also reports the values of stale-answer-ttl and
              max-stale-ttl.

       showzone zone [class [view]]
              This command prints the configuration of a running zone.

              See also rndc zonestatus.

       sign zone [class [view]]
              This command fetches all DNSSEC keys for the given zone from the
              key directory (see the key-directory option in the BIND 9
              Administrator Reference Manual). If they are within their
              publication period, they are merged into the zone's DNSKEY RRset.
              If the DNSKEY RRset is changed, then the zone is automatically
              re-signed with the new key set.

              This command requires that the zone be configured with a
              dnssec-policy, or that the auto-dnssec zone option be set to allow
              or maintain, and also requires the zone to be configured to allow
              dynamic DNS. (See "Dynamic Update Policies" in the BIND 9
              Administrator Reference Manual for more details.)

              See also rndc loadkeys.

       signing [(-list | -clear keyid/algorithm | -clear all | -nsec3param (
       parameters | none ) | -serial value ) zone [class [view]]
              This command lists, edits, or removes the DNSSEC signing-state
              records for the specified zone. The status of ongoing DNSSEC
              operations, such as signing or generating NSEC3 chains, is stored
              in the zone in the form of DNS resource records of type
              sig-signing-type.  rndc signing -list converts these records into
              a human-readable form, indicating which keys are currently signing
              or have finished signing the zone, and which NSEC3 chains are
              being created or removed.

              rndc signing -clear can remove a single key (specified in the same
              format that rndc signing -list uses to display it), or all keys.
              In either case, only completed keys are removed; any record
              indicating that a key has not yet finished signing the zone is
              retained.

              rndc signing -nsec3param sets the NSEC3 parameters for a zone.
              This is the only supported mechanism for using NSEC3 with
              inline-signing zones. Parameters are specified in the same format
              as an NSEC3PARAM resource record: hash algorithm, flags,
              iterations, and salt, in that order.

              Currently, the only defined value for hash algorithm is 1,
              representing SHA-1. The flags may be set to 0 or 1, depending on
              whether the opt-out bit in the NSEC3 chain should be set.
              iterations defines the number of additional times to apply the
              algorithm when generating an NSEC3 hash. The salt is a string of
              data expressed in hexadecimal, a hyphen (-') if no salt is to be
              used, or the keyword ``auto`, which causes named to generate a
              random 64-bit salt.

              So, for example, to create an NSEC3 chain using the SHA-1 hash
              algorithm, no opt-out flag, 10 iterations, and a salt value of
              "FFFF", use: rndc signing -nsec3param 1 0 10 FFFF zone. To set the
              opt-out flag, 15 iterations, and no salt, use: rndc signing
              -nsec3param 1 1 15 - zone.

              rndc signing -nsec3param none removes an existing NSEC3 chain and
              replaces it with NSEC.

              rndc signing -serial value sets the serial number of the zone to
              value. If the value would cause the serial number to go backwards,
              it is rejected. The primary use of this parameter is to set the
              serial number on inline signed zones.

       stats  This command writes server statistics to the statistics file. (See
              the statistics-file option in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference
              Manual.)

       status This command displays the status of the server. Note that the
              number of zones includes the internal bind/CH zone and the default
              ./IN hint zone, if there is no explicit root zone configured.

       stop -p
              This command stops the server, making sure any recent changes made
              through dynamic update or IXFR are first saved to the master files
              of the updated zones. If -p is specified, named(8)`'s process ID
              is returned.  This allows an external process to determine when
              ``named has completed stopping.

              See also rndc halt.

       sync -clean [zone [class [view]]]
              This command syncs changes in the journal file for a dynamic zone
              to the master file. If the "-clean" option is specified, the
              journal file is also removed. If no zone is specified, then all
              zones are synced.

       tcp-timeouts [initial idle keepalive advertised]
              When called without arguments, this command displays the current
              values of the tcp-initial-timeout, tcp-idle-timeout,
              tcp-keepalive-timeout, and tcp-advertised-timeout options.  When
              called with arguments, these values are updated. This allows an
              administrator to make rapid adjustments when under a
              denial-of-service (DoS) attack. See the descriptions of these
              options in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual for details
              of their use.

       thaw [zone [class [view]]]
              This command enables updates to a frozen dynamic zone. If no zone
              is specified, then all frozen zones are enabled. This causes the
              server to reload the zone from disk, and re-enables dynamic
              updates after the load has completed. After a zone is thawed,
              dynamic updates are no longer refused. If the zone has changed and
              the ixfr-from-differences option is in use, the journal file is
              updated to reflect changes in the zone. Otherwise, if the zone has
              changed, any existing journal file is removed.

              See also rndc freeze.

       trace  This command increments the server's debugging level by one.

       trace level
              This command sets the server's debugging level to an explicit
              value.

              See also rndc notrace.

       tsig-delete keyname [view]
              This command deletes a given TKEY-negotiated key from the server.
              This does not apply to statically configured TSIG keys.

       tsig-list
              This command lists the names of all TSIG keys currently configured
              for use by named in each view. The list includes both statically
              configured keys and dynamic TKEY-negotiated keys.

       validation (on | off | status) [view ...]``
              This command enables, disables, or checks the current status of
              DNSSEC validation. By default, validation is enabled.

              The cache is flushed when validation is turned on or off to avoid
              using data that might differ between states.

       zonestatus zone [class [view]]
              This command displays the current status of the given zone,
              including the master file name and any include files from which it
              was loaded, when it was most recently loaded, the current serial
              number, the number of nodes, whether the zone supports dynamic
              updates, whether the zone is DNSSEC signed, whether it uses
              automatic DNSSEC key management or inline signing, and the
              scheduled refresh or expiry times for the zone.

              See also rndc showzone.

       rndc commands that specify zone names, such as reload, retransfer, or
       zonestatus, can be ambiguous when applied to zones of type redirect.
       Redirect zones are always called ., and can be confused with zones of
       type hint or with secondary copies of the root zone. To specify a
       redirect zone, use the special zone name -redirect, without a trailing
       period. (With a trailing period, this would specify a zone called
       "-redirect".)

LIMITATIONS
       There is currently no way to provide the shared secret for a key_id
       without using the configuration file.

       Several error messages could be clearer.

SEE ALSO
       rndc.conf(5), rndc-confgen(8), named(8), named.conf(5), ndc(8), BIND 9
       Administrator Reference Manual.

AUTHOR
       Internet Systems Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       2021, Internet Systems Consortium



9.16.13                            2021-03-19                            RNDC(8)